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Megaco/H.248 Copyright © 2000-2009 Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved. Megaco/H.248 3.13 November 23 2009

Megaco/H - Erlangerlang.org/documentation/doc-5.7.4/lib/megaco-3.13/doc/pdf/megaco-3.13.pdfThe Megaco application is a framework for building applications on top of the Megaco/H.248

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Page 1: Megaco/H - Erlangerlang.org/documentation/doc-5.7.4/lib/megaco-3.13/doc/pdf/megaco-3.13.pdfThe Megaco application is a framework for building applications on top of the Megaco/H.248

Megaco/H.248Copyright © 2000-2009 Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.

Megaco/H.248 3.13November 23 2009

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Copyright © 2000-2009 Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.The contents of this file are subject to the Erlang Public License, Version 1.1, (the "License"); youmay not use this file except in compliance with the License. You should have received a copy of theErlang Public License along with this software. If not, it can be retrieved online at http://www.erlang.org/.Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OFANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing rights andlimitations under the License. The Initial Developer of the Original Code is Ericsson AB. All RightsReserved..

November 23 2009

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1.1 Introduction

2 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

1 User's Guide

The Megaco application is a framework for building applications on top of the Megaco/H.248 protocol.

1.1 IntroductionMegaco/H.248 is a protocol for control of elements in a physically decomposed multimedia gateway, enablingseparation of call control from media conversion. A Media Gateway Controller (MGC) controls one or more MediaGateways (MG).

This version of the stack supports version 1, 2 and 3 as defined by:

• version 1 - RFC 3525 and H.248-IG (v10-v13)

• version 2 - draft-ietf-megaco-h248v2-04 & H.248.1 v2 Corrigendum 1 (03/2004)

• version 3:

• prev3a - as defined by TD-33 (except segments)

• prev3b - TD-33 updated to be backward compatible with v2 (except segments)

• prev3c - As defined by ITU H.248.1 (09/2005) (except segments)

• v3 - Full version 3 as defined by ITU H.248.1 (09/2005) (including segments)

The semantics of the protocol has jointly been defined by two standardization bodies:

• IETF - which calls the protocol Megaco

• ITU - which calls the protocol H.248

1.1.1 Scope and PurposeThis manual describes the Megaco application, as a component of the Erlang/Open Telecom Platform developmentenvironment. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Erlang Development Environment, which is describedin a separate User's Guide.

1.1.2 PrerequisitesThe following prerequisites is required for understanding the material in the Megaco User's Guide:

• the basics of the Megaco/H.248 protocol

• the basics of the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

• familiarity with the Erlang system and Erlang programming

The application requires Erlang/OTP release R10B or later.

1.1.3 About This ManualIn addition to this introductory chapter, the Megaco User's Guide contains the following chapters:

• Chapter 2: "Architecture" describes the architecture and typical usage of the application.

• Chapter 3: "Internal form and its encodings" describes the internal form of Megaco/H.248 messages and its variousencodings.

• Chapter 4: "Transport mechanisms" describes how different mechanisms can be used to transport the Megaco/H.248 messages.

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1.2 Architecture

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• Chapter 5: "Debugging" describes tracing and debugging.

1.1.4 Where to Find More InformationRefer to the following documentation for more information about Megaco/H.248 and about the Erlang/OTPdevelopment system:

• version 1, RFC 3525

• old version 1, RFC 3015

• Version 2 Corrigendum 1

• version 2, draft-ietf-megaco-h248v2-04

• TD-33 (Draft H.248.1 version 3)

• H.248.1 version 3

• the ASN.1 application User's Guide

• the Megaco application Reference Manual

• Concurrent Programming in Erlang, 2nd Edition (1996), Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-508301-X.

1.2 Architecture

1.2.1 Network viewMegaco is a (master/slave) protocol for control of gateway functions at the edge of the packet network. Examplesof this is IP-PSTN trunking gateways and analog line gateways. The main function of Megaco is to allow gatewaydecomposition into a call agent (call control) part (known as Media Gateway Controller, MGC) - master, and angateway interface part (known as Media Gateway, MG) - slave. The MG has no call control knowledge and onlyhandle making the connections and simple configurations.

SIP and H.323 are peer-to-peer protocols for call control (valid only for some of the protocols within H.323), ormore generally multi-media session protocols. They both operate at a different level (call control) from Megaco in adecomposed network, and are therefor not aware of whether or not Megaco is being used underneath.

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Figure 2.1: Network architecture

Megaco and peer protocols are complementary in nature and entirely compatible within the same system. At a systemlevel, Megaco allows for

• overall network cost and performance optimization

• protection of investment by isolation of changes at the call control layer

• freedom to geographically distribute both call function and gateway function

• adaption of legacy equipment

1.2.2 GeneralThis Erlang/OTP application supplies a framework for building applications that needs to utilize the Megaco/H.248protocol.

We have introduced the term "user" as a generic term for either an MG or an MGC, since most of the functionalitywe support, is common for both MG's and MGC's. A (local) user may be configured in various ways and it mayestablish any number of connections to its counterpart, the remote user. Once a connection has been established, theconnection is supervised and it may be used for the purpose of sending messages. N.B. according to the standard anMG is connected to at most one MGC, while an MGC may be connected to any number of MG's.

For the purpose of managing "virtual MG's", one Erlang node may host any number of MG's. In fact it may host a mixof MG's and MGC's. You may say that an Erlang node may host any number of "users".

The protocol engine uses callback modules to handle various things:

• encoding callback modules - handles the encoding and decoding of messages. Several modules for handlingdifferent encodings are included, such as ASN.1 BER, pretty well indented text, compact text and some others.Others may be written by you.

• transport callback modules - handles sending and receiving of messages. Transport modules for TCP/IP and UDP/IP are included and others may be written by you.

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• user callback modules - the actual implementation of an MG or MGC. Most of the functions are intended forhandling of a decoded transaction (request, reply, acknowledgement), but there are others that handles connect,disconnect and errors cases.

Each connection may have its own configuration of callback modules, re-send timers, transaction id ranges etc. andthey may be re-configured on-the-fly.

In the API of Megaco, a user may explicitly send action requests, but generation of transaction identifiers, the encodingand actual transport of the message to the remote user is handled automatically by the protocol engine according tothe actual connection configuration. Megaco messages are not exposed in the API.

On the receiving side the transport module receives the message and forwards it to the protocol engine, which decodesit and invokes user callback functions for each transaction. When a user has handled its action requests, it simplyreturns a list of action replies (or a message error) and the protocol engine uses the encoding module and transportmodule to compose and forward the message to the originating user.

The protocol stack does also handle things like automatic sending of acknowledgements, pending transactions, re-send of messages, supervision of connections etc.

In order to provide a solution for scalable implementations of MG's and MGC's, a user may be distributed over severalErlang nodes. One of the Erlang nodes is connected to the physical network interface, but messages may be sent fromother nodes and the replies are automatically forwarded back to the originating node.

1.2.3 Single node configHere a system configuration with an MG and MGC residing in one Erlang node each is outlined:

Figure 2.2: Single node config

1.2.4 Distributed configIn a larger system with a user (in this case an MGC) distributed over several Erlang nodes, it looks a little bit different.Here the encoding is performed on the originating Erlang node (1) and the binary is forwarded to the node (2) with thephysical network interface. When the potential message reply is received on the interface on node (2), it is decoded thereand then different actions will be taken for each transaction in the message. The transaction reply will be forwarded inits decoded form to the originating node (1) while the other types of transactions will be handled locally on node (2).

Timers and re-send of messages will be handled on locally on one node, that is node(1), in order to avoid unnecessarytransfer of data between the Erlang nodes.

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Figure 2.3: Distributes node config

1.2.5 Message round-trip call flowThe typical round-trip of a message can be viewed as follows. Firstly we view the call flow on the originating side:

Figure 2.4: Message Call Flow (originating side)

Then we continue with the call flow on the destination side:

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Figure 2.5: Message Call Flow (destination side)

1.3 Running the stack

1.3.1 StartingA user may have a number of "virtual" connections to other users. An MG is connected to at most one MGC, while anMGC may be connected to any number of MG's. For each connection the user selects a transport service, an encodingscheme and a user callback module.

An MGC must initiate its transport service in order to listen to MG's trying to connect. How the actual transport isinitiated is outside the scope of this application. However a send handle (typically a socket id or host and port) mustbe provided from the transport service in order to enable us to send the message to the correct destination. We dohowever not assume anything about this, from our point of view, opaque handle. Hopefully it is rather small since itwill passed around the system between processes rather frequently.

A user may either be statically configured in a .config file according to the application concept of Erlang/OTP ordynamically started with the configuration settings as arguments to megaco:start_user/2. These configuration settingsmay be updated later on with megaco:update_conn_info/2.

The function megaco:connect/4 is used to tell the Megaco application about which control process it should supervise,which MID the remote user has, which callback module it should use to send messages etc. When this "virtual"connection is established the user may use megaco:call/3 and megaco:cast/3 in order to send messages to the otherside. Then it is up to the MG to send its first Service Change Request message after applying some clever algorithmin order to fight the problem with startup avalanche (as discussed in the RFC).

The originating user will wait for a reply or a timeout (defined by the request_timer). When it receives the replythis will optionally be acknowledged (regulated by auto_ack), and forwarded to the user. If an interim pending replyis received, the long_request_timer will be used instead of the usual request_timer, in order to enable avoidance ofspurious re-sends of the request.

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1.3 Running the stack

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On the destination side the transport service waits for messages. Each message is forwarded to the Megaco applicationvia the megaco:receive_message/4 callback function. The transport service may or may not provide means for blockingand unblocking the reception of the incoming messages.

If a message is received before the "virtual" connection has been established, the connection will be setupautomatically. An MGC may be real open minded and dynamically decide which encoding and transport service touse depending on how the transport layer contact is performed. For IP transports two ports are standardized, one fortextual encoding and one for binary encoding. If for example an UDP packet was received on the text port it wouldbe possible to decide encoding and transport on the fly.

After decoding a message various user callback functions are invoked in order to allow the user to act properly. Seethe megaco_user module for more info about the callback arguments.

When the user has processed a transaction request in its callback function, the Megaco application assembles atransaction reply, encodes it using the selected encoding module and sends the message back by invoking the callbackfunction:

• SendMod:send_message(SendHandle, ErlangBinary)

Re-send of messages, handling pending transactions, acknowledgements etc. is handled automatically by the Megacoapplication but the user is free to override the default behaviour by the various configuration possibilities. Seemegaco:update_user_info/2 and megaco:update_conn_info/2 about the possibilities.

When connections gets broken (that is explicitly by megaco:disconnect/2 or when its controlling process dies) a usercallback function is invoked in order to allow the user to re-establish the connection. The internal state of kept messages,re-send timers etc. is not affected by this. A few re-sends will of course fail while the connection is down, but theautomatic re-send algorithm does not bother about this and eventually when the connection is up and running themessages will be delivered if the timeouts are set to be long enough. The user has the option of explicitly invokingmegaco:cancel/2 to cancel all messages for a connection.

1.3.2 MGC startup call flowIn order to prepare the MGC for the reception of the initial message, hopefully a Service Change Request, the followingneeds to be done:

• Start the Megaco application.

• Start the MGC user. This may either be done explicitly with megaco:start_user/2 or implicitly by providing the-megaco users configuration parameter.

• Initiate the transport service and provide it with a receive handle obtained from megaco:user_info/2.

When the initial message arrives the transport service forwards it to the protocol engine which automatically sets upthe connection and invokes UserMod:handle_connect/2 before it invokes UserMod:handle_trans_request/3 with theService Change Request like this:

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Figure 3.1: MGC Startup Call Flow

1.3.3 MG startup call flowIn order to prepare the MG for the sending of the initial message, hopefully a Service Change Request, the followingneeds to be done:

• Start the Megaco application.

• Start the MG user. This may either be done explicitly with megaco:start_user/2 or implicitly by providing the -megaco users configuration parameter.

• Initiate the transport service and provide it with a receive handle obtained from megaco:user_info/2.

• Setup a connection to the MGC with megaco:connect/4 and provide it with a receive handle obtained frommegaco:user_info/2.

If the MG has been provisioned with the MID of the MGC it can be given as the RemoteMid parameter tomegaco:connect/4 and the call flow will look like this:

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1.3 Running the stack

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Figure 3.2: MG Startup Call Flow

If the MG cannot be provisioned with the MID of the MGC, the MG can use the atom 'preliminary_mid' as theRemoteMid parameter to megaco:connect/4 and the call flow will look like this:

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Figure 3.3: MG Startup Call Flow (no MID)

1.3.4 Configuring the Megaco stackThere are three kinds of configuration:

• User info - Information related to megaco users. Read/Write.

A User is an entity identified by a MID, e.g. a MGC or a MG.

This information can be retrieved using megaco:user_info.

• Connection info - Information regarding connections. Read/Write.

This information can be retrieved using megaco:conn_info.

• System info - System wide information. Read only.

This information can be retrieved using megaco:system_info.

1.3.5 Initial configurationThe initial configuration of the Megaco should be defined in the Erlang system configuration file. The followingconfigured parameters are defined for the Megaco application:

• users = [{Mid, [user_config()]}].

Each user is represented by a tuple with the Mid of the user and a list of config parameters (each parameter isin turn a tuple: {Item, Value}).

• scanner = flex | {Module, Function, Arguments, Modules}

• flex will result in the start of the flex scanner with default options.

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• The MFA alternative makes it possible for Megaco to start and supervise a scanner written by the user (seesupervisor:start_child for an explanation of the parameters).

See also Configuration of text encoding module(s) for more info.

1.3.6 Changing the configurationThe configuration can be changed during runtime. This is done with the functions megaco:update_user_info andmegaco:update_conn_info

1.3.7 The transaction senderThe transaction sender is a process (one per connection), which handle all transaction sending, if so configured (seemegaco:user_info and megaco:conn_info).

The purpose of the transaction sender is to accumulate transactions for a more efficient message sending. Thetransactions that are accumulated are transaction request and transaction ack. For transaction ack's the benefit isquite large, since the transactions are small and it is possible to have ranges (which means that transaction acks fortransactions 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be sent as a range 1-4 in one transaction ack, instead of four separate transactions).

There are a number of configuration parameter's that control the operation of the transaction sender. In principle, amessage with everything stored (ack's and request's) is sent from the process when:

• When trans_timer expires.

• When trans_ack_maxcount number of ack's has been received.

• When trans_req_maxcount number of requests's has been received.

• When the size of all received requests exceeds trans_req_maxsize.

• When a reply transaction is sent.

• When a pending transaction is sent.

When something is to be sent, everything is packed into one message, unless the trigger was a reply transaction andthe added size of the reply and all the requests is greater then trans_req_maxsize, in which case the storedtransactions are sent first in a separate message and the reply in another message.

When the transaction sender receives a request which is already "in storage" (indicated by the transaction id) it isassumed to be a resend and everything stored is sent. This could happen if the values of the trans_timer and therequest_timer is not properly choosen.

