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  • 1'1 I.

    L T

    A I- - -

    JAMES CARVll !

    SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use.

  • Mechanical Engineers Data Handbook

    SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use.

  • To my daughters, Helen and Sarah

    SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use.

  • Mechanical Engineers Data Handbook

    J. Carvill

    IUTTERWORTH E I N E M A N N

    OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

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  • Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803

    First published 1993 Paperback edition 1994 Reprinted 1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 (twice), 2001 (twice), 2003

    Copyright 0 1993, Elsevier Science Ltd. All riehts reserved.

    No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (includmg photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England WIT 4LP. Applications for the copyright holders written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Carvill, James

    Mechanical Engineers Data Handbook I. Title 62 1

    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Carvill, James

    Mechanical engineers data handbook/James Carvill. p. an. Includes index. 1. Mechanical engineering - Handbooks, manuals, etc. TD51 .C36

    I. Title.

    62 1 -dc20 92- 19069 CIP

    ISBN 0 7506 1960 0

    I For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at www.bh.com I Typeset by Vision Typesetting, Manchester Printed in Great Britain by Bookcraft (Bath) Ltd, Somerset

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  • Contents

    Preface

    Symbols used in text

    1. Strength of materials 1.1 Types of stress 1.2 Strength of fasteners 1.3 Fatigue and stress concentration 1.4 Bending of beams 1.5 Springs 1.6 Shafts 1.7 Struts 1.8 Cylinders and hollow spheres 1.9 Contact stress 1.10 Flat plates

    2. A p p l i mechanics 2.1 Basic mechanics 2.2 Belt drives 2.3 Balancing 2.4 Miscellaneous machine elements 2.5 Automobile mechanics 2.6 Vibrations 2.7 Friction 2.8 Brakes, clutches and dynamometers 2.9 Bearings 2.10 Gears

    3. Tbennodyanmics and heat transfer 3.1 Heat 3.2 Perfect gases 3.3 Vapours 3.4 Data tables 3.5 Flow through nozzles 3.6 Steam plant 3.7 Steam turbines 3.8 Gas turbines 3.9 Heat engine cycles 3.10 Reciprocating spark ignition internal

    3.1 1 Air compressors combustion engines

    vii

    ix

    1 1 8

    17 24 32 38 46 48 51 53

    56 56 65 68 70 77 79 83 87 90 95

    102 102 I02 106 107 111 112 114 116 118

    120 I24

    3.12 Reciprocating air motor 3.13 Refrigerators 3.14 Heat transfer 3.15 Heat exchangers 3.16 Combustion of fuels

    4. Fluid mechanics 4.1 Hydrostatics 4.2 Flow of liquids in pipes and ducts 4.3 Flow of liquids through various devices 4.4 Viscosity and laminar flow 4.5 Fluid jets 4.6 Flow of gases 4.7 Fluid machines

    5. Manufacturing technology 5.1 5.2 Turning 5.3 Drilling and reaming 5.4 Milling 5.5 Grinding 5.6 Cutting-tool materials 5.7 General information on metal cutting 5.8 Casting 5.9 Metal forming processes 5.10 Soldering and brazing 5.1 1 Gas welding 5.12 Arc welding 5.13 Limits and fits

    General characteristics of metal processes

    6. Engineering materials 6.1 Cast irons 6.2 Carbon steels 6.3 Alloy steels 6.4 Stainless steels 6.5 British Standard specification of steels 6.6 Non-ferrous metals 6.7 Miscellaneous metals 6.8 Spring materials 6.9 Powdered metals 6.10 Low-melting-point alloys

    126 127 i28 137 139

    146 146 148 152 155 157 160 165

    172 172 173 178 182 188 189 192 196 199 205 207 210 216

    218 218 219 22 1 225 228 228 233 235 236 236

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  • vi MECHANICAL ENGINEERS DATA HANDBOOK

    6.11 Miscellaneous information on metals 6.12 Corrosion of metals 6.13 Plastics 6.14 Elastomers 6.15 Wood 6.16 Adhesives 6.17 Composites 6.18 Ceramics 6.19 Cermets 6.20 Materials for special requirements 6.21 Miscellaneous information

