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502 INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION OF ISO CONTAINERS AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION TO FREIGHT TRANSPORT CENTERS Jaromír Široký Václav Cempírek Hana Císařová 1 Summary: The Mobiler technology is characterized by its reliability as much as the railway transportation and flexibility as trucks in road transportation. This system supports and creates new relations between railway operators and road carriers. Authors in this paper describe the centre of freight transport, their characteristics and function in logistics. Main of paper is the optimization and location of centres. For the solution of this problem the genetic algorithms has been used. Keywords: Location, public logistic centre, Czech Republic, optimization 1. INTRODUCTION At this time (year 2010) various innovative transportation technologies are being introduced to individual systems of intermodal transportation. This also includes intermodal transportation of ISO containers. Not only modern, mostly automatic systems of trans-shipment (mainly used in big container terminals) are being brought into practice. It is also necessary to modernize trans-shipment systems in smaller and local trans-shipment terminals, where only mobile trans-shipment equipment is available. To suit this purpose, the trans-shipment system “Mobiler” was developed to speed up and improve trans-shipment of containers and swap bodies in smaller terminals designated as freight transport centers. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM MOBILER The Mobiler logistic system has been successfully used by Rail Cargo Austria AG (RCA AG – Rail Cargo Austria - ÖBB) since 2002. It is an innovative trans-shipment technology used in rail - road intermodal transportation that enables active management of the supply chain using GPS. This system optimizes freight transportation and provides customers with a more cost effective transport system than can be offered by only road or rail freight transport. It combines the advantages of both transport systems, helps overloaded infrastructure and substantially reduces environmental damage (CO 2 emission and noise) using the railways for long-distance transportation. Benefits arising from using Mobiler: a) It combines best features of road and rail transports. b) It is an area-wide extension of the present product portfolio of all market segments. 1 University of Pardubice, Transport faculty Jan Perner, Department of Transport Technology and Control, Studentská 95, 532 10 Pardubice, CZECH REPUBLIC Međunarodna naučna konferencija MENADŽMENT 2010 International Scientific Conference MANAGEMENT 2010 Kruševac, Srbija, 17-18. mart 2010 Krusevac, Serbia, 17-18 March, 2010

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502

INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION OF ISO CONTAINERS AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION TO FREIGHT TRANSPORT CENTERS

Jaromr irok Vclav Cemprek Hana Csaov1

Summary: The Mobiler technology is characterized by its reliability as much as the railway transportation and flexibility as trucks in road transportation. This system supports and creates new relations between railway operators and road carriers. Authors in this paper describe the centre of freight transport, their characteristics and function in logistics. Main of paper is the optimization and location of centres. For the solution of this problem the genetic algorithms has been used.

Keywords: Location, public logistic centre, Czech Republic, optimization

1. INTRODUCTION

At this time (year 2010) various innovative transportation technologies are being introduced to individual systems of intermodal transportation. This also includes intermodal transportation of ISO containers. Not only modern, mostly automatic systems of trans-shipment (mainly used in big container terminals) are being brought into practice. It is also necessary to modernize trans-shipment systems in smaller and local trans-shipment terminals, where only mobile trans-shipment equipment is available. To suit this purpose, the trans-shipment system Mobiler was developed to speed up and improve trans-shipment of containers and swap bodies in smaller terminals designated as freight transport centers.

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM MOBILER

The Mobiler logistic system has been successfully used by Rail Cargo Austria AG (RCA AG Rail Cargo Austria - BB) since 2002. It is an innovative trans-shipment technology used in rail - road intermodal transportation that enables active management of the supply chain using GPS. This system optimizes freight transportation and provides customers with a more cost effective transport system than can be offered by only road or rail freight transport. It combines the advantages of both transport systems, helps overloaded infrastructure and substantially reduces environmental damage (CO2 emission and noise) using the railways for long-distance transportation.

Benefits arising from using Mobiler: a) It combines best features of road and rail transports. b) It is an area-wide extension of the present product portfolio of all market segments.