1.3.8 Segmentation of transaction repliesIn version 3 of the megaco standard the Segmentation package was introduced. Simply, this package defines aprocedure to segment megaco messages (transaction replies) when using a transport that does not automatically dothis (e.g. UDP). See also version3.

Although it would be both pointless and counterproductive to use segmentation on a transport that already does this(e.g. TCP), the megaco application does not check this. Instead, it is up to the user to configure this properly.

• Receiving segmented messages:

This is handled automatically by the megaco application. There is however one thing that need to be configuredby the user, the segment_recv_timer option.

Note that the segments are delivered to the user differently depending on which function is used to issue theoriginal request. When issuing the request using the megaco:cast function, the segments are delivered to the uservia the handle_trans_reply callback function one at a time, as they arrive. But this obviously doe not work for themegaco:call function. In this case, the segments are accumulated and then delivered all at once as the functionreturns.

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• Sending segmented messages:

This is also handled automatically by the megaco application. First of all, segmentation is only attempted if soconfigured, see the segment_send option. Secondly, megaco relies on the ability of the used codec to encode actionreplies, which is the smallest component the megaco application handles when segmenting. Thirdly, the reply willbe segmented only if the sum of the size of the action replies (plus an arbitrary message header size) are greaterthen the specified max message size (see the max_pdu_size option). Finally, if segmentation is decided, then eachaction reply will make up it's own (segment) message.

1.4 Internal form and its encodingsThis version of the stack is compliant with:

• Megaco/H.248 version 1 (RFC3525) updated according to Implementors Guide version 10-13.

• Megaco/H.248 version 2 as defined by draft-ietf-megaco-h248v2-04 updated according to Implementors Guideversion 10-13.

• Megaco/H.248 version 3 as defined by ITU H.248.1 (09/2005).

1.4.1 Internal form of messagesWe use the same internal form for both the binary and text encoding. Our internal form of Megaco/H.248 messagesis heavily influenced by the internal format used by ASN.1 encoders/decoders:

• "SEQUENCE OF" is represented as a list.

• "CHOICE" is represented as a tagged tuple with size 2.

• "SEQUENCE" is represented as a record, defined in "megaco/include/megaco_message_v1.hrl".

• "OPTIONAL" is represented as an ordinary field in a record which defaults to 'asn1_NOVALUE', meaning thatthe field has no value.

• "OCTET STRING" is represented as a list of unsigned integers.

• "ENUMERATED" is represented as a single atom.

• "BIT STRING" is represented as a list of atoms.

• "BOOLEAN" is represented as the atom 'true' or 'false'.

• "INTEGER" is represented as an integer.

• "IA5String" is represented as a list of integers, where each integer is the ASCII value of the correspondingcharacter.

• "NULL" is represented as the atom 'NULL'.

In order to fully understand the internal form you must get hold on a ASN.1 specification for the Megaco/H.248protocol, and apply the rules above. Please, see the documentation of the ASN.1 compiler in Erlang/OTP for moredetails of the semantics in mapping between ASN.1 and the corresponding internal form.

Observe that the 'TerminationId' record is not used in the internal form. It has been replaced with a megaco_term_idrecord (defined in "megaco/include/megaco.hrl").

1.4.2 The different encodingsThe Megaco/H.248 standard defines both a plain text encoding and a binary encoding (ASN.1 BER) and we haveimplemented encoders and decoders for both. We do in fact supply five different encoding/decoding modules.

In the text encoding, implementors have the choice of using a mix of short and long keywords. It is also possibleto add white spaces to improve readability. We use the term compact for text messages with the shortest possiblekeywords and no optional white spaces, and the term pretty for a well indented text format using long keywords andan indentation style like the text examples in the Megaco/H.248 specification).

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Here follows an example of a text message to give a feeling of the difference between the pretty and compact versionsof text messages. First the pretty, well indented version with long keywords:

MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222] Transaction = 9998 { Context = - { ServiceChange = ROOT { Services { Method = Restart, ServiceChangeAddress = 55555, Profile = ResGW/1, Reason = "901 Cold Boot" } } } }

Then the compact version without indentation and with short keywords:

!/1 [124.124.124.222] T=9998{C=-{SC=ROOT{SV{MT=RS,AD=55555,PF=ResGW/1,RE="901 Cold Boot"}}}}

And the programmers view of the same message. First a list of ActionRequest records are constructed and then it issent with one of the send functions in the API:

Prof = #'ServiceChangeProfile'{profileName = "resgw", version = 1}, Parm = #'ServiceChangeParm'{serviceChangeMethod = restart, serviceChangeAddress = {portNumber, 55555}, serviceChangeReason = "901 Cold Boot", serviceChangeProfile = Prof}, Req = #'ServiceChangeRequest'{terminationID = [?megaco_root_termination_id], serviceChangeParms = Parm}, Actions = [#'ActionRequest'{contextId = ?megaco_null_context_id, commandRequests = {serviceChangeReq, Req}}], megaco:call(ConnHandle, Actions, Config).

And finally a print-out of the entire internal form:

{'MegacoMessage', asn1_NOVALUE, {'Message', 1, {ip4Address,{'IP4Address', [124,124,124,222], asn1_NOVALUE}}, {transactions, [ {transactionRequest, {'TransactionRequest', 9998, [{'ActionRequest', 0, asn1_NOVALUE, asn1_NOVALUE, [ {'CommandRequest',

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{serviceChangeReq, {'ServiceChangeRequest', [ {megaco_term_id, false, ["root"]}], {'ServiceChangeParm', restart, {portNumber, 55555}, asn1_NOVALUE, {'ServiceChangeProfile', "resgw", version = 1}, "901 MG Cold Boot", asn1_NOVALUE, asn1_NOVALUE, asn1_NOVALUE } } }, asn1_NOVALUE, asn1_NOVALUE } ] } ] } } ] } } }

The following encoding modules are provided:

• megaco_pretty_text_encoder - encodes messages into pretty text format, decodes both pretty as well as compacttext.

• megaco_compact_text_encoder - encodes messages into compact text format, decodes both pretty as well ascompact text.

• megaco_binary_encoder - encode/decode ASN.1 BER messages. This encoder implements the fastest of the BERencoders/decoders. Recommended binary codec.

• megaco_ber_encoder - encode/decode ASN.1 BER messages.

• megaco_ber_bin_encoder - encode/decode ASN.1 BER messages. This encoder uses ASN.1 ber_bin which hasbeen optimized using the bit syntax.

• megaco_per_encoder - encode/decode ASN.1 PER messages. N.B. that this format is not included in the Megacostandard.

• megaco_per_bin_encoder - encode/decode ASN.1 PER messages. N.B. that this format is not included in theMegaco standard. This encoder uses ASN.1 per_bin which has been optimized using the bit syntax.

• megaco_erl_dist_encoder - encodes messages into Erlangs distribution format. It is rather verbose but encodingand decoding is blinding fast. N.B. that this format is not included in the Megaco standard.

1.4.3 Configuration of Erlang distribution encoding moduleThe encoding_config of the megaco_erl_dist_encoder module may be one of these:

• [] - Encodes the messages to the standard distribution format. It is rather verbose but encoding and decodingis blinding fast.

• [megaco_compressed] - Encodes the messages to the standard distribution format after an internaltransformation. It is less verbose, but the total time of the encoding and decoding will on the other hand besomewhat slower (see the performance chapter for more info).

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• [{megaco_compressed, Module}] - Works in the same way as the megaco_compressed config parameter,only here the user provide their own compress module. This module must implement the megaco_edist_compressbehaviour.

• [compressed] - Encodes the messages to a compressed form of the standard distribution format. It is lessverbose, but the encoding and decoding will on the other hand be slower.

1.4.4 Configuration of text encoding module(s)When using text encoding(s), there is actually two different configs controlling what software to use:

• [] - An empty list indicates that the erlang scanner should be used.

• [{flex, port()}] - Use the flex scanner when decoding (not optimized for SMP). See initial configurationfor more info.

• [{flex, ports()}] - Use the flex scanner when decoding (optimized for SMP). See initial configurationfor more info.

The Flex scanner is a Megaco scanner written as a linked in driver (in C). There are two ways to get this working:

• Let the Megaco stack start the flex scanner (load the driver).

To make this happen the megaco stack has to be configured:

• Add the {scanner, flex} (or similar) directive to an Erlang system config file for the megaco app (seeinitial configuration chapter for details).

• Retrieve the encoding-config using the system_info function (with Item = text_config).

• Update the receive handle with the encoding-config (the encoding_config field).

The benefit of this is that Megaco handles the starting, holding and the supervision of the driver and port.

• The Megaco client (user) starts the flex scanner (load the driver).

When starting the flex scanner a port to the linked in driver is created. This port has to be owned by a process.This process must not die. If it does the port will also terminate. Therefor:

• Create a permanent process. Make sure this process is supervised (so that if it does die, this will be noticed).

• Let this process start the flex scanner by calling the megaco_flex_scanner:start/0,1 function.

• Retrieve the encoding-config and when initiating the megaco_receive_handle, set the fieldencoding_config accordingly.

• Pass the megaco_receive_handle to the transport module.

1.4.5 Configuration of binary encoding module(s)When using binary encoding, the structure of the termination id's needs to be specified.

• [driver|_] - make use of the asn1 driver for decode (ber_bin) and encode (per_bin). This option isonly available for encoding modules: megaco_binary_encoder, megaco_ber_bin_encoder andmegaco_per_bin_encoder.

If this option is present in the encoding config, it must to be the first, unless the version3 encodingconfig is present, in which case it must come second, after the version3 encoding config, e.g.[{version3,prev3b},driver].

• [native] - skips the transformation phase, i.e. the decoded message(s) will not be transformed into our internalform.

• [integer()] - A list containing the size (the number of bits) of each level. Example: [3,8,5,8].

• integer() - Number of one byte (8 bits) levels. N.B. This is currently converted into the previous config.Example: 3 ([8,8,8]).

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1.4 Internal form and its encodings

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1.4.6 Handling megaco versionsSince the version 3 implemented, in this version of the Megaco application, is preliminary, it is necessary to havea way to handle different version 3 implementations. For this reason the encoding config option {version3,version3()} has been introduced. This option, if present, has to be first in the encoding config list. Version 1 and2 codec's ignore this option, if found.

version3() -> prev3a | prev3b | prev3c | v3

• prev3a

Preliminary version 3, based on TD-33

• prev3b

Preliminary version 3, based on TD-33, but text encoding updated with the final solution for priority incontextProperty (which is backward compatible with v2).

• prev3c

Preliminary version 3, based on the final version of the v3-standard, but excluding segments!

• v3

Full version 3. Including segmentation. This is the default version 3 variant (i.e. if a version 3 messages is to beencoded/decoded and no version3 encoding config is found, then v3 is assumed).

There are two ways to handle the different megaco encoding versions. Either using dynamic version detection (onlyvalid for for incoming messages) or by explicit version setting in the connection info.

For incoming messages:

• Dynamic version detection

Set the protocol version in the megaco_receive_handle to dynamic (this is the default).This works for those codecs that support partial decode of the version, currently text, and ber_bin(megaco_binary_encoder and megaco_ber_bin_encoder).This way the decoder will detect which version is used and then use the proper decoder.

• Explicit version

Explicitly set the actual protocol version in the megaco_receive_handle.Start with version 1. When the initial service change has been performed and version 2 has been negotiated,upgrade the megaco_receive_handle of the transport process (control_pid) to version 2. See megaco_tcp andmegaco_udp.Note that if udp is used, the same transport process could be used for several connections. This could makeupgrading impossible.For codecs that does not support partial decode of the version, currently megaco_ber_encoder,megaco_per_encoder and megaco_per_bin_encoder, dynamic will revert to version 1.

For outgoing messages:

• Update the connection info protocol_version.

• Override protocol version when sending a message by adding the item {protocol_version, integer()}to the Options. See call or cast.Note that this does not effect the messages that are sent autonomously by the stack. They use the protocol_versionof the connection info.

1.4.7 Encoder callback functionsThe encoder callback interface is defined by the megaco_encoder behaviour, see megaco_encoder.

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1.5 Transport mechanisms

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1.5 Transport mechanisms

1.5.1 Callback interfaceThe callback interface of the transport module contains several functions. Some of which are mandatory while othersare only optional:

• send_message - Send a message. Mandatory

• block - Block the transport. Optional

This function is usefull for flow control.

• unblock - Unblock the transport. Optional

For more detail, see the megaco_transport behaviour definition.

1.5.2 ExamplesThe Megaco/H.248 application contains implementations for the two protocols specified by the Megaco/H.248standard; UDP, see megaco_udp, and TCP/TPKT, see megaco_tcp.

1.6 Implementation examples

1.6.1 A simple Media Gateway ControllerIn megaco/examples/simple/megaco_simple_mgc.erl there is an example of a simple MGC that listens on both textand binary standard ports and is prepared to handle a Service Change Request message to arrive either via TCP/IP orUDP/IP. Messages received on the text port are decoded using a text decoder and messages received on the binaryport are decoded using a binary decoder.

The Service Change Reply is encoded in the same way as the request and sent back to the MG with the same transportmechanism UDP/IP or TCP/IP.

After this initial service change message the connection between the MG and MGC is fully established and supervised.

The MGC, with its four listeners, may be started with:

cd megaco/examples/simple erl -pa ../../../megaco/ebin -s megaco_filter -s megaco megaco_simple_mgc:start().

or simply 'gmake mgc'.

The -s megaco_filter option to erl implies, the event tracing mechanism to be enabled and an interactive sequencechart tool to be started. This may be quite useful in order to visualize how your MGC interacts with the Megaco/H.248 protocol stack.

The event traces may alternatively be directed to a file for later analyze. By default the event tracing is disabled, butit may dynamically be enabled without any need for re-compilation of the code.

1.6.2 A simple Media GatewayIn megaco/examples/simple/megaco_simple_mg.erl there is an example of a simple MG that connects to an MGC,sends a Service Change Request and waits synchronously for a reply.

After this initial service change message the connection between the MG and MGC is fully established and supervised.

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1.7 Megaco mib

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Assuming that the MGC is started on the local host, four different MG's, using text over TCP/IP, binary over TCP/IP,text over UDP/IP and binary over UDP/IP may be started on the same Erlang node with:

cd megaco/examples/simple erl -pa ../../../megaco/ebin -s megaco_filter -s megaco megaco_simple_mg:start().

or simply 'gmake mg'.

If you "only" want to start a single MG which tries to connect an MG on a host named "baidarka", you may use oneof these functions (instead of the megaco_simple_mg:start/0 above):

megaco_simple_mg:start_tcp_text("baidarka", []). megaco_simple_mg:start_tcp_binary("baidarka", []). megaco_simple_mg:start_udp_text("baidarka", []). megaco_simple_mg:start_udp_binary("baidarka", []).

The -s megaco_filter option to erl implies, the event tracing mechanism to be enabled and an interactive sequencechart tool to be started. This may be quite useful in order to visualize how your MG interacts with the Megaco/H.248protocol stack.