    7. Engineering measurements 7.1 Length measurement 7.2 Angle measurement 7.3 Strain measurement

    237 240 242 248 250 25 1 257 259 259 260 263

    267 267 270 27 1

    7.4 Temperature measurement 7.5 Pressure measurement 7.6 Flow measurement 7.7 Velocity measurement 7.8 Rotational-speed measurement 7.9 Materials-testing measurements

    8. General data 8.1 Units and symbols 8.2 Fasteners 8.3 Engineering stock 8.4 Miscellaneous data

    Glossary of terms

    Index

    274 279 28 1 283 284 285

    288 288 293 304 308

    31 1

    330

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  • Preface

    There are several good mechanical engineering data books on the market but these tend to be very bulky and expensive, and are usually only available in libraries as reference books.

    The Mechnical Engineers Data Handbook has been compiled with the express intention of providing a compact but comprehensive source of information of particular value to the engineer whether in the design office, drawing office, research and development department or on site. It should also prove to be of use to production, chemical, mining, mineral, electrical and building services engineers, and lecturers and students in universities, polytechnics and colleges. Although intended as a personal handbook it should also find its way into the libraries of engineering establishments and teaching institutions.

    The Mechanical Engineers Data Handbook covers the main disciplines of mechanical engineering and incorporates basic principles, formulae for easy substitution, tables of physical properties and much descriptive matter backed by numerous illustrations. It also contains a comprehensive glossary of technical terms and a full index for easy cross-reference.

    1 would like to thank my colleagues at the University of Northumbria, at Newcastle, for their constructive suggestions and useful criticisms, and my wife Anne for her assistance and patience in helping me to prepare this book.

    J. Carvill

    SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use.

  • SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use.

  • Symbols used in text ~~

    a A d b b.p. B C

    C

    Cd

    CP CY

    COP

    cv d

    D e

    E

    EL

    Acceleration Area Anergy Breadth Boiling point Breadth, flux density Clearance, depth of cut; specific heat capacity Couple; Spring coil index; velocity (thermodynamics); heat capacity Drag coefficient, discharge coefficient Coefficient of performance Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume; velocity coefficient Calorific value Depth; depth of cut; diameter; deceleration Depth; diameter; flexural rigidity Strain; coefficient of restitution; emissivity Youngs Modulus; energy; luminance; effort

    j J k

    K

    KE K , 1 L rn

    m m.p. M

    MA n

    N Ns Nu V

    Operator J- 1 Polar second moment of area Radius of gyration; coefficient of thermal conductivity; pipe roughness Bulk modulus; stress concentration factor Kinetic energy Wahl factor for spring Length Length Mass; mass per unit length; module of gear Mass flow rate Melting point Mass; moment; bending moment; molecular weight Mechanical advantage Index of expansion; index; number of; rotational speed Rotational speed; number of Specific speed Nusselt number Pressure; pitch

    Elastic limit; endurance limit P Power; force; perimeter ELONG% Percentage elongation 8 Exergy f Frequency; friction factor; feed F Force; luminous flux F, Strain gauge factor FL Fatigue limit FS Factor of safety 9 Acceleration due to gravity G Shear modulus; Gravitational constant Gr Grashof number h Height; thickness; specific enthalpy;

    h.t.c. Heat transfer coefficient H i slope; operator J-l I

    shear, heat transfer coefficient

    Enthalpy; height, magnetic field strength

    Moment of inertia; Second moment of area; luminous intensity, electric current

    pr PE PS Q

    r R

    R e

    Ro RE

    S S

    SE s, t

    Prandtl number Potential energy Proof stress Heat quantity; volume flow rate; metal removal rate Radius; pressure or volume ratio Radius; electric resistance; reaction, thermal resistance; gas constant Reynolds number Refrigeration effect Universal gas constant Specific entropy; stiffness Entropy, shear force, thermoelectric sensitivity Strain energy Stanton number Temperature; thickness; time

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  • X MECHANICAL ENGINEERS DATA HANDBOOK

    T

    TS U

    U

    UTS

    V VR

    W

    X Y YP YS Z

    U

    W

    X

    ZP

    Time; temperature; torque; tension; thrust; number of gear teeth Tensile strength Velocity; specific strain energy; specific internal energy Internal energy; s