Meat Processing

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Text of Meat Processing

Meat ProcessingI. Introduction II. Selection Of Animals For Slaughter III. Slaughter Of LivestockPrepared by : Raya Mae T . Jumawan

HISTORYEgyptians -salting and drying

Romans -used ice and snow

1809 Nicholas Appert -Introduced hermetic sealing of foods -canning WORLD WAR I -freezing of meat on large scale WORLD WAR II -Irradiation

The Development of Meat industry in the Philippines

(Before 1932) Activities:

-slaughtering of animals -selling the meat fresh -making of sausages -cured products Selling of animals by the dressed weight appeared to be better because the prices were made based on the weight of the carcass Pilferage of meat by butchers was rampant Pork comprised the greater bulk of consumed meat however, there was insufficient supply Ham manufacturing became popular

1932 Commonwealth Act no. 3953 (Promotion of New and Improvement of Existing Industries) -passed by the Philippine Congress resulting to the creation of Products Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry -acceleration of researches on meat and milk and their by-products -led to the popularization of meat processing in the Philippines -factories were basically engaged in ham and sausage manufacture

Commonwealth Act No. 85 -strengthened the home extension services in the country and resulted in the intensification of food canning Late 1950s and early 1960s -marked the establishment of large packing plants -line operation was introduced Leading Meat Processing Industries Today: Pure Foods Corporation Swifts and Company Philippines Integrated Meat Corporation (PIMECO) Maya Farms

DEFINITION OF TERMS Barrow- A pig that has been castrated before

reaching sexual maturity. Boar- An uncastrated male pig. Bullock - a castrated bull; a steer. -a young bull. Bull- the uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle. Butcher - someone who prepares various cuts of meat and other related goods for sale. Castration- neutering a male animal by removing the testicles Comminute- reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading; "grind the spices in a mortar"; "mash the garlic" Gilt- young sow

Hide -the skin of an animal, especially the thick

tough skin or pelt of a large animal. Hog- a domesticated pig, especially a castrated male weighing more than 102 kg Loin- a cut of meat taken from the side and back of an animal between the ribs and the rump Ruminants- Any of various even-toed hoofed mammals of the suborder Ruminantia. Ruminants usually have a stomach divided into four compartments (called the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), and chew a cud consisting of regurgitated, partially digested food. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and camels. Shote -a young pig Sow - an adult female hog Stag- an animal, especially a pig, castrated after reaching sexual maturity Steer- a castrated male ox or bull; bullock

SELECTION OF ANIMALS FOR SLAUGHTER -Depends mainly on the purpose for which themeat is to be used and on the cost of the endproduct

Sex Consideration

a boar younger than seven months is fit for slaughter castrated hogs have general tendency to be fat, fatter than their female and uncatrated male counterparts of the same age Meat of pregnant animals is low of quality When the animal is at an advanced stage of pregnancy, the meat may be fishy in odor Castration in swine promotes the development of mature characteristics

Boars are more favored than barrows in slaughtering Boars have superior leanness over castrates Boar carcasses are longer, have thinner backfat at the shoulder, lighter back and loin, less fat but have higher lean than barrows Boars have higher total nitrogen but lower moisture and fat than barrows

In cattle: Bulls vs. Steers Bulls gain more rapidly and more efficiently than steers, and produce leaner carcasses Steers have more marbling, more subcutaneous fat, less longissimus dorsi area and more kidney fat than bulls have Meat from bulls is generally less tender and lower in overall acceptability than that of steers but is equal in flavor and juiciness Meat from bulls is generally darker and coarses

Age Consider ations

Swine: 6-12 months Cattle and carabaos: 3 years or younger Goats: about 1 year

Meat from older animals: darker, tougher, fatter and usually poorer in quality -dark rough textured but flavorful, has high water binding and emulsion capacity, and is associated with high degree of marbling *the most important quality factor which changes with age is TENDERNESS.