1 University of Pardubice, Transport faculty Jan Perner, Department of Transport Technology and Control, Studentsk 95, 532 10 Pardubice, CZECH REPUBLIC

Meunarodna nauna konferencija

MMEENNAADDMMEENNTT 22001100 International Scientific Conference

MMAANNAAGGEEMMEENNTT 22001100 Kruevac, Srbija, 17-18. mart 2010

Krusevac, Serbia, 17-18 March, 2010

503

c) It represents the last mile missing link, enables deliveries Just in Time and Just in Sequence.

d) Greater cost savings (trans-shipment charges) using swap-bodies adjusted for intermodal transport units in comparison with classic intermodal transportations.

e) It is an effective method to cope with changes in road traffic streams. f) It is a suitable alternative method to utilize railway infrastructure of secondary railways.

Opportunities for using trans-shipment system Mobiler are as follows: a) For customers who do not have their own railway sidings at the nearest railway station with

general loading and unloading tracks. b) For customers with their own railways the technology extends their existing transportation

possibilities. c) A solution where there is no standard intermodal transport terminal nearby. d) In industrial zones without railways. e) In all railway stations with general loading and unloading tracks, offering safe handling of

almost all kinds of goods.

Ideal use of the system Mobiler can be defined by following requirements: a) All kinds of goods which can be loaded:

- Standardized or adjusted transport units, especially bulk freight, e.g.: building material, slag, waste, cinder, chips, pallets;

- Tank containers, especially aviation fuel, beverages, cooking oils; - Pallets in food and beverage logistics and building industry (e.g. bagged cement, lime,

plaster, etc). b) Potential customers entering the transport market with new requirements for transport or for

current customers who are interested in improved economical results; c) Up to 10 000 tons of regularly transported goods per year; d) Transport distance at least 100 km on rail and for a maximum of 3 different dispatches or

initial points; e) Transport distance max. 25 35 km to the railway trans-shipment point; f) Negotiating long-term freight contracts (more than 5 years).

Transshipment technology Mobiler can be assembled onto mass-produced N3 trucks, or O4 trailers (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1 - 5-axle N3 truck and 3-axle O4trailer 3 (Source: Authors)

The weight of the technology itself produced by Palfinger (see Fig. 2) is 1,5 t to 2,5 t (depending on its load-carrying capacity), it means that the technology does not reduce loading parameters of trucks. The system can transship swap-bodies 7 150 to 7 850 mm long and ISO containers - 20, 30 and 40 long. Swap-bodies must be equipped with two lateral channels in the bottom frame (see Fig. 3) to which the shift traverses slide in.

Tank swap-bodies or containers can be equipped with permanent (Fig. 3) or adaptive fastening attachments for handling shift traverses. The trucks used for their transportation are 3, 4 or 5-axle trucks or 3-axle trailers with hydraulic dumpers.

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Figure 2 - Detail of the Mobiler trans-shipment system (Source: Authors)

Figure 3 - Detail of the lateral channel of the swap-body (Source: Authors)

Figure 4 - Shift traverse on the welded plate of the railway wagon (Source: Authors)

Standard railway wagons for intermodal transportation (i.e. wagons for the transportation of containers and swap-bodies, especially those labeled S Sggmrss, Sgnss, etc.) must have welded plates on the loading area enabling step-by-step movement of shift traverses. Mobiler technology can trans-ship units of total weight 18, 25 a 32 t. It is therefore flexible at any place and anytime. The trans-shipment of units takes several minutes (it takes approx. 10 minutes to pick up the empty unit and swap over the loading unit). The unquestionable advantage of this system is that the trans-shipment and handling can be carried out under the traction mains power and that it is safe for handling with hazardous goods. Older trucks use luminescent strips for exact positioning to the railway wagon (see Fig. 5), more modern lorries solve this problem by automatic sensors.

RCA AG existing technical equipment: - 145 railway wagons, of which 77 wagons (8-axle wagons) type Sggmrrss (15 own and 10

hired), 19 hired wagons type Sggmrs with 6 axles, 48 own wagons type Sgns (4-axle) and 1 hired wagon type Lgjs (2-axle),

- 482 trans-shipment units Mobiler, of which 30 are their own swap-bodies with canvas sides, 25 hired tank containers, 417 swap-bodies for bulk goods (see Fig. 6), and of which 347 are their own technical equipment.