The event traces may alternatively be directed to a file for later analyze. By default the event tracing is disabled, butit may dynamically be enabled without any need for re-compilation of the code.

1.7 Megaco mib

1.7.1 IntroThe Megaco mib is as of yet not standardized and our implementation is based on draft-ietf-megaco-mib-04.txt. Almostall of the mib cannot easily be implemented by the megaco application. Instead these things should be implementedby a user (of the megaco application).

So what part of the mib is implemented? Basically the relevant statistic counters of the MedGwyGatewayStatsEntry.

1.7.2 Statistics countersThe implementation of the statistic counters is lightweight. I.e. the statistic counters are handled separately by differententities of the application. For instance our two transport module(s) (see megaco_tcp and megaco_udp) maintain theirown counters and the application engine (see megaco) maintain it's own counters.

This also means that if a user implement their own transport service then it has to maintain it's own statistics.

1.7.3 DistributionEach megaco application maintains it's own set of counters. So in a large (distributed) MG/MGC it could be necessaryto collect the statistics from several nodes (each) running the megaco application (only one of them with the transport).

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1.8 Performance comparison

20 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

1.8 Performance comparison

1.8.1 Comparison of encoder/decodersThe Megaco/H.248 standard defines both a plain text encoding and a binary encoding (ASN.1 BER) and we haveimplemented encoders and decoders for both. We do supply a bunch of different encoding/decoding modules and theuser may in fact implement their own (like our erl_dist module). Using a non-standard encoding format has its obviousdrawbacks, but may be useful in some configurations.

We have made four different measurements of our Erlang/OTP implementation of the Megaco/H.248 protocol stack,in order to compare our different encoders/decoders. The result of each one is summarized in the table below.

The result above are the fastest of these configurations for each codec. The figures presented are the average of allused messages.

For comparison, also included are performance figures where the flex driver was built as non-reentrant flex(figures within parenthesis).

Codec and config Size Encode Decode Total

pretty 336 22 76 98

pretty [flex] 336 22 (22) 41 (40) 63 (62)

compact 181 19 63 82

compact [flex] 181 19 (19) 38 (36) 57 (55)

per bin 91 63 69 132

per bin [driver] 91 43 45 88

per bin [native] 91 47 51 99

per bin[driver,native]

91 26 29 55

ber bin 165 35 42 77

ber bin [driver] 165 35 37 72

ber bin [native] 165 19 26 45

ber bin[driver,native]

165 19 20 39

erl_dist 875 5 10 15

erl_dist[megaco_compressed]

405 6 7 13

erl_dist [compressed] 345 86 21 107

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1.8 Performance comparison

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erl_dist[megaco_compressed,compressed]

200 71 12 83

Table 8.1: Codec performance

1.8.2 System performance characteristicsThis is primarily a way to show the effects of using the reentrant flex scanner instead of the non-reentrant.

As can be seen from the figures above there is no real difference between a non-reentrant and an reentrant flex scannerwhen it comes to the decode times of an individual message.

The real difference is instead in system characteristics, which is best shown with the mstone1 test.

When running SMP erlang on a multi-core machine the "throughput" is significantly higher. The mstone1 test is anextreme test, but it shows what is gained by using the reentrant flex-scanner.

Figure 8.1: MStone1 with mstone1.sh -d flex -s 8

1.8.3 Description of encoders/decodersIn Appendix A of the Megaco/H.248 specification (RFC 3525), there are about 30 messages that shows a representativecall flow. We have also added a few extra version 1, version 2 and version 3 messages. We have used these messagesas basis for our measurements. Our figures have not been weighted in regard to how frequent the different kinds ofmessages that are sent between the media gateway and its controller.

The test compares the following encoder/decoders:

• pretty - pretty printed text. In the text encoding, the protocol stack implementors have the choice of using a mix ofshort and long keywords. It is also possible to add white spaces to improve readability. The pretty text encodingutilizes long keywords and an indentation style like the text examples in the Megaco/H.248 specification.

• compact - the compact text encoding uses the shortest possible keywords and no optional white spaces.

• ber - ASN.1 BER.

• per - ASN.1 PER. Not standardized as a valid Megaco/H.248 encoding, but included for the matter of completenessas its encoding is extremely compact.

• erl_dist - Erlang's native distribution format. Not standardized as a valid Megaco/H.248 encoding, but includedas a reference due to its well known performance characteristics. Erlang is a dynamically typed language and anyErlang data structure may be serialized to the erl_dist format by using built-in functions.

The actual encoded messages have been collected in one directory per encoding type, containing one file per encodedmessage.

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1.8 Performance comparison

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Here follows an example of a text message to give a feeling of the difference between the pretty and compact versionsof text messages. First the pretty printed, well indented version with long keywords:

MEGACO/1 [124.124.124.222] Transaction = 9998 { Context = - { ServiceChange = ROOT { \011Services { \011 Method = Restart, \011 ServiceChangeAddress = 55555, \011 Profile = ResGW/1, \011 Reason = "901 MG Cold Boot" \011} } } }

Then the compact text version without indentation and with short keywords:

!/1 [124.124.124.222] T=9998{ C=-{SC=ROOT{SV{MT=RS,AD=55555,PF=ResGW/1,RE="901 MG Cold Boot"}}}}

1.8.4 SetupThe measurements has been performed on a Dell PowerEdge 1950iii with 2* Intel Xeon L5430 @ 2.66 GHz, with 8GB memory and running SLES 10 SP2 x86_64, kernel 2.6.16.60-0.34-smp. Software versions was open source OTPR13B and megaco-3.11.

1.8.5 SummaryIn our measurements we have seen that there are no significant differences in message sizes between ASN.1 BER andthe compact text format. Some care should be taken when using the pretty text style (which is used in all the examplesincluded in the protocol specification and preferred during debugging sessions) since the messages can then be quitelarge. If the message size really is a serious issue, our per encoder should be used, as the ASN.1 PER format is muchmore compact than all the other alternatives. Its major drawback is that it is has not been approved as a valid Megaco/H.248 message encoding.

When it comes to pure encode/decode performance, it turns out that:

• our fastest binary encoder (ber) is about equal to our fastest text encoder (compact).

• our fastest binary decoder (ber) is about 47% (44%) faster than our fastest text decoder (compact).

If the pure encode/decode performance really is a serious issue, our erl_dist encoder could be used, as the encoding/decoding of the erlang distribution format is much faster than all the other alternatives. Its major drawback is that itis has not been approved as a valid Megaco/H.248 message encoding.

There is no performance advantage of building (and using) a non-reentrant flex scanner over a reentrant flex scanner(if flex supports building such a scanner).

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1.9 Testing and tools

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Note:Please, observe that these performance figures are related to our implementation in Erlang/OTP. Measurements ofother implementations using other tools and techniques may of course result in other figures.

1.9 Testing and tools

1.9.1 TracingWe have instrumented our code in order to enable tracing. Running the application with tracing deactivated, causesa negligible performance overhead (an external call to a function which returns an atom). Activation of tracing doesnot require any recompilation of the code, since we rely on Erlang/OTP's built in support for dynamic trace activation.In our case tracing of calls to a given external function.

Event traces can be viewed in a generic message sequence chart tool, et, or as standard output (events are writtento stdio).

See enable_trace, disable_trace and set_trace for more info.

1.9.2 Measurement and transformationWe have included some simple tool(s) for codec measurement (meas), performance tests (mstone1 and mstone2) andmessage transformation.

The tool(s) are located in the example/meas directory.

Requirement• Erlang/OTP, version R13B01 or later.

• Version 3.11 or later of this application.

• Version 1.6.10 or later of the asn1 application.

• The flex libraries. Without it, the flex powered codecs cannot be used.

Meas results

The results from the measurement run (meas) is four excel-compatible textfiles:

• decode_time.xls -> Decoding result

• encode_time.xls -> Encoding result

• total_time.xls -> Total (Decoding+encoding) result

• message_size.xls -> Message size

Instruction

The tool contain four things:

• The transformation module

• The measurement (meas) module(s)

• The mstone (mstone1 and mstone2) module(s)

• The basic message file

The messages used by the different tools are contained in single message package file (see below for more info). Themessages in this file is encoded with just one codec. During measurement initiation, the messages are read and thentransformed to all codec formats used in the measurement.

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1.9 Testing and tools

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The message transformation is done by the transformation module. It is used to transform a set of messages encodedwith one codec into the other base codec's.

There are two different measurement tools:

• meas:

Used to perform codec measurements. That is, to see what kind of performance can be expected by the differentcodecs provided by the megaco application.

The measurement is done by iterating over the decode/encode function for approx 2 seconds per message andcounting the number of decodes/encodes.

Is best run by modifying the meas.sh.skel skeleton script provided by the tool.

To run it manually do the following:

% erl -pa <path-megaco-ebin-dir> -pa <path-to-meas-module-dir> Erlang (BEAM) emulator version 5.6 [source]

Eshell V5.7.1 (abort with ^G) 1> megaco_codec_meas:start(). ... 2> halt().

or to make it even easier, assuming a measure shall be done on all the codecs (as above):

% erl -noshell -pa <path-megaco-ebin-dir> \\ -pa <path-to-meas-module-dir> \\ -s megaco_codec_meas -s init stop

When run as above (this will take some time), the measurement process is done as follows:

\011 For each codec:\011 For each message:\011 Read the message from the file\011 Detect message version\011 Measure decode Measure encode Write results, encode, decode and total, to file

• mstone1 and mstone2:

These are two different SMP performance monitoring tool(s).

mstone1 creates a process for each codec config supported by the megaco application and let them run for aspecific time (all at the same time), encoding and decoding megaco messages. The number of messages processedin total is the mstone1(1) value.

There are different ways to run the mstone1 tool, e.g. with or without the use of drivers, with only flex-empoweredconfigs.

Is best run by modifying the mstone1.sh.skel skeleton script provided by the tool.

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The mstone2 is similar to the mstone1 tool, but in this case, each created process makes only one run through themessages and then exits. A soon as a process exits, a new process (with the same config and messages) is createdto takes its place. The number of messages processed in total is the mstone2(1) value.

Both these tools use the message package (time_test.msgs) provided with the tool(s), although it can run on anymessage package as long as it has the same structure.

This is simply an erlang compatible text-file with the following structure: {codec_name(),messages_list()}.

codec_name() = pretty | compact | ber | per | erlang (how the messages are encoded)messages_list() = [{message_name(), message()}]message_name() = atom()message() = binary()

The codec name is the name of the codec with which all messages in the message_list() has been encoded.

This file can be exported to a file structure by calling the export_messages function. This can be usefull if ameasurement shall be done with an external tool. Exporting the messages creates a directory tree with the followingstructure:

\011 <message package>/pretty/<message-files>\011 compact/\011 per/\011 ber/<message-files>\011 erlang/

The file includes both version 1, 2 and version 3 messages.

Notes

There are two basic ways to use the binary encodings: With package related name and termination id transformation(the 'native' encoding config) or without. This transformation converts package related names and termination id's toa more convenient internal form (equivalent with the decoded text message).

The transformation is done _after_ the actual decode has been done.

Furthermore, it is possible to make use of a linked in driver that performs some of the decode/encode, decode for berand encode for per (the 'driver' encoding config).

Therefor in the tests, binary codecs are tested with four different encoding configs to determine exactly how thedifferent options effect the performance: with transformation and without driver ([]), without transformation andwithout driver ([native]), with transformation and with driver ([driver]) and finally without transformation and withdriver ([driver,native]).

Some of these messages are ripped from the call flow examples in an old version of the RFC and others are createdto test a specific feature of megaco.

Be sure not no name the directory containing the measurement binaries starting with 'megaco-', e.g. megaco-meas.This will confuse the erlang application loader (erlang applications are named, e.g. megaco-1.0.2).

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2 Reference Manual

The Megaco application is a framework for building applications on top of the Megaco/H.248 protocol.

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megaco

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megacoErlang module

Interface module for the Megaco application

DATA TYPES

action_request() = #'ActionRequest'{}action_reply() = #'ActionReply'{}error_desc() = #'ErrorDescriptor'{}transaction_reply() = #'TransactionReply'{}segment_no() = integer()

resend_indication() = flag | boolean()

property_parm() = #'PropertyParm'{}property_group() = [property_parm()]property_groups() = [property_group()]

sdp() = sdp_c() | sdp_o() | sdp_s() | sdp_i() | sdp_u() | sdp_e() | sdp_p() | sdp_b() | sdp_z() | sdp_k() | sdp_a() | sdp_a_rtpmap() | sdp_a_ptime() | sdp_t() | sdp_r() | sdp_m()sdp_v() = #megaco_sdp_v{} (Protocol version)sdp_o() = #megaco_sdp_o{} (Owner/creator and session identifier)sdp_s() = #megaco_sdp_s{} (Session name)sdp_i() = #megaco_sdp_i{} (Session information)sdp_u() = #megaco_sdp_u{} (URI of description)sdp_e() = #megaco_sdp_e{} (Email address)sdp_p() = #megaco_sdp_p{} (Phone number)sdp_c() = #megaco_sdp_c{} (Connection information)sdp_b() = #megaco_sdp_b{} (Bandwidth information)sdp_k() = #megaco_sdp_k{} (Encryption key)sdp_a() = #megaco_sdp_a{} (Session attribute)sdp_a_rtpmap() = #megaco_sdp_a_rtpmap{}sdp_a_ptime() = #megaco_sdp_a_ptime{}sdp_a_quality() = #megaco_sdp_a_quality{}sdp_a_fmtp() = #megaco_sdp_a_fmtp{}sdp_z() = #megaco_sdp_z{} (Time zone adjustment)sdp_t() = #megaco_sdp_t{} (Time the session is active)sdp_r() = #megaco_sdp_r{} (Repeat times)sdp_m() = #megaco_sdp_m{} (Media name and transport address)sdp_property_parm() = sdp() | property_parm()sdp_property_group() = [sdp_property_parm()]sdp_property_groups() = [sdp_property_group()]

megaco_timer() = infinity | integer() >= 0 | megaco_incr_timer()megaco_incr_timer() = #megaco_incr_timer{}

The record megaco_incr_timer contains the following fields:

wait_for = integer() >= 0

The actual timer time.

factor = integer() >= 0

The factor when calculating the new timer time (wait_for).

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megaco

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incr = integer()

The increment value when calculating the new timer time (wait_for). Note that this value can be negativeand that a timer restart can therefor lead to a wait_for value of zero! It is up to the user to be aware of theconsequences of a wait_for value of zero.

max_retries = infinity | infinity_restartable | integer() >= 0

The maximum number of repetitions of the timer.

There is a special case for this field. When the max_retries has the value infinity_restartable, itmeans that the timer is restartable as long as some external event occurs (e.g. receipt of a pending message forinstance). But the timer will never be restarted "by itself", i.e. when the timer expires (whatever the timeouttime), so does the timer. Whenever the timer is restarted, the timeout time will be calculated in the usual way!Also, as mentioned above, beware the consequences of setting the value to infinity if incr has been set toan negative value.