Size Considerations80 to 110 kg and carabaos: 300 to 450 kg

Hogs:

Cattle

Class of Animal Considerations

Swine: Sows Boars Barrows Gilts Im a LE Shotes command the highest price CH ON !!! because these are utilized for the production of quality roasted pigs or lechon

SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK

Mana gement of Animals Prior to Slaughter

Fasting

Withdrawal of feed but water is given ad libitum Pigs:

12-24 hrs Ruminants: 24-48 hrs

Advantages: Savings

of feeds Ease of cleaning entrails Ease of cleaning and eviscerating carcass a thoroughly bled and brightly colored carcass long shelf life low shrinkage of the resulting meat

Stress Shipping stress Over-crowding stress Driving stress Heat stress

Disadvantages:

Loss of muscle glycogen High temperature of carcass Low water binding capacity of resulting meat Low aroma, flavor , texture and juiciness

*the

scores

resulting meat is difficult to cure

Pale soft and exudative (PSE) - If the stress given to the animal is not very severe Dry, firm and dark (DFD)- when the stress given is very severe stress may cause a decrease of about 6mgglycogen per gm of muscle tissue.. the level of glycogen on the muscles at death controls the pH of the resulting meat

Meat source pH

pH drop

Unstressed animals Stressed animals

5.3 6.0-7.0

Gradual

Very rapid

to be partly due to the slight rise in temperature of the carcass, thereby favoring anaero

-whipping, kicking of animals prior to slaughter

MISHANDLING

Develops

blood clots and red spots in the meat due to breaking of blood vessels Thus: the blood is not withdrawn during bleeding and supports luxuriant growth of microorganisms

THE SLAUGHTERHOUSE

also called an abattoir (from the French verb abattre, "to strike down"), or freezing works ( New Zealand English) facility where animals are killed and processed into meat foods

a

Objective: to reduce stress

and sufferings of animals

Factors to consider in slaughtering animals:

Cleanliness of the meat produces Hygiene of production Efficiency of meat inspection Adequacy of meat preservation

National Meat Inspection Commission

-issued detailed guidelines on meat hygiene, inspection and preservation and meat inspection regulations There must be complete facilities for the proper care

of animals prior to slaughter. The slaughterhouse should have separate rooms for the slaughter of hogs and ruminants Must have good drainage and good ventilation, must be far from residential houses and must have an adequate pollution control device

Classification and Accreditation of Slaughterhouses "AAA"

Those with facilities and operational procedures appropriate to slaughter livestock and fowls for sale in any market, domestic or international. "AA" Those with facilities and operational procedures sufficiently adequate that the livestock and fowls slaughtered therein are suitable for sale in any market domestic or international

"A" Those with facilities and procedures of minimum adequacy that the livestock and fowls slaughtered therein are suitable for distribution and sale only within the city or municipality where the slaughterhouse is located. B Those with facilities and operational procedures of minimum adequacy as defined by the National Meat Inspection Commission; the meat processed herein is eligible for sale obly in the city or municipality in which the plant is located C those whose facilities and operational procedures of less than minimum standards that must be closed until minimum standards are provided or achieved

Slaughtering swine

Stunning

done to make the animal unconscious without killing it, and to make restraining easy and sticking humaneElectric

stunner Carbon dioxide chamber Stunning gun Sledge hammer

Sticking or bleeding

-done

on the hollow portion above the tip of the breastbone cut the jugular veins and carotid arteries

Scalding and Scraping

Water temperature: 54 to 82 0 C (130 to 180 0F) hot water: can cause setting of hairs (over scalding) cold water: cannot effect loosening of hairs and scurf 60 to

Too

Too

Optimum scalding temperature: 71 0C (140 and 160 0F)

Evisceration -removal

of the visceral organs from the opening of the carcass up to the complete removal of the internal organs from the body cavity

The anus is loosened by cutting around it

Removing penis

Removing penis

Splitting pelvic bone and tip of sternum

Opening the sternum and midline

Removing the intestines and stomach

Removing liver

Removing gall bladder

Cutting the diaphragm

Removing windpipe

Removing the heart

SPLITTING

The completed carcass

Slaughtering swine

Slaughtering swine (conventional)

Slaughtering Cattle

Slaughtering Cattle

Slaughtering Cattle

Slaughtering Cattle

Livestock slaugh