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- 5 trucks are equipped with Mobiler trans-shipment units. 3 trucks (4-axle) and 2 trucks (5-axle) - 1 vehicle (4-axle) is their own, and 4 vehicles belong to private carriers,

- 21 semi-trailers are equipped with Mobiler units. 4 of them are their own, and 17 belong to private carriers.

Figure 5 - Luminescent strip for exact positioning of trans-shipment unit to the railway wagon (Source:Authors)

Figure 6 - Swap-bodies for bulk goods (Source:Authors)

Three-axle semi-trailers or trucks with 5 axles are designed for transportation of heavy dry substrate in swap-bodies with the capacity of 50 m3 and total weight up to 32 t. An example is when old paper is being transported; the swap-bodies having the capacity of 48 m3 are being used. Railway wagons type Sggmrrss can transport 4 such swap-bodies, which can be up to 100 tons of net weight. This corresponds to 5 road journeys when using direct road freight transport. Combining the best features of efficient railway and flexible road transports, we have the system of decentralized intermodal transportation. It is possible to use this system for the transport management of the area via the nearest railway station, direct customer connection or via standard terminal of intermodal transportation.

Canvas open-top swap-bodies with total gross weight up to 30t are designed for transportation of beverages on pallets or coiled sheets. Swap-bodies with fixed fronts and canvas sides (see Fig. 7) 7,82 m long and inside height of 2,53 m, have the capacity of 19 pallets in one layer and 38 pallets in 2 layers. When loading boxes with beverages on pallets, barrels with beverages are put on the second layer. Using 8-axle railway wagons type Sggmrrss, which can carry 4 swap-bodies of 7,82 m long, they replace 4 to 6 semi-trailers in road transportation.

Swap-bodies in some interplant processes (storage, supplies, distribution, etc) can be parked on steel bearings; loading and unloading is then not dependant on the turnaround of the truck. Handling time and technical equipment can be optimized, which extends storage areas.

The future of the Mobiler technology lies in the expected use of bulk containers for high-weight goods (the container weight is 3,1 t, 30 long and 1,8 m high) and also in use of platform swap-bodies with stanchions for round wood transportation. Development of transporting goods by use of the Mobiler system for the whole time of operation is described in Diagram. 1.

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Figure 7 - Swap-bodies with fixed fronts and canvas sides (Source:Authors)

0

100000

200000

300000

400000

500000

600000

Roky

Tuny Rok

Tuny

Rok 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Tuny 25 000 182 000310 000327 000390 000419 000550 000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Diagram 1 - Development of transportation in specific years (Source: Authors)

System Mobiler can be completed by the Telematics system E-Rail Tracking & Tracing: a) With GPS support (see Fig. 8) positioning location on the Internet, b) Gathering data from customers in electronic form, c) Immediate monitoring of container handling, d) Electronic timetable checking, e) Qualitatively higher level of management via:

- E-mail warning when handling or delivery time is exceeded, - E-mail warning about changes of values of required temperature, bumps announced by

the bump recorder, etc.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM MOBILER TO THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT CENTRES

The Mobiler technology is as reliable as railway transport and flexible as road transport. The system supports and creates new relationships between railway transport operators and road carriers. Determination of Freight Transport Centre functions (hereinafter FTC2) are derived from activities characteristic of centers for transportation and logistic, industrial zones and requirements for integrated transport (retail) chains in the Czech Republic. A Logistic approach enables optimization of transportation processes as a whole. It means logistic systems of goods circulation management, including storage, packaging, labeling, consolidation and deconsolidation of dispatches, trans-shipment, distribution and transportation. These cannot be implemented without permanently

2 A Freight Transport Centre (FTC) is a centre of intermodal character, which operates a minimum of two types of transport. It is set up according to the overall concept based on regional principle, where more providers render wide range of logistic services to all customers in the region including small and medium- sized companies and the establishment of which is supported by public finance on the basis of the tender. It enables provision of services to all customers without discrimination.

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functioning transport systems and therefore transportation is considered to be an integrated element of logistic systems. FTC extends the present function of trans-shipment points in a substantial way and reduces the amount of manpower required. Areas within an FTC centre can also be used for industrial plants location - production and production services can then expand their main function. Light industrial zones (LIZ) can be identified as a phase of FTC development.