Exports

start() -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

Reason = term()

Starts the Megaco application

Users may either explicitly be registered with megaco:start_user/2 and/or be statically configured by setting theapplication environment variable 'users' to a list of {UserMid, Config} tuples. See the function megaco:start_user/2for details.

stop() -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

Reason = term()

Stops the Megaco application

start_user(UserMid, Config) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

UserMid = megaco_mid()

Config = [{user_info_item(), user_info_value()}]

Reason = term()

Initial configuration of a user

Requires the megaco application to be started. A user is either a Media Gateway (MG) or a Media Gateway Controller(MGC). One Erlang node may host many users.

A user is identified by its UserMid, which must be a legal Megaco MID.

Config is a list of {Item, Value} tuples. See megaco:user_info/2 about which items and values that are valid.

stop_user(UserMid) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

UserMid = megaco_mid()

Reason = term()

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Delete the configuration of a user

Requires that the user does not have any active connection.

user_info(UserMid) -> [{Item, Value}]user_info(UserMid, Item) -> Value | exit(Reason)

Types:

Handle = user_info_handle()

UserMid = megaco_mid()

Item = user_info_item()

Value = user_info_value()

Reason = term()

Lookup user information

The following Item's are valid:

connections

Lists all active connections for this user. Returns a list of megaco_conn_handle records.

receive_handle

Construct a megaco_receive_handle record from user config

trans_id

Current transaction id.

A positive integer or the atom undefined_serial (in case no messages has been sent).

min_trans_id

First trans id.

A positive integer, defaults to 1.

max_trans_id

Last trans id.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

request_timer

Wait for reply.

The timer is cancelled when a reply is received.

When a pending message is received, the timer is cancelled and the long_request_timer is started instead(see below). No resends will be performed from this point (since we now know that the other side has receivedthe request).

When the timer reaches an intermediate expire, the request is resent and the timer is restarted.

When the timer reaches the final expire, either the function megaco:call will return with {error,timeout} or the callback function handle_trans_reply will be called with UserReply = {error,timeout} (if megaco:cast was used).

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to #megaco_incr_timer{}.

long_request_timer

Wait for reply after having received a pending message.

When the timer reaches an intermediate expire, the timer is restarted.

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When a pending message is received, and the long_request_timer is not "on its final leg", the timer willbe restarted, and, if long_request_resend = true, the request will be re-sent.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 60 seconds.

long_request_resend

This option indicates weather the request should be resent until the reply is received, even though a pendingmessage has been received.

Normally, after a pending message has been received, the request is not resent (since a pending message is anindication that the request has been received). But since the reply (to the request) can be lost, this behaviour hasits values.

It is of course pointless to set this value to true unless the long_request_timer (see above) is also set toan incremental timer (#megaco_incr_timer{}).

A boolean, defaults to false.

reply_timer

Wait for an ack.

When a request is received, some info related to the reply is store internally (e.g. the binary of the reply). Thisinfo will live until either an ack is received or this timer expires. For instance, if the same request is receivedagain (e.g. a request with the same transaction id), the (stored) reply will be (re-) sent automatically by megaco.

If the timer is of type #megaco_incr_timer{}, then for each intermediate timout, the reply will be resent(this is valid until the ack is received or the timer expires).

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 30000.

request_keep_alive_timeout

Specifies the timeout time for the request-keep-alive timer.

This timer is started when the first reply to an asynchroneous request (issued using the megaco:cast/3 function)arrives. As long as this timer is running, replies will be delivered via the handle_trans_reply/4,5 callback function,with their "arrival number" (see UserReply of the handle_trans_reply/4,5 callback function).

Replies arriving after the timer has expired, will be delivered using the handle_unexpected_trans/3,4 callbackfunction.

The timeout time can have the values: plain | integer() >= 0.

Defaults to plain.

call_proxy_gc_timeout

Timeout time for the call proxy.

When a request is sent using the call/3 function, a proxy process is started to handle all replies. When the replyhas been received and delivered to the user, the proxy process continue to exist for as long as this option specifies.Any received messages, is passed on to the user via the handle_unexpected_trans callback function.

The timeout time is in milliseconds. A value of 0 (zero) means that the proxy process will exit directly after thereply has been delivered.

An integer >= 0, defaults to 5000 (= 5 seconds).

auto_ack

Automatic send transaction ack when the transaction reply has been received (see trans_ack below).

This is used for three-way-handshake.

A boolean, defaults to false.

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trans_ack

Shall ack's be accumulated or not.

This property is only valid if auto_ack is true.

If auto_ack is true, then if trans_ack is false, ack's will be sent immediately. If trans_ack istrue, then ack's will instead be sent to the transaction sender process for accumulation and later sending (seetrans_ack_maxcount, trans_req_maxcount, trans_req_maxsize, trans_ack_maxcountand trans_timer).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An boolean, defaults to false.

trans_ack_maxcount

Maximum number of accumulated ack's. At most this many ack's will be accumulated by the transaction sender(if started and configured to accumulate ack's).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 10.

trans_req

Shall requests be accumulated or not.

If trans_req is false, then request(s) will be sent immediately (in its own message).

If trans_req is true, then request(s) will instead be sent to the transaction sender process for accumulationand later sending (see trans_ack_maxcount, trans_req_maxcount, trans_req_maxsize,trans_ack_maxcount and trans_timer).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An boolean, defaults to false.

trans_req_maxcount

Maximum number of accumulated requests. At most this many requests will be accumulated by the transactionsender (if started and configured to accumulate requests).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 10.

trans_req_maxsize

Maximum size of the accumulated requests. At most this much requests will be accumulated by the transactionsender (if started and configured to accumulate requests).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 2048.

trans_timer

Transaction sender timeout time. Has two functions. First, if the value is 0, then transactions will not beaccumulated (e.g. the transaction sender process will not be started). Second, if the value is greater then 0 andauto_ack and trans_ack are both true or if trans_req is true, then transaction sender will be startedand transactions (which is depending on the values of auto_ack, trans_ack and trans_req) will beaccumulated, for later sending.

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 0.

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pending_timer

Automatically send pending if the timer expires before a transaction reply has been sent. This timer is also calledprovisional response timer.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 30000.

sent_pending_limit

Sent pending limit (see the MGOriginatedPendingLimit and the MGCOriginatedPendingLimit of the megaco rootpackage). This parameter specifies how many pending messages that can be sent (for a given received transactionrequest). When the limit is exceeded, the transaction is aborted (see handle_trans_request_abort) and an errormessage is sent to the other side.

Note that this has no effect on the actual sending of pending transactions. This is either implicit (e.g. whenreceiving a re-sent transaction request for a request which is being processed) or controlled by the pending_timer,see above.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

recv_pending_limit

Receive pending limit (see the MGOriginatedPendingLimit and the MGCOriginatedPendingLimit of the megacoroot package). This parameter specifies how many pending messages that can be received (for a sent transactionrequest). When the limit is exceeded, the transaction is considered lost, and an error returned to the user (throughthe call-back function handle_trans_reply).

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

send_mod

Send callback module which exports send_message/2. The function SendMod:send_message(SendHandle,Binary) is invoked when the bytes needs to be transmitted to the remote user.

An atom, defaults to megaco_tcp.

encoding_mod

Encoding callback module which exports encode_message/2 and decode_message/2. Thefunction EncodingMod:encode_message(EncodingConfig, MegacoMessage) is invoked whenever a'MegacoMessage' record needs to be translated into an Erlang binary. The functionEncodingMod:decode_message(EncodingConfig, Binary) is invoked whenever an Erlang binary needs to betranslated into a 'MegacoMessage' record.

An atom, defaults to megaco_pretty_text_encoder.

encoding_config

Encoding module config.

A list, defaults to [].

protocol_version

Actual protocol version.

An integer, default is 1.

strict_version

Strict version control, i.e. when a message is received, verify that the version is that which was negotiated.

An boolean, default is true.

reply_data

Default reply data.

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Any term, defaults to the atom undefined.

user_mod

Name of the user callback module. See the the reference manual for megaco_user for more info.

user_args

List of extra arguments to the user callback functions. See the the reference manual for megaco_user for more info.

threaded

If a received message contains several transaction requests, this option indicates whether the requests should behandled sequentially in the same process (false), or if each request should be handled by its own process (truei.e. a separate process is spawned for each request).

An boolean, defaults to false.

resend_indication

This option indicates weather the transport module should be told if a message send is a resend or not.

If false, megaco messages are sent using the send_message function.

If true, megaco message re-sends are made using the resend_message function. The initial message send is stilldone using the send_message function.

The special value flag instead indicates that the function send_message/3 shall be used.

A resend_indication(), defaults to false.

segment_reply_ind

This option specifies if the user shall be notified of received segment replies or not.

See handle_segment_reply callback function for more information.

A boolean, defaults to false.

segment_recv_timer

This timer is started when the segment indicated by the segmentation complete token is received, butall segments has not yet been received.

When the timer finally expires, a "megaco segments not received" (459) error message is sent to the other side andthe user is notified with a segment timeoutUserReply in either the handle_trans_reply callback functionor the return value of the call function.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 10000.

segment_send

Shall outgoing messages be segmented or not:

none

Do not segment outgoing reply messages. This is usefull when either it is known that messages are never to largeor that the transport protocol can handle such things on its own (e.g. TCP or SCTP).

integer() > 0

Outgoing reply messages will be segmented as needed (see max_pdu_size below). This value, K, indicate theoutstanding window, i.e. how many segments can be outstanding (not acknowledged) at any given time.

infinity

Outgoing reply messages will be segmented as needed (see max_pdu_size below). Segment messages are sentall at once (i.e. no acknowledgement awaited before sending the next segment).

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Defaults to none.

max_pdu_size

Max message size. If the encoded message (PDU) exceeds this size, the message should be segmented, and thenencoded.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

update_user_info(UserMid, Item, Value) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

UserMid = megaco_mid()

Item = user_info_item()

Value = user_info_value()

Reason = term()

Update information about a user

Requires that the user is started. See megaco:user_info/2 about which items and values that are valid.

conn_info(ConnHandle) -> [{Item, Value}]conn_info(ConnHandle, Item) -> Value | exit(Reason)

Types:

ConnHandle = #megaco_conn_handle{}

Item = conn_info_item()

Value = conn_info_value()

Reason = {no_such_connection, ConnHandle} | term()

Lookup information about an active connection

Requires that the connection is active.

control_pid

The process identifier of the controlling process for a connection.

send_handle

Opaque send handle whose contents is internal for the send module. May be any term.

local_mid

The local mid (of the connection, i.e. the own mid). megaco_mid().

remote_mid

The remote mid (of the connection). megaco_mid().

receive_handle

Construct a megaco_receive_handle record.

trans_id

Next transaction id. A positive integer or the atom undefined_serial (only in case of error).

Note that transaction id's are (currently) maintained on a per user basis so there is no way to be sure that the valuereturned will actually be used for a transaction sent on this connection (in case a user has several connections,which is not at all unlikely).

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max_trans_id

Last trans id.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

request_timer

Wait for reply.

The timer is cancelled when a reply is received.

When a pending message is received, the timer is cancelled and the long_request_timer is started instead(see below). No resends will be performed from this point (since we now know that the other side has receivedthe request).

When the timer reaches an intermediate expire, the request is resent and the timer is restarted.

When the timer reaches the final expire, either the function megaco:call will return with {error,timeout} or the callback function handle_trans_reply will be called with UserReply = {error,timeout} (if megaco:cast was used).

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to #megaco_incr_timer{}.

long_request_timer

Wait for reply after having received a pending message.

When the timer reaches an intermediate expire, the timer restarted.

When a pending message is received, and the long_request_timer is not "on its final leg", the timer willbe restarted, and, if long_request_resend = true, the request will be re-sent.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 60 seconds.

request_keep_alive_timeout

Specifies the timeout time for the request-keep-alive timer.

This timer is started when the first reply to an asynchroneous request (issued using the megaco:cast/3 function)arrives. As long as this timer is running, replies will be delivered via the handle_trans_reply/4,5 callback function,with their "arrival number" (see UserReply of the handle_trans_reply/4,5 callback function).

Replies arriving after the timer has expired, will be delivered using the handle_unexpected_trans/3,4 callbackfunction.

The timeout time can have the values: plain | integer() >= 0.

Defaults to plain.

long_request_resend

This option indicates weather the request should be resent until the reply is received, even though a pendingmessage has been received.

Normally, after a pending message has been received, the request is not resent (since a pending message is anindication that the request has been received). But since the reply (to the request) can be lost, this behaviour hasits values.

It is of course pointless to set this value to true unless the long_request_timer (see above) is also set toan incremental timer (#megaco_incr_timer{}).

A boolean, defaults to false.

reply_timer

Wait for an ack.

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When a request is received, some info related to the reply is store internally (e.g. the binary of the reply). Thisinfo will live until either an ack is received or this timer expires. For instance, if the same request is receivedagain (e.g. a request with the same transaction id), the (stored) reply will be (re-) sent automatically by megaco.

If the timer is of type #megaco_incr_timer{}, then for each intermediate timout, the reply will be resent(this is valid until the ack is received or the timer expires).

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 30000.

call_proxy_gc_timeout

Timeout time for the call proxy.

When a request is sent using the call/3 function, a proxy process is started to handle all replies. When the replyhas been received and delivered to the user, the proxy process continue to exist for as long as this option specifies.Any received messages, is passed on to the user via the handle_unexpected_trans callback function.

The timeout time is in milliseconds. A value of 0 (zero) means that the proxy process will exit directly after thereply has been delivered.

An integer >= 0, defaults to 5000 (= 5 seconds).

auto_ack

Automatic send transaction ack when the transaction reply has been received (see trans_ack below).

This is used for three-way-handshake.

A boolean, defaults to false.

trans_ack

Shall ack's be accumulated or not.

This property is only valid if auto_ack is true.

If auto_ack is true, then if trans_ack is false, ack's will be sent immediately. If trans_ack istrue, then ack's will instead be sent to the transaction sender process for accumulation and later sending (seetrans_ack_maxcount, trans_req_maxcount, trans_req_maxsize, trans_ack_maxcountand trans_timer).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An boolean, defaults to false.

trans_ack_maxcount

Maximum number of accumulated ack's. At most this many ack's will be accumulated by the transaction sender(if started and configured to accumulate ack's).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 10.

trans_req

Shall requests be accumulated or not.

If trans_req is false, then request(s) will be sent immediately (in its own message).

If trans_req is true, then request(s) will instead be sent to the transaction sender process for accumulationand later sending (see trans_ack_maxcount, trans_req_maxcount, trans_req_maxsize,trans_ack_maxcount and trans_timer).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An boolean, defaults to false.

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trans_req_maxcount

Maximum number of accumulated requests. At most this many requests will be accumulated by the transactionsender (if started and configured to accumulate requests).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 10.

trans_req_maxsize

Maximum size of the accumulated requests. At most this much requests will be accumulated by the transactionsender (if started and configured to accumulate requests).

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 2048.

trans_timer

Transaction sender timeout time. Has two functions. First, if the value is 0, then transactions will not beaccumulated (e.g. the transaction sender process will not be started). Second, if the value is greater then 0and auto_ack and trans_ack is true or if trans_req is true, then transaction sender will be startedand transactions (which is depending on the values of auto_ack, trans_ack and trans_req) will beaccumulated, for later sending.

See also transaction sender for more info.

An integer, defaults to 0.

pending_timer

Automatic send transaction pending if the timer expires before a transaction reply has been sent. This timer isalso called provisional response timer.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 30000.

sent_pending_limit

Sent pending limit (see the MGOriginatedPendingLimit and the MGCOriginatedPendingLimit of the megaco rootpackage). This parameter specifies how many pending messages that can be sent (for a given received transactionrequest). When the limit is exceeded, the transaction is aborted (see handle_trans_request_abort) and an errormessage is sent to the other side.

Note that this has no effect on the actual sending of pending transactions. This is either implicit (e.g. whenreceiving a re-sent transaction request for a request which is being processed) or controlled by the pending_timer,see above.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

recv_pending_limit

Receive pending limit (see the MGOriginatedPendingLimit and the MGCOriginatedPendingLimit of the megacoroot package). This parameter specifies how many pending messages that can be received (for a sent transactionrequest). When the limit is exceeded, the transaction is considered lost, and an error returned to the user (throughthe call-back function handle_trans_reply).

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

send_mod

Send callback module which exports send_message/2. The function SendMod:send_message(SendHandle,Binary) is invoked when the bytes needs to be transmitted to the remote user.

An atom, defaults to megaco_tcp.

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encoding_mod

Encoding callback module which exports encode_message/2 and decode_message/2. Thefunction EncodingMod:encode_message(EncodingConfig, MegacoMessage) is invoked whenever a'MegacoMessage' record needs to be translated into an Erlang binary. The functionEncodingMod:decode_message(EncodingConfig, Binary) is invoked whenever an Erlang binary needs to betranslated into a 'MegacoMessage' record.

An atom, defaults to megaco_pretty_text_encoder.

encoding_config

Encoding module config.

A list, defaults to [].

protocol_version

Actual protocol version.

An positive integer, Current default is 1.

strict_version

Strict version control, i.e. when a message is received, verify that the version is that which was negotiated.

An boolean, default is true.

reply_data

Default reply data.

Any term, defaults to the atom undefined.

threaded

If a received message contains several transaction requests, this option indicates whether the requests should behandled sequentially in the same process (false), or if each request should be handled by its own process (truei.e. a separate process is spawned for each request).

An boolean, defaults to false.

resend_indication

This option indicates weather the transport module should be told if a message send is a resend or not.

If false, megaco messages are sent using the send_message/2 function.

If true, megaco message re-sends are made using the resend_message function. The initial message send is stilldone using the send_message function.

The special value flag instead indicates that the function send_message/3 shall be used.

A resend_indication(), defaults to false.

segment_reply_ind

This option specifies if the user shall be notified of received segment replies or not.

See handle_segment_reply callback function for more information.

A boolean, defaults to false.

segment_recv_timer

This timer is started when the segment indicated by the segmentation complete token (e.g. the last ofthe segment which makes up the reply) is received, but all segments has not yet been received.

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When the timer finally expires, a "megaco segments not received" (459) error message is sent to the other side andthe user is notified with a segment timeoutUserReply in either the handle_trans_reply callback functionor the return value of the call function.

A Megaco Timer (see explanation above), defaults to 10000.

segment_send

Shall outgoing messages be segmented or not:

none

Do not segment outgoing reply messages. This is usefull when either it is known that messages are never to largeor that the transport protocol can handle such things on its own (e.g. TCP or SCTP).

integer() > 0

Outgoing reply messages will be segmented as needed (see max_pdu_size below). This value, K, indicate theoutstanding window, i.e. how many segments can be outstanding (not acknowledged) at any given time.

infinity

Outgoing reply messages will be segmented as needed (see max_pdu_size below). Segment messages are sentall at once (i.e. no acknowledgement awaited before sending the next segment).

Defaults to none.

max_pdu_size

Max message size. If the encoded message (PDU) exceeds this size, the message should be segmented, and thenencoded.

A positive integer or infinity, defaults to infinity.

update_conn_info(ConnHandle, Item, Value) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

ConnHandle = #megaco_conn_handle{}

Item = conn_info_item()

Value = conn_info_value()

Reason = term()

Update information about an active connection

Requires that the connection is activated. See megaco:conn_info/2 about which items and values that are valid.

system_info() -> [{Item, Value}] | exit(Reason)system_info(Item) -> Value | exit(Reason)

Types:

Item = system_info_item()

Lookup system information

The following items are valid:

text_config

The text encoding config.

connections

Lists all active connections. Returns a list of megaco_conn_handle records.

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users

Lists all active users. Returns a list of megaco_mid()'s.

n_active_requests

Returns an integer representing the number of requests that has originated from this Erlang node and still areactive (and therefore consumes system resources).

n_active_replies

Returns an integer representing the number of replies that has originated from this Erlang node and still are active(and therefore consumes system resources).

n_active_connections

Returns an integer representing the number of active connections.

info() -> Info

Types:

Info = [{Key, Value}]

This function produces a list of information about the megaco application. Such as users and their config, connectionsand their config, statistics and so on.

This information can be produced by the functions user_info, conn_info, system_info and get_stats but this is a simpleway to get it all at once.

connect(ReceiveHandle, RemoteMid, SendHandle, ControlPid) -> {ok, ConnHandle}| {error, Reason}connect(ReceiveHandle, RemoteMid, SendHandle, ControlPid, Extra) -> {ok,ConnHandle} | {error, Reason}

Types:

ReceiveHandle = #megaco_receive_handle{}

RemoteMid = preliminary_mid | megaco_mid()

SendHandle = term()

ControlPid = pid()

ConnHandle = #megaco_conn_handle{}

Reason = connect_reason() | handle_connect_reason() | term()

connect_reason() = {no_such_user, LocalMid} | {already_connected, ConnHandle} | term()

handle_connect_error() = {connection_refused, ConnData, ErrorInfo} | term()

LocalMid = megaco_mid()

ConnData = term()

ErrorInfo = term()

Extra = term()

Establish a "virtual" connection

Activates a connection to a remote user. When this is done the connection can be used to send messages (withSendMod:send_message/2). The ControlPid is the identifier of a process that controls the connection. That processwill be supervised and if it dies, this will be detected and the UserMod:handle_disconnect/2 callback function will beinvoked. See the megaco_user module for more info about the callback arguments. The connection may also explicitlybe deactivated by invoking megaco:disconnect/2.

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The ControlPid may be the identity of a process residing on another Erlang node. This is useful when you want todistribute a user over several Erlang nodes. In such a case one of the nodes has the physical connection. When a userresiding on one of the other nodes needs to send a request (with megaco:call/3 or megaco:cast/3), the message willencoded on the originating Erlang node, and then be forwarded to the node with the physical connection. When thereply arrives, it will be forwarded back to the originator. The distributed connection may explicitly be deactivated by alocal call to megaco:disconnect/2 or implicitly when the physical connection is deactivated (with megaco:disconnect/2,killing the controlling process, halting the other node, ...).

The call of this function will trigger the callback function UserMod:handle_connect/2 to be invoked. See themegaco_user module for more info about the callback arguments.

A connection may be established in several ways:

provisioned MID

The MG may explicitly invoke megaco:connect/4 and use a provisioned MID of the MGC as the RemoteMid.

upgrade preliminary MID

The MG may explicitly invoke megaco:connect/4 with the atom 'preliminary_mid' as a temporary MID of theMGC, send an intial message, the Service Change Request, to the MGC and then wait for an initial message, theService Change Reply. When the reply arrives, the Megaco application will pick the MID of the MGC from themessage header and automatically upgrade the connection to be a "normal" connection. By using this method ofestablishing the connection, the callback function UserMod:handle_connect/2 to be invoked twice. First with aConnHandle with the remote_mid-field set to preliminary_mid, and then when the connection upgrade is donewith the remote_mid-field set to the actual MID of the MGC.

automatic

When the MGC receives its first message, the Service Change Request, the Megaco application will automaticallyestablish the connection by using the MG MID found in the message header as remote mid.

distributed

When a user (MG/MGC) is distributed over several nodes, it is required that the node hosting the connectionalready has activated the connection and that it is in the "normal" state. The RemoteMid must be a real MegacoMID and not a preliminary_mid.

An initial megaco_receive_handle record may be obtained with megaco:user_info(UserMid, receive_handle)

The send handle is provided by the preferred transport module, e.g. megaco_tcp, megaco_udp. Read the documentationabout each transport module about the details.

The connect is done in two steps: first an internal connection setup and then by calling the user handle_connectcallback function. The first step could result in an error with Reason = connect_reason() and the second anerror with Reason = handle_connect_reason():

connect_reason()

An error with this reason is generated by the megaco application itself.

handle_connect_reason()

An error with this reason is caused by the user handle_connect callback function either returning an error or aninvalid value.

Extra can be any term() except the atom ignore_extra. It is passed (back) to the user via the callback functionhandle_connect/3.

disconnect(ConnHandle, DiscoReason) -> ok | {error, ErrReason}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

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DiscoReason = term()

ErrReason = term()

Tear down a "virtual" connection

Causes the UserMod:handle_disconnect/2 callback function to be invoked. See the megaco_user module for more infoabout the callback arguments.

call(ConnHandle, Actions, Options) -> {ProtocolVersion, UserReply}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Actions = action_reqs() | [action_reqs()]

action_reqs() = binary() | [action_request()]

Options = [send_option()]

send_option() = {request_timer, megaco_timer()} | {long_request_timer, megaco_timer()} | {send_handle,term()} | {protocol_version, integer()} | {call_proxy_gc_timeout, call_proxy_gc_timeout()}

ProtocolVersion = integer()

UserReply = user_reply() | [user_reply()]

user_reply() = success() | failure()

success() = {ok, result()} | {ok, result(), extra()}

result() = message_result() | segment_result()

message_result() = action_reps()

segment_result() = segments_ok()

failure() = {error, reason()} | {error, reason(), extra()}

reason() = message_reason() | segment_reason() | user_cancel_reason() | send_reason() | other_reason()

message_reason() = error_desc()

segment_reason() = {segment, segments_ok(), segments_err()} | {segment_timeout, missing_segments(),segments_ok(), segments_err()}

segments_ok() = [segment_ok()]

segment_ok() = {segment_no(), action_reps()}

segments_err() = [segment_err()]

segment_err() = {segment_no(), error_desc()}

missing_segments() = [segment_no()]

user_cancel_reason() = {user_cancel, reason_for_user_cancel()}

reason_for_user_cancel() = term()

send_reason() = send_cancelled_reason() | send_failed_reason()

send_cancelled_reason() = {send_message_cancelled, reason_for_send_cancel()}

reason_for_send_cancel() = term()

send_failed_reason() = {send_message_failed, reason_for_send_failure()}

reason_for_send_failure() = term()

other_reason() = {wrong_mid, WrongMid, RightMid, TR} | term()

WrongMid = mid()

RightMid = mid()

TR = transaction_reply()

action_reps() = [action_reply()]

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call_proxy_gc_timeout() = integer() >= 0

extra() = term()

Sends one or more transaction request(s) and waits for the reply.

When sending one transaction in a message, Actions should be action_reqs() (UserReply will then beuser_reply()). When sending several transactions in a message, Actions should be [action_reqs()](UserReply will then be [user_reply()]). Each element of the list is part of one transaction.

For some of our codecs (not binary), it is also possible to pre-encode the actions, in which case Actions will beeither a binary() or [binary()].

The function returns when the reply arrives, when the request timer eventually times out or when the outstandingrequests are explicitly cancelled.

The default values of the send options are obtained by megaco:conn_info(ConnHandle, Item). But thesend options above, may explicitly be overridden.

The ProtocolVersion version is the version actually encoded in the reply message.

At success(), the UserReply contains a list of 'ActionReply' records possibly containing error indications.

A message_error(), indicates that the remote user has replied with an explicit transactionError.

A user_cancel_error(), indicates that the request has been canceled by the user.reason_for_user_cancel() is the reason given in the call to the cancel function.

A send_error(), indicates that the send function of the megaco transport callback module failed to send the request.There are two separate cases: send_cancelled_reason() and send_failed_reason(). The first is theresult of the send function returning {cancel, Reason} and the second is some other kind of erroneous returnvalue. See the send_message function for more info.

An other_error(), indicates some other error such as timeout.

For more info about the extra() part of the result, see the note in the user callback module documentation.

cast(ConnHandle, Actions, Options) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Actions = action_reqs() | [action_reqs()]

action_reqs() = binary() | [action_request()]

Options = [send_option()]

send_option() = {request_keep_alive_timeout, request_keep_alive_timeout()} | {request_timer,megaco_timer()} | {long_request_timer, megaco_timer()} | {send_handle, term()} | {reply_data,reply_data()} | {protocol_version, integer()}

request_keep_alive_timeout() = plain | integer() >= 0

Reason = term()

Sends one or more transaction request(s) but does NOT wait for a reply

When sending one transaction in a message, Actions should be action_reqs(). When sending severaltransactions in a message, Actions should be [action_reqs()]. Each element of the list is part of onetransaction.

For some of our codecs (not binary), it is also possible to pre-encode the actions, in which case Actions will beeither a binary() or [binary()].

The default values of the send options are obtained by megaco:conn_info(ConnHandle, Item). But the send optionsabove, may explicitly be overridden.

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The ProtocolVersion version is the version actually encoded in the reply message.

The callback function UserMod:handle_trans_reply/4 is invoked when the reply arrives, when the request timereventually times out or when the outstanding requests are explicitly cancelled. See the megaco_user module for moreinfo about the callback arguments.

Given as UserData argument to UserMod:handle_trans_reply/4.

encode_actions(ConnHandle, Actions, Options) -> {ok, BinOrBins} | {error,Reason}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Actions = action_reqs() | [action_reqs()]

action_reqs() = [#'ActionRequest'{}]

Options = [send_option()]

send_option() = {request_timer, megaco_timer()} | {long_request_timer, megaco_timer()} | {send_handle,term()} | {protocol_version, integer()}

BinOrBins = binary() | [binary()]

Reason = term()

Encodes lists of action requests for one or more transaction request(s).

When encoding action requests for one transaction, Actions should be action_reqs(). When encoding actionrequests for several transactions, Actions should be [action_reqs()]. Each element of the list is part of onetransaction.

token_tag2string(Tag) -> Resulttoken_tag2string(Tag, EncoderMod) -> Resulttoken_tag2string(Tag, EncoderMod, Version) -> Result

Types:

Tag = atom()

EncoderMod = pretty | compact | encoder_module()

encoder_module() = megaco_pretty_text_encoder | megaco_compact_text_encoder | atom()

Version = int_version() | atom_version()

int_version() = 1 | 2 | 3

atom_version() = v1 | v2 | v3 | prev3c | prev3b

Result = string() | {error, Reason}

Reason = term()

Convert a token tag to a string

If no encoder module is given, the default is used (which is pretty).