Figure 8 - GPS support for the Mobiler technology (Source: Authors)

Possibilities of the Mobiler technology implementation to FFC are displayed in the following Fig. 9 (alternatives a-d). Implementation of the Mobiler technology can be used between two local terminals T1 and T2 (alternative a). It is especially appropriate in case of shuttle traffic. Alternative b is the case of triangle tour, where the Mobiler technology units are transported among three terminals T1, T2 and T3. In case of four terminals, there is a possibility of the so-called round-robin tour it means that there is no direct train connection between terminals and so it is necessary to lay out the line through another terminal. Interconnection of all terminals (T1, T2, T3 and T4) can be seen as a specific type of upgrade (alternative d), but for that situation we must assume higher volumes of transportation, which would ensure profitability of running all lines. It is possible to replace the line, when there is not much traffic, by a circular route through another terminal, so that the delay of the transport will be only slight.

a) b) c) d)

Figure 9 - System of railway lay-outs for the Mobiler technology (Source: Authors)

When the transportation is carried out through more than two terminals, it is possible to integrate the arrangement Hub-and-Spoke using the Mobiler technology. This is the network interconnection of three or more terminals (see fig. 10 with three terminals), with laid-out direct links between them. Individual terminals T1 , T2 and T3 are then interconnected with particular customers (P1-P10) by Mobiler system trucks . In case of three terminals implemented into the system of train connection, it is possible to realize any transportation between two terminals simply using laid out lines demonstrated by the two-way arrows. However, it is not possible to use more than three lines.

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Figure 10 - Schematic demonstration of Hub-and-Spoke system (Source: Authors)

4. SUGGESTED OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORT CENTRES

The lay-out of the ideal number of Freight Traffic Centers and their location , comes out of the presumption that goods transportation on railway lines is carried out on the basis of the Hub-and-Spoke arrangement. Model transportation of the full wagon load would proceed as follows:

1. The load is prepared for dispatch from the railway station to the first train formation yard, which serves as a hub.

2. It is transported to the next train formation yard (next hub) 3. It is transported to the final destination.

When the dispatch station and the destination station lie within the area of the same station (train formation yard), the load is transported from the first station (train formation yard) to the destination, through one hub. Transportations carried out by more than two train formation yards are not allowed in the model situation, because every other processing or halting of the load in the train formation yard means time delays. This implies that direct trains will be dispatched in every train formation yard to all other train formation yards. Situation diagram is described in Fig. 1. Any transportation between two points of junction can be carried out only by using railways demonstrated by two-way arrows, while it is not possible to use more than three railways.

Particular junction points can be assigned to just one hub (so-called simple allocation; situation is demonstrated in Fig. 10), or they can be located to working zones of several hubs (so-called multiple allocation). The advantage of the multiple allocation is in partial elimination of so called duplicated transport and so there is a reduction of the objective function value in comparison with the simple allocation; the disadvantage lies in more complicated organization (transport is not carried out to or from the junction point but only through one junction point as it is in case of simple allocation. The choice of the relevant couple of hubs depends on particular relation of junctions i and j). There also arises a general necessity to dispatch more trains to ensure transportation to and from hubs. The basic suggested model represents a simple allocation, if it is convenient. It is possible to use a different organization of transportation i.e. through a different hub, rather than the one to which the attraction zone of dispatch or destination belongs).

The advantage of the above mentioned transport organization arises from concentration of transportation streams to train formation yards hubs, which makes transportation possible economically (higher volumes of transportation) and in acceptable time periods (higher frequency of transportation). The result of load processing in train formation yards and possibility of prolonging of the routes can lead to extending delivery times in comparison with direct transportation; that is why it is suitable to organize preferred transportations and transportations on lines with high volume of traffic as certain values H. Each railway is evaluated by the number dij, which direct transportations (shuttle trains).

The question of optimal location of train formation yards is thus dependent on the question of ideal location of hubs. The aim of this task is to decide about the location of particular hubs and allocation of attended junction points to these hubs. The traffic network is simulated by a complete diagram G with a set of junctions V and set of railways with represents the distance of i junction from j

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junction in real traffic network. The volume of the traffic stream from junction i to junction j is labeled as bij.

Every transportation movement between junction i and junction j consists of three elements: 1. transportation from the junction i to the hub k (collection part), 2. transportation from the hub k to the hub l and 3. distribution of the load from the hub l to the junction j (distribution part).

Direct transportation between junctions that are not simultaneously hubs are forbidden; as well as transportation through more than two hubs is not possible. Transportations through only one hub are allowed, because hubs k and l can be identical (in case that junctions i and j lie within the attraction zone of one hub). Transportation costs for the stream unit from junction i to junction j through hubs k and l are calculated according to the relation cij = * dik + * dkl + * dlj.

Parameters , , enable distinguishing costs of collection, transportation between hubs and distribution. Parameters and are usually equal to 1. (It is possible to distinguish collection and distribution costs in some applications). By selecting the value of parameter , we can reflect the amount of cost savings resulting from transportation concentration between hubs (parameter value in practical tasks ranges between 0,6-0,7). Transportation costs per unit cij can be expressed in monetary units by corresponding values of parameters , , ; assuming that the growth of financial costs is linear in dependence on distance in kilometers.

The decision to assign junction i to hub j or not will be simulated by variables hij. Value hij = 1 means that junction i is assigned to hub j, or else the value of hij = 0. Because every junction k, which became a hub is assigned to itself, the value hkk = 1 expresses that junction k is a hub.

In the basic form of the task the number of hubs is given before, labeled as p. Every junction is assigned to just one hub (simple allocation); it means that every transportation to/from this junction is carried out through this hub.

Mathematical formulation of the task is following:

Minimize

i ljljl

k ljlikkl

kikik

jij hdhhdhdb (1)

Under conditions: kk

kh p (2)

1ikk

h pro i V (3) ,ik kkh h pro i k V (4) {0,1} ,ikh pro i k V (5)

Objective function (1) expresses total costs (e.g. in tkm, if the transport streams bij are expressed in tons and distances dij in kilometers). Condition (2) ensures that we selected just p hubs, condition (3) ensures, that every junction is assigned to just one hub. Condition (4) ensures that all the goods are transported only through junctions, which are simultaneously hubs (that forbids direct transportation between junctions, which are not hubs).

From the group of limiting conditions, condition (2) will be deleted and the objective function

(1) is then following: ij ik ik kl ik jl jl jl kk ki j k k l l k

b d h d h h d h h f

.

Formulated task belongs to so-called NP-hard problem; This means that its exact solution is restricted to tasks with a very small scope. To solve hub location tasks, heuristic and metaheuristic methods are used. These methods are based on the principle of BBMIP (branch-bound mixed integer programming), theory of neural network, simulated annealing, Tabu Search or genetic algorithms. Efficiency and correctness of existing methods is tested on standard data CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board) and AP (Australian Post) The first contains data of transport streams from passenger air transport between 25 biggest US cities, the second gathers data of mail transports between 20 Australian cities. The best existing methods enables finding practically ideal solution in real time for tasks ranging within about 50 junctions. For larger tasks, it is necessary to find an acceptable (sub-ideal) solution to make both ends meet.

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Because, there is probably no existing common accessible software enabling solution of the formulated task, it was necessary to create new software. Software HubLoc works on the principle of genetic algorithms, by means of which there have been achieved ones of the best results in the field of optimal location of hubs.

Genetic algorithms serve to find sub-ideal solution of combinatory tasks. The principle of genetic algorithms is simulation of evolution processes in nature, which lies in:

- coding the task solution into the shape of so-called chromosomes (genes are the structural elements of chromosomes) and assigning the fitness value (representing the level of solution quality it means the value of the objective function) to every chromosome,

- creating initial population (the set of chromosomes), - choosing individuals for reproduction (on the basis of their fitness value), - process reproduction (by cross breeding of operators and mutation), - creating new generation, - repeating the process of simulated evolution until the required values of the objective

function are reached or until the previously defined number of generations is reached.

The task was solved without considering fixed costs for building or running a train formation yard. All the junctions were equal and existing train formation yards lost their advantage of lower fixed costs (expenses). The task was solved alternatively for numbers of located train formation yards ranging from 3 to 12. Acquired solutions thus represent a lower limit of the objective function for particular numbers of located train formation yards.