If no or an unknown version is given, the best version is used (which is v3).

If no match is found for Tag, Result will be the empty string ([]).

cancel(ConnHandle, CancelReason) -> ok | {error, ErrReason}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

CancelReason = term()

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ErrReason = term()

Cancel all outstanding messages for this connection

This causes outstanding megaco:call/3 requests to return. The callback functions UserMod:handle_reply/4 andUserMod:handle_trans_ack/4 are also invoked where it applies. See the megaco_user module for more info about thecallback arguments.

process_received_message(ReceiveHandle, ControlPid, SendHandle, BinMsg) -> okprocess_received_message(ReceiveHandle, ControlPid, SendHandle, BinMsg,Extra) -> ok

Types:

ReceiveHandle = #megaco_receive_handle{}

ControlPid = pid()

SendHandle = term()

BinMsg = binary()

Extra = term()

Process a received message

This function is intended to be invoked by some transport modules when get an incoming message. Which transportthat actually is used is up to the user to choose.

The message is delivered as an Erlang binary and is decoded by the encoding module stated in the receive handletogether with its encoding config (also in the receive handle). Depending of the outcome of the decoding variouscallback functions will be invoked. See megaco_user for more info about the callback arguments.

The argument Extra is just an opaque data structure passed to the user via the callback functions in the user callbackmodule. Note however that if Extra has the value extra_undefined the argument will be ignored (same asif process_received_message/4 had been called). See the documentation for the behaviour of the callbackmodule, megaco_user, for more info.

Note that all processing is done in the context of the calling process. A transport module could call this function viaone of the spawn functions (e.g. spawn_opt). See also receive_message/4,5.

If the message cannot be decoded the following callback function will be invoked:

• UserMod:handle_syntax_error/3

If the decoded message instead of transactions contains a message error, the following callback function will beinvoked:

• UserMod:handle_message_error/3

If the decoded message happens to be received before the connection is established, a new "virtual" connection isestablished. This is typically the case for the Media Gateway Controller (MGC) upon the first Service Change. Whenthis occurs the following callback function will be invoked:

• UserMod:handle_connect/2

For each transaction request in the decoded message the following callback function will be invoked:

• UserMod:handle_trans_request/3

For each transaction reply in the decoded message the reply is returned to the user. Either the originating functionmegaco:call/3 will return. Or in case the originating function was megaco:case/3 the following callback function willbe invoked:

• UserMod:handle_trans_reply/4

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When a transaction acknowledgement is received it is possible that user has decided not to bother aboutthe acknowledgement. But in case the return value from UserMod:handle_trans_request/3 indicates that theacknowledgement is important the following callback function will be invoked:

• UserMod:handle_trans_ack/4

See the megaco_user module for more info about the callback arguments.

receive_message(ReceiveHandle, ControlPid, SendHandle, BinMsg) -> okreceive_message(ReceiveHandle, ControlPid, SendHandle, BinMsg, Extra) -> ok

Types:

ReceiveHandle = #megaco_receive_handle{}

ControlPid = pid()

SendHandle = term()

BinMsg = binary()

Extra = term()

Process a received message

This is a callback function intended to be invoked by some transport modules when get an incoming message. Whichtransport that actually is used is up to the user to choose.

In principle, this function calls the process_received_message/4 function via a spawn to perform the actualprocessing.

For further information see the process_received_message/4 function.

parse_digit_map(DigitMapBody) -> {ok, ParsedDigitMap} | {error, Reason}

Types:

DigitMapBody = string()

ParsedDigitMap = parsed_digit_map()

parsed_digit_map() = term()

Reason = term()

Parses a digit map body

Parses a digit map body, represented as a list of characters, into a list of state transitions suited to be evaluated bymegaco:eval_digit_map/1,2.

eval_digit_map(DigitMap) -> {ok, MatchResult} | {error, Reason}eval_digit_map(DigitMap, Timers) -> {ok, MatchResult} | {error, Reason}

Types:

DigitMap = #'DigitMapValue'{} | parsed_digit_map()

parsed_digit_map() = term()

ParsedDigitMap = term()

Timers = ignore() | reject()

ignore() = ignore | {ignore, digit_map_value()}

reject() = reject | {reject, digit_map_value()} | digit_map_value()

MatchResult = {Kind, Letters} | {Kind, Letters, Extra}

Kind = kind()

kind() = full | unambiguous

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Letters = [letter()]

letter() = $0..$9 | $a .. $k

Extra = letter()

Reason = term()

Collect digit map letters according to the digit map.

When evaluating a digit map, a state machine waits for timeouts and letters reported by megaco:report_digit_event/2.The length of the various timeouts are defined in the digit_map_value() record.

When a complete sequence of valid events has been received, the result is returned as a list of letters.

There are two options for handling syntax errors (that is when an unexpected event is received when the digit mapevaluator is expecting some other event). The unexpected events may either be ignored or rejected. The latter meansthat the evaluation is aborted and an error is returned.

report_digit_event(DigitMapEvalPid, Events) -> ok | {error, Reason}

Types:

DigitMapEvalPid = pid()

Events = Event | [Event]

Event = letter() | pause() | cancel()

letter() = $0..$9 | $a .. $k | $A .. $K

pause() = one_second() | ten_seconds()

one_second() = $s | $S

ten_seconds() = $l | $L

cancel() = $z | $Z | cancel

Reason = term()

Send one or more events to the event collector process.

Send one or more events to a process that is evaluating a digit map, that is a process that is executingmegaco:eval_digit_map/1,2.

Note that the events $s | $S, l | $L and $z | $Z has nothing to do with the timers using the same characters.

test_digit_event(DigitMap, Events) -> {ok, Kind, Letters} | {error, Reason}

Types:

DigitMap = #'DigitMapValue'{} | parsed_digit_map()

parsed_digit_map() = term()

ParsedDigitMap = term()

Timers = ignore() | reject()

ignore() = ignore | {ignore, digit_map_value()}

reject() = reject | {reject, digit_map_value()} | digit_map_value()

DigitMapEvalPid = pid()

Events = Event | [Event]

Event = letter() | pause() | cancel()

Kind = kind()

kind() = full | unambiguous

Letters = [letter()]

letter() = $0..$9 | $a .. $k | $A .. $K

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pause() = one_second() | ten_seconds()

one_second() = $s | $S

ten_seconds() = $l | $L

cancel () = $z | $Z | cancel

Reason = term()

Feed digit map collector with events and return the result

This function starts the evaluation of a digit map with megaco:eval_digit_map/1 and sends a sequence of events to itmegaco:report_digit_event/2 in order to simplify testing of digit maps.

encode_sdp(SDP) -> {ok, PP} | {error, Reason}

Types:

SDP = sdp_property_parm() | sdp_property_group() | sdp_property_groups() | asn1_NOVALUE

PP = property_parm() | property_group() | property_groups() | asn1_NOVALUE

Reason = term()

Encode (generate) an SDP construct.

If a property_parm() is found as part of the input (SDP) then it is left unchanged.

This function performs the following transformation:

• sdp() -> property_parm()

• sdp_property_group() -> property_group()

• sdp_property_groups() -> property_groups()

decode_sdp(PP) -> {ok, SDP} | {error, Reason}

Types:

PP = property_parm() | property_group() | property_groups() | asn1_NOVALUE

SDP = sdp() | decode_sdp_property_group() | decode_sdp_property_groups() | asn1_NOVALUE

decode_sdp() = sdp() | {property_parm(), DecodeError}

decode_sdp_property_group() = [decode_sdp()]

decode_sdp_property_groups() = [decode_sdp_property_group()]

DecodeError = term()

Reason = term()

Decode (parse) a property parameter construct.

When decoding property_group() or property_groups(), those property parameter constructs that cannotbe decoded (either because of decode error or because they are unknown), will be returned as a two-tuple. The firstelement of which will be the (undecoded) property parameter and the other the actual reason. This means that the callerof this function has to expect not only sdp-records, but also this two-tuple construct.

This function performs the following transformation:

• property_parm() -> sdp()

• property_group() -> sdp_property_group()

• property_groups() -> sdp_property_groups()

get_sdp_record_from_PropertGroup(Type, PG) -> [sdp()]

Types:

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Type = v | c | m | o | a | b | t | r | z | k | s | i | u | e | p

PG = sdp_property_group()

Reason = term()

Retreive all the sdp records of type Type from the property group PG.

versions1() -> {ok, VersionInfo} | {error, Reason}versions2() -> {ok, Info} | {error, Reason}

Types:

VersionInfo = [version_info()]

version_info() = term()

Reason = term()

Utility functions used to retrieve some system and application info.

The difference between the two functions is in how they get the modules to check. versions1 uses the app-file andversions2 uses the function application:get_key.

print_version_info() -> void()print_version_info(VersionInfo) -> void()

Types:

VersionInfo = [version_info()]

version_info() = term()

Utility function to produce a formated printout of the versions info generated by the versions1 and versions2functions.

The function print_version_info/0 uses the result of function version1/0 as VersionInfo.

Example:

{ok, V} = megaco:versions1(), megaco:format_versions(V).

enable_trace(Level, Destination) -> void()

Types:

Level = max | min | 0 <= integer() <= 100

Destination = File | Port | HandlerSpec | io

File = string()

Port = integer()

HandleSpec = {HandlerFun, Data}

HandleFun = fun() (two arguments)

Data = term()

This function is used to start megaco tracing at a given Level and direct result to the given Destination.

It starts a tracer server and then sets the proper match spec (according to Level).

In the case when Destination is File, the printable megaco trace events will be printed to the file File usingplain io:format/2.

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In the case when Destination is io, the printable megaco trace events will be printed on stdout using plainio:format/2.

See dbg for further information.

disable_trace() -> void()

This function is used to stop megaco tracing.

set_trace(Level) -> void()

Types:

Level = max | min | 0 <= integer() <= 100

This function is used to change the megaco trace level.

It is assumed that tracing has already been enabled (see enable_trace above).

get_stats() -> {ok, TotalStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(GlobalCounter) -> {ok, CounterStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(ConnHandle) -> {ok, ConnHandleStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(ConnHandle, Counter) -> {ok, integer()} | {error, Reason}

Types:

TotalStats = [total_stats()]

total_stats() = {conn_handle(), [stats()]} | {global_counter(), integer()}

GlobalCounter = global_counter()

GlobalCounterStats = integer()

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ConnHandleStats = [stats()]

stats() = {counter(), integer()}

Counter = counter()

counter() = medGwyGatewayNumTimerRecovery | medGwyGatewayNumErrors

global_counter() = medGwyGatewayNumErrors

Reason = term()

Retreive the (SNMP) statistic counters maintained by the megaco application. The global counters handle events thatcannot be attributed to a single connection (e.g. protocol errors that occur before the connection has been properlysetup).

reset_stats() -> void()reset_stats(ConnHandle) -> void()

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Reset all related (SNMP) statistics counters.

test_request(ConnHandle, Version, EncodingMod, EncodingConfig, Actions) ->{MegaMsg, EncodeRes}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Version = integer()

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EncodingMod = atom()

EncodingConfig = Encoding configuration

Actions = A list

MegaMsg = #'MegacoMessage'{}

EncodeRes = {ok, Bin} | {error, Reason}

Bin = binary()

Reason = term()

Tests if the Actions argument is correctly composed.

This function is only intended for testing purposes. It's supposed to have a same kind of interface as the call or castfunctions (with the additions of the EncodingMod and EncodingConfig arguments). It composes a completemegaco message end attempts to encode it. The return value, will be a tuple of the composed megaco message andthe encode result.

test_reply(ConnHandle, Version, EncodingMod, EncodingConfig, Reply) ->{MegaMsg, EncodeRes}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

Version = integer()

EncodingMod = atom()

EncodingConfig = A list

Reply = actual_reply()

MegaMsg = #'MegacoMessage'{}

EncodeRes = {ok, Bin} | {error, Reason}

Bin = binary()

Reason = term()

Tests if the Reply argument is correctly composed.

This function is only intended for testing purposes. It's supposed to test the actual_reply() return value ofthe callback functions handle_trans_request and handle_trans_long_request functions (with the additions of theEncodingMod and EncodingConfig arguments). It composes a complete megaco message end attempts toencode it. The return value, will be a tuple of the composed megaco message and the encode result.

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megaco_edist_compressErlang module

The following functions should be exported from a megaco_edist_compress callback module:

Exports

Module:encode(R, Version) -> T

Types:

R = megaco_message() | transaction() | action_reply() | action_request() | command_request()

Version = integer()

T = term()

Compress a megaco component. The erlang dist encoder makes no assumption on the how or even if the componentis compressed.

Module:decode(T, Version) -> R

Types:

T = term()

Version = integer()

R = megaco_message() | transaction() | action_reply() | action_request() | command_request()

Decompress a megaco component.

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megaco_encoderErlang module

The following functions should be exported from a megaco_encoder callback module:

DATA TYPES

megaco_message() = #'MegacoMessage{}'transaction() = {transactionRequest, transaction_request()} | {transactionPending, transaction_reply()} | {transactionReply, transaction_pending()} | {transactionResponseAck, transaction_response_ack()} | {segmentReply, segment_reply()}transaction_request() = #'TransactionRequest'{}transaction_pending() = #'TransactionPending'{}transaction_reply() = #'TransactionReply'{}transaction_response_ack() = [transaction_ack()]transaction_ack() = #'TransactionAck'{}segment_reply() = #'SegmentReply'{}action_request() = #'ActionRequest'{}action_reply() = #'ActionReply'{}

Exports

Module:encode_message(EncodingConfig, Version, Message) -> {ok, Bin} | Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer()

Message = megaco_message()

Bin = binary()

Error = term()

Encode a megaco message.

Module:decode_message(EncodingConfig, Version, Bin) -> {ok, Message} | Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer() | dynamic

Message = megaco_message()

Bin = binary()

Error = term()

Decode a megaco message.

Note that if the Version argument is dynamic, the decoder should try to figure out the actual version from the messageitself and then use the proper decoder, e.g. version 1.If on the other hand the Version argument is an integer, it means that this is the expected version of the message andthe decoder for that version should be used.

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megaco_encoder

54 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

Module:decode_mini_message(EncodingConfig, Version, Bin) -> {ok, Message} |Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer() | dynamic

Message = megaco_message()

Bin = binary()

Error = term()

Perform a minimal decode of a megaco message.

The purpose of this function is to do a minimal decode of Megaco message. A successfull result isa 'MegacoMessage' in which only version and mid has been initiated. This function is used by themegaco_messenger module when the decode_message/3 function fails to figure out the mid (the actual sender)of the message.

Note again that a successfull decode only returns a partially initiated message.

Module:encode_transaction(EncodingConfig, Version, Transaction) -> OK | Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer()

Transaction = transaction()

OK = {ok, Bin}

Bin = binary()

Error = {error, Reason}

Reason = not_implemented | OtherReason

OtherReason = term()

Encode a megaco transaction. If this, for whatever reason, is not supported, the function should return the error reasonnot_implemented.

This functionality is used both when the transaction sender is used and for segmentation. So, for either of those towork, this function must be fully supported!

Module:encode_action_requests(EncodingConfig, Version, ARs) -> OK | Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer()

ARs = action_requests()

action_requests() = [action_request()]

OK = {ok, Bin}

Bin = binary()

Error = {error, Reason}

Reason = not_implemented | OtherReason

OtherReason = term()

Encode megaco action requests. This function is called when the user calls the function encode_actions/3. If thatfunction is never used or if the codec cannot support this (the encoding of individual actions), then return with errorreason not_implemented.

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Module:encode_action_reply(EncodingConfig, Version, AR) -> OK | Error

Types:

EncodingConfig = list()

Version = integer()

AR = action_reply()

OK = {ok, Bin}

Bin = binary()

Error = {error, Reason}

Reason = not_implemented | OtherReason

OtherReason = term()

Encode a megaco action reply. If this, for whatever reason, is not supported, the function should return the error reasonnot_implemented.

This function is used when segmentation has been configured. So, for this to work, this function must be fullysupported!

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megaco_transport

56 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

megaco_transportErlang module

The following functions should be exported from a megaco_transport callback module:

• send_message/2 [mandatory]

• send_message/3 [optional]

• resend_message/2 [optional]

Exports

Module:send_message(Handle, Msg) -> ok | {cancel, Reason} | ErrorModule:send_message(Handle, Msg, Resend) -> ok | {cancel, Reason} | Error

Types:

Handle = term()

Msg = binary() | iolist()

Resend = boolean()

Reason = term()

Error = term()

Send a megaco message.

If the function returns {cancel, Reason}, this means the transport module decided not to send the message. Thisis not an error. No error messages will be issued and no error counters incremented. What actions this will result independs on what kind of message was sent.

In the case of requests, megaco will cancel the message in much the same way as if megaco:cancel had beencalled (after a successfull send). The information will be propagated back to the user differently depending on howthe request(s) where issued: For requests issued using megaco:call, the info will be delivered in the return value. Forrequests issued using megaco:cast the info will be delivered via a call to the callback function handle_trans_reply.

In the case of reply, megaco will cancel the reply and information of this will be returned to the user via a call to thecallback function handle_trans_ack.

The function send_message/3 will only be called if the resend_indication config option has been set to the valueflag. The third argument, Resend then indicates if the message send is a resend or not.

Module:resend_message(Handle, Msg) -> ok | {cancel, Reason} | Error

Types:

Handle = term()

Msg = binary() | iolist()

Reason = term()

Error = term()

Re-send a megaco message.

Note that this function will only be called if the user has set the resend_indication config option to trueand it is infact a message resend. If not both of these condition's are meet, send_message will be called.

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If the function returns {cancel, Reason}, this means the transport module decided not to send the message. Thisis not an error. No error messages will be issued and no error counters incremented. What actions this will result independs on what kind of message was sent.

In the case of requests, megaco will cancel the message in much the same way as if megaco:cancel had beencalled (after a successfull send). The information will be propagated back to the user differently depending on howthe request(s) where issued: For requests issued using megaco:call, the info will be delivered in the return value. Forrequests issued using megaco:cast the info will be delivered via a call to the callback function handle_trans_reply.

In the case of reply, megaco will cancel the reply and information of this will be returned to the user via a call to thecallback function handle_trans_ack.

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megaco_tcp

58 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

megaco_tcpErlang module

This module contains the public interface to the TPKT (TCP/IP) version transport protocol for Megaco/H.248.

Exports

start_transport() -> {ok, TransportRef}

Types:

TransportRef = pid()

This function is used for starting the TCP/IP transport service. Use exit(TransportRef, Reason) to stop the transportservice.

listen(TransportRef, ListenPortSpecList) -> ok

Types:

TransportRef = pid() | regname()

OptionListPerPort = [Option]

Option = {port, integer()} |{options, list()} |{receive_handle, term()}

This function is used for starting new TPKT listening socket for TCP/IP. The option list contains the socket definitions.

connect(TransportRef, OptionList) -> {ok, Handle, ControlPid} | {error,Reason}

Types:

TransportRef = pid() | regname()

OptionList = [Option]

Option = {host, Ipaddr} | {port, integer()} |{options, list()} |{receive_handle, term()} |{module, atom()}

Handle = socket_handle()

ControlPid = pid()

Reason = term()

This function is used to open a TPKT connection.

The module option makes it possible for the user to provide their own callback module. The receive_message/4or process_received_message/4 functions of this module is called when a new message is received (whichone depends on the size of the message; small - receive_message, large - process_received_message). Default valueis megaco.

close(Handle) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

This function is used for closing an active TPKT connection.

socket(Handle) -> Socket

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

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Socket = inet_socket()

This function is used to convert a socket_handle() to a inet_socket(). inet_socket() is a plain socket, see the inet modulefor more info.

send_message(Handle, Message) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Message = binary() | iolist()

Sends a message on a connection.

block(Handle) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Stop receiving incoming messages on the socket.

unblock(Handle) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Starting to receive incoming messages from the socket again.

upgrade_receive_handle(ControlPid) -> ok

Types:

ControlPid = pid()

Update the receive handle of the control process (e.g. after having changed protocol version).

get_stats() -> {ok, TotalStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(SendHandle) -> {ok, SendHandleStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(SendHandle, Counter) -> {ok, CounterStats} | {error, Reason}

Types:

TotalStats = [send_handle_stats()]

total_stats() = {send_handle(), [stats()]}

SendHandle = send_handle()

SendHandleStats = [stats()]

Counter = tcp_stats_counter()

CounterStats = integer()

stats() = {tcp_stats_counter(), integer()}

tcp_stats_counter() = medGwyGatewayNumInMessages | medGwyGatewayNumInOctets |medGwyGatewayNumOutMessages | medGwyGatewayNumOutOctets | medGwyGatewayNumErrors

Reason = term()

Retreive the TCP related (SNMP) statistics counters.

reset_stats() -> void()reset_stats(SendHandle) -> void()

Types:

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megaco_tcp

60 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

SendHandle = send_handle()

Reset all TCP related (SNMP) statistics counters.

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megaco_udp

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megaco_udpErlang module

This module contains the public interface to the UDP/IP version transport protocol for Megaco/H.248.

Exports

start_transport() -> {ok, TransportRef}

Types:

TransportRef = pid()

This function is used for starting the UDP/IP transport service. Use exit(TransportRef, Reason) to stop the transportservice.

open(TransportRef, OptionList) -> {ok, Handle, ControlPid} | {error, Reason}

Types:

TransportRef = pid() | regname()

OptionList = [option()]

option() = {port, integer()} |{options, list()} |{receive_handle, receive_handle()} |{module, atom()}

Handle = socket_handle()

receive_handle() = term()

ControlPid = pid()

Reason = term()

This function is used to open an UDP/IP socket.

The module option makes it possible for the user to provide their own callback module. The functionsreceive_message/4 or process_received_message/4 of this module is called when a new message isreceived (which one depends on the size of the message; small - receive_message, large - process_received_message).Default value is megaco.

close(Handle, Msg) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Msg

This function is used for closing an active UDP socket.

socket(Handle) -> Socket

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Socket = inet_socket()

This function is used to convert a socket_handle() to a inet_socket(). inet_socket() is a plain socket, see the inet modulefor more info.

create_send_handle(Handle, Host, Port) -> send_handle()

Types:

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megaco_udp

62 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

Handle = socket_handle()

Host = {A,B,C,D} | string()

Port = integer()

Creates a send handle from a transport handle. The send handle is intended to be used by megaco_udp:send_message/2.

send_message(SendHandle, Msg) -> ok

Types:

SendHandle = send_handle()

Message = binary() | iolist()

Sends a message on a socket. The send handle is obtained by megaco_udp:create_send_handle/3. Increments theNumOutMessages and NumOutOctets counters if message successfully sent. In case of a failure to send, the NumErrorscounter is not incremented. This is done elsewhere in the megaco app.

block(Handle) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Stop receiving incoming messages on the socket.

unblock(Handle) -> ok

Types:

Handle = socket_handle()

Starting to receive incoming messages from the socket again.

upgrade_receive_handle(ControlPid, NewHandle) -> ok

Types:

ControlPid = pid()

NewHandle = receive_handle()

receive_handle() = term()

Update the receive handle of the control process (e.g. after having changed protocol version).

get_stats() -> {ok, TotalStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(SendHandle) -> {ok, SendHandleStats} | {error, Reason}get_stats(SendHandle, Counter) -> {ok, CounterStats} | {error, Reason}

Types:

TotalStats = [total_stats()]

total_stats() = {send_handle(), [stats()]}

SendHandle = send_handle()

SendHandleStats = [stats()]

Counter = udp_stats_counter()

CounterStats = integer()

stats() = {udp_stats_counter(), integer()}

tcp_stats_counter() = medGwyGatewayNumInMessages | medGwyGatewayNumInOctets |medGwyGatewayNumOutMessages | medGwyGatewayNumOutOctets | medGwyGatewayNumErrors

Reason = term()

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Retreive the UDP related (SNMP) statistics counters.

reset_stats() -> void()reset_stats(SendHandle) -> void()

Types:

SendHandle = send_handle()

Reset all TCP related (SNMP) statistics counters.

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megaco_user

64 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

megaco_userErlang module

This module defines the callback behaviour of Megaco users. A megaco_user compliant callback module must exportthe following functions:

• handle_connect/2,3

• handle_disconnect/3

• handle_syntax_error/3,4

• handle_message_error/3,4

• handle_trans_request/3,4

• handle_trans_long_request/3,4

• handle_trans_reply/4,5

• handle_trans_ack/4,5

• handle_unexpected_trans/3,4

• handle_trans_request_abort/4,5

• handle_segment_reply/5,6

The semantics of them and their exact signatures are explained below.

The user_args configuration parameter which may be used to extend the argument list of the callback functions.For example, the handle_connect function takes by default two arguments:

handle_connect(Handle, Version)

but if the user_args parameter is set to a longer list, such as [SomePid,SomeTableRef], the callback functionis expected to have these (in this case two) extra arguments last in the argument list:

handle_connect(Handle, Version, SomePid, SomeTableRef)

Note:Must of the functions below has an optional Extra argument (e.g. handle_unexpected_trans/4). The functions whichtakes this argument will be called if and only if one of the functions receive_message/5 or process_received_message/5was called with the Extra argument different than ignore_extra.

DATA TYPES

action_request() = #'ActionRequest'{}action_reply() = #'ActionReply'{}error_desc() = #'ErrorDescriptor'{}segment_no() = integer()

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conn_handle() = #megaco_conn_handle{}

The record initially returned by megaco:connect/4,5. It identifies a "virtual" connection and may be reused aftera reconnect (disconnect + connect).

protocol_version() = integer()

Is the actual protocol version. In most cases the protocol version is retrieved from the processed message, but thereare exceptions:

• When handle_connect/2,3 is triggered by an explicit call to megaco:connect/4,5.

• handle_disconnect/3

• handle_syntax_error/3

In these cases, the ProtocolVersion default version is obtained from the static connection configuration:

• megaco:conn_info(ConnHandle, protocol_version).

Exports

handle_connect(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion) -> ok | error |{error,ErrorDescr}handle_connect(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, Extra]) -> ok | error |{error,ErrorDescr}

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

ErrorDescr = error_desc()

Extra = term()

Invoked when a new connection is established

Connections may either be established by an explicit call to megaco:connect/4 or implicitly at the first invocation ofmegaco:receive_message/3.

Normally a Media Gateway (MG) connects explicitly while a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) connects implicitly.

At the Media Gateway Controller (MGC) side it is possible to reject a connection request (and send a message errorreply to the gateway) by returning {error, ErrorDescr} or simply error which generates an error descriptorwith code 402 (unauthorized) and reason "Connection refused by user" (this is also the case for all unknown results,such as exit signals or throw).

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_message_error/4.

handle_connect/3 (with Extra) can also be called as a result of a call to the megaco:connect/5 function (if thatfunction is called with the Extra argument different than ignore_extra.

handle_disconnect(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, Reason) -> ok

Types:

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megaco_user

66 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

Reason = term()

Invoked when a connection is teared down

The disconnect may either be made explicitly by a call to megaco:disconnect/2 or implicitly when the control processof the connection dies.

handle_syntax_error(ReceiveHandle, ProtocolVersion, DefaultED) -> reply |{reply, ED} | no_reply | {no_reply, ED}handle_syntax_error(ReceiveHandle, ProtocolVersion, DefaultED, Extra) ->reply | {reply, ED} | no_reply | {no_reply, ED}

Types:

ReceiveHandle = receive_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

DefaultED = error_desc()

ED = error_desc()

Extra = term()

Invoked when a received message had syntax errors

Incoming messages is delivered by megaco:receive_message/4 and normally decoded successfully. But if the decodingfailed this function is called in order to decide if the originator should get a reply message (reply) or if the reply silentlyshould be discarded (no_reply).

Syntax errors are detected locally on this side of the protocol and may have many causes, e.g. a malfunctioning transportlayer, wrong encoder/decoder selected, bad configuration of the selected encoder/decoder etc.

The error descriptor defaults to DefaultED, but can be overridden with an alternate one by returning {reply,ED}or {no_reply,ED} instead of reply and no_reply respectively.

Any other return values (including exit signals or throw) and the DefaultED will be used.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_syntax_error/4.

handle_message_error(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ErrorDescr) -> okhandle_message_error(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ErrorDescr, Extra) -> ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

ErrorDescr = error_desc()

Extra = term()

Invoked when a received message just contains an error instead of a list of transactions.

Incoming messages is delivered by megaco:receive_message/4 and successfully decoded. Normally a messagecontains a list of transactions, but it may instead contain an ErrorDescriptor on top level of the message.

Message errors are detected remotely on the other side of the protocol. And you probably don't want to reply to it, butit may indicate that you have outstanding transactions that not will get any response (request -> reply; reply -> ack).

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_message_error/4.

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handle_trans_request(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ActionRequests) ->pending() | reply() | ignore_trans_requesthandle_trans_request(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ActionRequests, Extra) ->pending() | reply() | ignore_trans_request

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

ActionRequests = [action_request()]

Extra = term()

pending() = {pending, req_data()}

req_data() = term()

reply() = {ack_action(), actual_reply()} | {ack_action(), actual_reply(), send_options()}

ack_action() = discard_ack | {handle_ack, ack_data()} | {handle_pending_ack, ack_data()} |{handle_sloppy_ack, ack_data()}

actual_reply() = [action_reply()] | error_desc()

ack_data() = term()

send_options() = [send_option()]

send_option() = {reply_timer, megaco_timer()} | {send_handle, term()} | {protocol_version, integer()}

Extra = term()

Invoked for each transaction request

Incoming messages is delivered by megaco:receive_message/4 and successfully decoded. Normally a messagecontains a list of transactions and this function is invoked for each TransactionRequest in the message.