Transport streams between particular junction railway stations were considered in numbers of wagons. Values of parameters , were equal 1, value of parameter was set 0,7 (for comparison we carried out calculations also for value = 0,6, with similar results). We considered simple allocation. This means that every junction was assigned to the attraction zone of just one train formation yard. The experiment verified that, in the case of multiple allocation of junctions to train formation yards, the final optimal location of train formation yards more or less differs. Nevertheless the quality of the solution, acquired on the basis of simple allocation, is not far from the ideal solution corresponding to multiple allocation. In other words the results acquired from the solution of the simple allocation task represent quality solution even for the case of multiple allocation.

Individual solutions were analyzed in details, while following criteria were monitored: - sufficient intensity of freight traffic volume (at least 20 trains per day), - acceptable number of relations created between train formation yards, - acceptable average extent of the transportation effort when ensuring freight collection to

train formation yards and distribution from them.

Table 1 - Suggested location of train formation yards using the arrangement Hub-and-Spoke(Source: Authors)

Suggested location of train formation yards: Brno-Malomice, esk Budjovice, Nymburk, Ostrava, Plze, Perov, Most

Table 2 - Rate of dispatched trains among train formation yards (percentage of the total number of transported wagons) (Source: Authors)

Brno-Malomice

esk Budjovice Most Nymburk Ostrava Plze Perov

13 % 8 % 11 % 24 % 23 % 8 % 12 %

Considering the above-mentioned criteria, we selected, as a suitable solution, the alternative with 7 train formation yards. It is possible to organize goods transportation (with the above mentioned number and location of train formation yards) as the model Hub-and-Spoke. Program output for 7 hubs, when processing data file A, looks as follows: Beclav, esk Budjovice, Koln, Ostrava, Plze, Perov, st nad Labem. Regarding the existing infrastructure, there were carried out corrections in some stations: Beclav Brno-Malomice, Koln Nymburk, st nad Labem Most. Quality of the objective function got worse for 1,6 % (from 222,25 to 225,89).

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Considering a relatively high frequency of transportation between suggested train formation yards, it is possible to introduce the system of small quantity shipment.

Figure 11 - Location of train formation yards (Source:Authors)

When the number of train formation yards is lower, then the distances for freight collection to hubs and their distribution are quite high. This disadvantage can be eliminated by introducing the system of secondary sorting stations, permitting direct transportation between them. This is a different kind of organization than the considered arrangement Hub-and-Spoke. While correcting location of train formation yards, considering existing infrastructure, it is possible to select suitable location of a smaller number of main train formation yards, which are presented in Tab. 3.

Table 3 - Selected location of a smaller number of train formation yards when introducing the system of secondary train formation yards (Source: Authors)

Number of main stations Possible location of train formation yards

3 Nymburk, Ostrava, Perov 4 Most, Nymburk, Ostrava, Perov 5 esk Budjovice / Plze, Most, Nymburk, Ostrava, Perov 6 esk Budjovice, Most, Nymburk, Ostrava, Plze, Perov

When the number of train formation yards is higher, then the intensity of the freight traffic volume decreases to under 20 trains per day (for 8 train formation yards the intensity is, in case of 5 relations, under this limit when processing data file A) and the requirements for the train formation yards effectiveness goes up (in accordance with the number of relations being created, the absolute number of processed wagons decreases). However, the suggested arrangement Hub-and-Spoke becomes ineffective. Presented optimization of number and location of FTC is one of the examples of using mathematic methods in transportation. Regarding the fact that this issue is very wide, we presented only the main points of the approach leading to Freight Transport Centre optimization. There are many other aspects, which could be included into this model. However, this is the subject of further solution development of this question.

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5. CONCLUSION

The Mobiler technology is characterized by its reliability as much as the railway transportation and flexibility as trucks in road transportation. This system supports and creates new relations between railway operators and road carriers. It is possible to use the FTC to introduce this system in Czech conditions. The presented optimization of number and location of FTC is one of the examples of using mathematic methods in transportation. This paper has been supported by the Institutional research Theory of transport systems (MSM 0021627505) on Transport Faculty Jan Perner, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic and the project Optimization of collection and delivery of small packages by road and rail transport (No. CG932-019-520) on Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic.

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