This function takes a list of 'ActionRequest' records and has three main options:

Return ignore_trans_request

Decide that these action requests shall be ignored completely.

Return pending()

Decide that the processing of these action requests will take a long time and that the originator should get animmediate 'TransactionPending' reply as interim response. The actual processing of these action requests insteadshould be delegated to the the handle_trans_long_request/3 callback function with the req_data() as one of itsarguments.

Return reply()

Process the action requests and either return an error_descr() indicating some fatal error or a list of action replies(wildcarded or not).

If for some reason megaco is unable to deliver the reply, the reason for this will be passed to the user via a callto the callback function handle_trans_ack, unless ack_action() = discard_ack.

The ack_action() is either:

discard_ack

Meaning that you don't care if the reply is acknowledged or not.

{handle_ack, ack_data()} | {handle_ack, ack_data(), send_options()}

Meaning that you want an immediate acknowledgement when the other part receives this transaction reply. Whenthe acknowledgement eventually is received, the handle_trans_ack/4 callback function will be invoked with theack_data() as one of its arguments. ack_data() may be any Erlang term.

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megaco_user

68 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

{handle_pending_ack, ack_data()} | {handle_pending_ack, ack_data(),send_options()}

This has the same effect as the above, if and only if megaco has sent at least one pending message for this request(during the processing of the request). If no pending message has been sent, then immediate acknowledgementwill not be requested.

Note that this only works as specified if the sent_pending_limit config option has been set to an integervalue.

{handle_sloppy_ack, ack_data()}| {handle_sloppy_ack, ack_data(),send_options()}

Meaning that you want an acknowledgement sometime. When the acknowledgement eventually is received, thehandle_trans_ack/4 callback function will be invoked with the ack_data() as one of its arguments. ack_data()may be any Erlang term.

Any other return values (including exit signals or throw) will result in an error descriptor with code 500 (internalgateway error) and the module name (of the callback module) as reason.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_trans_request/4.

handle_trans_long_request(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ReqData) -> reply()handle_trans_long_request(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, ReqData, Extra) ->reply()

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

ReqData = req_data()

Extra = term()

req_data() = term()

reply() = {ack_action(), actual_reply()} | {ack_action(), actual_reply(), send_options()}

ack_action() = discard_ack | {handle_ack, ack_data()} | {handle_sloppy_ack, ack_data()}

actual_reply() = [action_reply()] | error_desc()

ack_data() = term()

send_options() = [send_option()]

send_option() = {reply_timer, megaco_timer()} | {send_handle, term()} | {protocol_version, integer()}

Extra = term()

Optionally invoked for a time consuming transaction request

If this function gets invoked or not is controlled by the reply from the preceding call to handle_trans_request/3. Thehandle_trans_request/3 function may decide to process the action requests itself or to delegate the processing to thisfunction.

The req_data() argument to this function is the Erlang term returned by handle_trans_request/3.

Any other return values (including exit signals or throw) will result in an error descriptor with code 500 (internalgateway error) and the module name (of the callback module) as reason.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_trans_long_request/4.

handle_trans_reply(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, UserReply, ReplyData) -> ok

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handle_trans_reply(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, UserReply, ReplyData, Extra)-> ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

UserReply = success() | failure()

success() = {ok, result()}

result() = transaction_result() | segment_result()

transaction_result() = action_reps()

segment_result() = {segment_no(), last_segment(), action_reps()}

action_reps() = [action_reply()]

failure() = {error, reason()}

reason() = transaction_reason() | segment_reason() | user_cancel_reason() | send_reason() |other_reason()

transaction_reason() = error_desc()

segment_reason() = {segment_no(), last_segment(), error_desc()}

other_reason() = timeout | {segment_timeout, missing_segments()} | exceeded_recv_pending_limit | term()

last_segment() = bool()

missing_segments() = [segment_no()]

user_cancel_reason() = {user_cancel, reason_for_user_cancel()}

reason_for_user_cancel() = term()

send_reason() = send_cancelled_reason() | send_failed_reason()

send_cancelled_reason() = {send_message_cancelled, reason_for_send_cancel()}

reason_for_send_cancel() = term()

send_failed_reason() = {send_message_failed, reason_for_send_failure()}

reason_for_send_failure() = term()

ReplyData = reply_data()

reply_data() = term()

Extra = term()

Optionally invoked for a transaction reply

The sender of a transaction request has the option of deciding, whether the originating Erlang processshould synchronously wait (megaco:call/3) for a reply or if the message should be sent asynchronously(megaco:cast/3) and the processing of the reply should be delegated this callback function.

Note that if the reply is segmented (split into several smaller messages; segments), then some extra info, segmentnumber and an indication if all segments of a reply has been received or not, is also included in the UserReply.

The ReplyData defaults to megaco:lookup(ConnHandle, reply_data), but may be explicitelyoverridden by a megaco:cast/3 option in order to forward info about the calling context of the originating process.

At success(), the UserReply either contains:

• A list of 'ActionReply' records possibly containing error indications.

• A tuple of size three containing: the segment number, the last segment indicator and finally a listof 'ActionReply' records possibly containing error indications. This is of course only possible if the reply wassegmented.

failure() indicates an local or external error and can be one of the following:

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megaco_user

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• A transaction_reason(), indicates that the remote user has replied with an explicit transactionError.

• A segment_reason(), indicates that the remote user has replied with an explicit transactionError for thissegment. This is of course only possible if the reply was segmented.

• A user_cancel_reason(), indicates that the request has been canceled by the user.reason_for_user_cancel() is the reason given in the call to the cancel function.

• A send_reason(), indicates that the transport module send_message function did not send the message. Thereason for this can be:

• send_cancelled_reason() - the message sending was deliberately cancelled.reason_for_send_cancel() is the reason given in the cancel return from the send_messagefunction.

• send_failed_reason() - an error occurred while attempting to send the message.

• An other_reason(), indicates some other error such as:

• timeout - the reply failed to arrive before the request timer expired.

• {segment_timeout, missing_segments()} - one or more segments was not delivered before theexpire of the segment timer.

• exceeded_recv_pending_limit - the pending limit was exceeded for this request.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_trans_reply/5.

handle_trans_ack(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, AckStatus, AckData) -> okhandle_trans_ack(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, AckStatus, AckData, Extra) ->ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

AckStatus = ok | {error, reason()}

reason() = user_cancel_reason() | send_reason() | other_reason()

user_cancel_reason() = {user_cancel, reason_for_user_cancel()}

send_reason() = send_cancelled_reason() | send_failed_reason()

send_cancelled_reason() = {send_message_cancelled, reason_for_send_cancel()}

reason_for_send_cancel() = term()

send_failed_reason() = {send_message_failed, reason_for_send_failure()}

reason_for_send_failure() = term()

other_reason() = term()

AckData = ack_data()

ack_data() = term()

Extra = term()

Optionally invoked for a transaction acknowledgement

If this function gets invoked or not, is controlled by the reply from the preceding call to handle_trans_request/3. Thehandle_trans_request/3 function may decide to return {handle_ack, ack_data()} or {handle_sloppy_ack, ack_data()}meaning that you need an immediate acknowledgement of the reply and that this function should be invoked to handlethe acknowledgement.

The ack_data() argument to this function is the Erlang term returned by handle_trans_request/3.

If the AckStatus is ok, it is indicating that this is a true acknowledgement of the transaction reply.

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megaco_user

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If the AckStatus is {error, Reason}, it is an indication that the acknowledgement or even the reply (for which this is anacknowledgement) was not delivered, but there is no point in waiting any longer for it to arrive. This happens when:

reply_timer

The reply_timer eventually times out.

reply send failure

When megaco fails to send the reply (see handle_trans_reply), for whatever reason.

cancel

The user has explicitly cancelled the wait (megaco:cancel/2).

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_trans_ack/5.

handle_unexpected_trans(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, Trans) -> okhandle_unexpected_trans(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, Trans, Extra) -> ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

Trans = #'TransactionPending'{} | #'TransactionReply'{} | #'TransactionResponseAck'{}

Extra = term()

Invoked when a unexpected message is received

If a reply to a request is not received in time, the megaco stack removes all info about the request from it's tables. If areply should arrive after this has been done the app has no way of knowing where to send this message. The messageis delivered to the "user" by calling this function on the local node (the node which has the link).

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_unexpected_trans/4.

handle_trans_request_abort(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, TransNo, Pid) -> okhandle_trans_request_abort(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, TransNo, Pid, Extra)-> ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

TransNo = integer()

Pid = undefined | pid()

Extra = term()

Invoked when a transaction request has been aborted

This function is invoked if the originating pending limit has been exceeded. This usually means that a request hastaken abnormally long time to complete.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_trans_request_abort/5.

handle_segment_reply(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, TransNo, SegNo, SegCompl) -> okhandle_segment_reply(ConnHandle, ProtocolVersion, TransNo, SegNo, SegCompl,Extra) -> ok

Types:

ConnHandle = conn_handle()

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megaco_user

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ProtocolVersion = protocol_version()

TransNo = integer()

SegNo = integer()

SegCompl = asn1_NOVALUE | 'NULL'

Extra = term()

This function is called when a segment reply has been received if the segment_reply_ind config option has been setto true.

This is in effect a progress report.

See note above about the Extra argument in handle_segment_reply/6.

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megaco_flex_scanner

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megaco_flex_scannerErlang module

This module contains the public interface to the flex scanner linked in driver. The flex scanner performs the scanningphase of text message decoding.

The flex scanner is written using a tool called flex. In order to be able to compile the flex scanner driver, this toolhas to be available.

By default the flex scanner reports line-number of an error. But it can be built without line-number reporting. Insteadtoken number is used. This will speed up the scanning some 5-10%. Use --disable-megaco-flex-scanner-lineno when configuring the application.

The scanner will, by default, be built as a reentrant scanner if the flex utility supports this (it depends on the version offlex). It is possible to explicitly disable this even when flex support this. Use --disable-megaco-reentrant-flex-scanner when configuring the application.

DATA TYPES

megaco_ports() = term()megaco_version() = integer() >= 1

Exports

start() -> {ok, PortOrPorts} | {error, Reason}

Types:

PortOrPorts = megaco_ports()

Reason = term()

This function is used to start the flex scanner. It locates the library and loads the linked in driver.

On a single core system or if it's a non-reentrant scanner, a single port is created. On a multi-core system with areentrant scanner, several ports will be created (one for each scheduler).

Note that the process that calls this function must be permanent. If it dies, the port(s) will exit and the driver unload.

stop(PortOrPorts) -> stopped

Types:

PortOrPorts = megaco_ports()

This function is used to stop the flex scanner. It also unloads the driver.

is_reentrant_enabled() -> Boolean

Types:

Boolean = boolean()

Is the flex scanner reentrant or not.

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megaco_flex_scanner

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is_scanner_port(Port, PortOrPorts) -> Boolean

Types:

Port = port()

PortOrPorts = megaco_ports()

Boolean = boolean()

Checks if a port is a flex scanner port or not (usefull when if a port exits).

scan(Binary, PortOrPorts) -> {ok, Tokens, Version, LatestLine} | {error,Reason, LatestLine}

Types:

Binary = binary()

PortOrPorts = megaco_ports()

Tokens = list()

Version = megaco_version()

LatestLine = integer()

Reason = term()

Scans a megaco message and generates a token list to be passed on the parser.

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megaco_codec_meas

Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248 | 75

megaco_codec_measErlang module

This module implements a simple megaco codec measurement tool.

Results are written to file (excel compatible text files) and on stdout.

Note that this module is not included in the runtime part of the application.

Exports

start() -> void()start(MessagePackage) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackageRaw = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

This function runs the measurement on all the official codecs; pretty, compact, ber, per and erlang.

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megaco_codec_mstone1

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megaco_codec_mstone1Erlang module

This module implements the mstone1 tool, a simple megaco codec-based performance tool.

The results, the mstone value(s), are written to stdout.

Note that this module is not included in the runtime part of the application.

Exports

start() -> void()start(MessagePackage) -> void()start(MessagePackage, Factor) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

Factor() = integer() > 0

This function starts the mstone1 performance test with all codec configs. Factor (defaults to 1) processes are startedfor every supported codec config.

Each process encodes and decodes their messages. The number of messages processed in total (for all processes) isthe mstone value.

start_flex() -> void()start_flex(MessagePackage) -> void()start_flex(MessagePackage, Factor) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

Factor() = integer() > 0

This function starts the mstone1 performance test with only the flex codec configs (i.e. pretty and compact withflex). The same number of processes are started as when running the standard test (using the start/0,1 function).Each process encodes and decodes their messages. The number of messages processed in total (for all processes) isthe mstone value.

start_only_drv() -> void()start_only_drv(MessagePackage) -> void()start_only_drv(MessagePackage, Factor) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

Factor() = integer() > 0

This function starts the mstone1 performance test with only the driver using codec configs (i.e. pretty and compactwith flex, and ber and per with driver and erlang with compressed). The same number of processes arestarted as when running the standard test (using the start/0,1 function). Each process encodes and decodes theirmessages. The number of messages processed in total (for all processes) is the mstone value.

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megaco_codec_mstone1

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start_no_drv() -> void()start_no_drv(MessagePackage) -> void()start_no_drv(MessagePackage, Factor) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

Factor() = integer() > 0

This function starts the mstone1 performance test with codec configs not using any drivers (i.e. pretty and compactwithout flex, ber and per without driver and erlang without compressed). The same number of processesare started as when running the standard test (using the start/0,1 function). Each process encodes and decodestheir messages. The number of messages processed in total (for all processes) is the mstone value.

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megaco_codec_mstone2

78 | Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.: Megaco/H.248

megaco_codec_mstone2Erlang module

This module implements the mstone2 tool, a simple megaco codec-based performance tool.

The results, the mstone value(s), are written to stdout.

Note that this module is not included in the runtime part of the application.

Exports

start() -> void()start(MessagePackage) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = message_package()

message_package() = atom()

This function starts the mstone2 performance test with all codec configs. Processes are created dynamically. Eachprocess make one run through their messages (decoding and encoding messages) and then exits. When one processexits, a new is created with the same codec config and set of messages.

The number of messages processed in total (for all processes) is the mstone value.

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megaco_codec_transform

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megaco_codec_transformErlang module

This module implements a simple megaco message transformation utility.

Note that this module is not included in the runtime part of the application.

Exports

export_messages() -> void()export_messages(MessagePackage) -> void()

Types:

MessagePackage = atom()

Export the messages in the MessagePackage (default is time_test).

The out produced by this function is a directory structure with the following structure:

\011 <message package>/pretty/<message-files>\011 compact/<message-files>\011 per/<message-files>\011 ber/<message-files>\011 erlang/<message-files>