Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    4

    ^udeaslco Dy

    _lgsc Xlg _ruey B`rc

    Hl`k`, Xcst @jrab`

    4>>1 Lcrc @jtcr

    Ocoab`tco tg=

    _lc ^urc Gkcs

    Eavakh Ak Rparat `ko _rutl

    Huaoco Dy tlc Eavakh Jgrbcs gj @efahlty Ctcrk`e

    K`turc

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    3

    QGS_lc Tc`e Rtuockt gj Eajc!

    Xatl tlc @kil F`stcr Icy ak Lcr gr Las

    pgsscssagk, tlc Akata`tc f`y ukegbi tlc f`ky

    oggrs gj tlc Fckt`e`ko ^syblab _cfpec gj @EE,

    tlus h`akakh _lc Tahlt Ikgwecohc, Tahlt

    Xasogf`ko _lc Tahlt Gvcrst`koakh, `ko cktcr

    tlc s`fc jrccey, usakh tlc HGO Fako ygu l`vc(@s tlc Blaeorck gj K`turc `ko tlc Akata`tcs gj

    Eajc) gr tlc Fako gj Fckt`e, wlabl as HGO. _las

    cxpe`aks tlc truc K`turc gj Ckcrhy, ^gwcr,

    F`ttcr, Cxastckbc, `ko wly `ko lgw `ee tlcsc

    `rc sudgroak`tc tg tlc F`stcry gj Fako, `ko

    tl`t c`bl Fako as ` se`vc tg tlc Fckt`e, tlcJgrbc gj Ctlcr, wlabl bgktrges tlc @btagk gj

    F`ttcr.

    Gkc gj tlc geo _cluta F`stcrswrgtc, egkh `hcs

    `hg= Lc gr Rlc rc`eazcs tl`t @EE as, `ko tlcsc

    wgros `rc `s truc jgr `ee tafc. Xatlgut tlas @kilF`stcr Icy, f`stcry as afpgssadec, `ko tlc

    Akata`tcikgbis ak v`ak `t tlc f`ky oggrs gj tlc

    _cfpec, `ko as fct dy j`esc _c`blcrs gj Hlgst,

    Aeeusagks, Rpggis, Jabtagks, Dceacjs, `ko Fytls,

    havck j`esc lgpcs. Kg J`bts, Kg Bgkjarf`tagks,

    Kg _rutl, must eac `jtcr eac. _lc Eahlt as ocvaes (RaxCtlcr Oc`tl Jgrbcs ak K`turc) tgge. O`rikcss as

    tlc lgfc (@dgoc) gj HGO(Ocaty, Kctcru) ^c`bc

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    8

    @KIL - _lc F`stcr Icy

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as tlc F`stcr Icy7

    @kswcr= _lc F`stcr Icy as d`sco gk `dsgeutc

    Rbacktajab E`ws gj K`turc (KSK), J`bts, `ko waee

    ukjgeo tlc pgssadaeatacs tl`t eac ogrf`kt ak c`bl

    akoavaou`e, `ko tc`bl lgw tlcy f`y dc drguhlt

    aktg pgwcrjue `btagk, tg akbrc`sc tlc pcrsgkscjjcbtavc b`p`baty, drakhakh `ooco ckcrhy,

    Bgksbackbc tlc `daeaty tg oasbcrk jrgf wl`t as

    rahlt jrgf tl`t wlabl as uetaf`tcey wrgkh ak gkcs

    eajc. _lc ^crsgk pgsscssakh tlc F`stcr Icy waee

    jako vahgr, ` rckcwco cxbatcfckt jgr eajc `ko

    fckt`e ce`stabaty. _lc ^crsgk wlg h`aks `kgvcrst`koakh gj tlcsc K`tur`e Fckt`e E`ws gj

    K`turc wlabl `rc ukjgeoakh waee bgfc aktg tlc

    pgsscssagk gj `k `daeaty tg scburc rcsuets

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    1

    _lc F`stcr Icy ocvcegps Fako ^gwcr wlabl

    fc`ks tl`t gtlcrs akstakbtavcey rcbghkazc tl`t

    ygu `rc ` pcrsgk gj jgrbc, gj bl`r`btcr tl`ttlcy w`kt tg og wl`t ygu w`kt tlcf tg og ak

    tlc ^gsatavc9 at fc`ks tl`t ygu `ttr`bt

    pcgpec `ko tlakhs tg ygu9 tl`t ygu `rc wl`t

    sgfc pcgpec b`ee eubiy, tl`t tlakhs bgfc

    ygur w`y watl c`sy, tl`t ygu l`vc bgfc aktg tlc

    `k gvcrst`koakh gj tlc Juko`fckt`e E`ws gjK`turc, `ko l`vc put ygurscej ak l`rfgky watl

    tlcf9 tl`t ygu `rc aktukc watl Akjakatc K`turc9

    tl`t ygu Gvcrst`ko tlc E`w gj @ttr`btagk, tlc

    K`tur`e e`ws gj Hrgwtl `ko Bl`khc, `ko tlc

    Akkcr E`ws gj K`turcgk wlabl `ee `ov`kt`hcs ak

    lc`etl, Rgba`e `ko Dusakcss Xgreo rcst.

    Fckt`e ^gwcr (_lc F`stcr Icy) as brc`tavc

    pgwcr wlabl as HGO ^gwcr, havcs ygu tlc `daeaty

    tg brc`tc jgr ygurscej9 at ogcs kgt fc`k tg t`ic

    sgfctlakh `w`y jrgf sgfcgkc cesc. K`turc

    kcvcr ogcs tlakhs tl`t w`y. K`turc tlc Setaf`tc

    prgvaocr f`ics twg de`ocs gj hr`ss hrgw wlcrc

    gkc hrcw dcjgrc, `ko Fako ^gwcr ck`decs

    pcgpec tg og tlc s`fc tlakh.

    Xatl tlc F`stcr Icyak ygur pgsscssagk ygu waee

    scc tl`t at lceps ygu tg ocvcegp aksahlt,

    akbrc`sco akocpckockbc, `ko tlc `daeaty tg dc

    lcepjue. At ocstrgys, jc`r, oastrust, ocprcssagk,

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>

    fce`kblgea`, `ko cvcry e`bi, eafat`tagk `ko

    wc`ikcss, akbeuoakh p`ak `ko oasc`sc. At `w`icks

    duraco t`eckts, suppeacs akata`tavc jgrbc, ckcrhy,`ko vat`eaty. _lc F`stcr Icy `w`icks `k

    `pprcba`tagk gj tlc dc`utajue ak ygur gwk r`bc,

    scej praoc `ko ` scksc gj akkcr hrc`tkcss. Qgu

    waee ec`rk tg rasc, kgt j`ee d`bi ak egvc watl scej

    `ko iako `h`ak, `ko l`vc ` hrc`tcr `pprcba`tagk

    jgr ygur hrc`t @kbackt Bueturc `ko tlc hrc`tfakos gj ygur @kbcstgrs.

    _lc F`stcr Icyl`s bl`khco tlc eavcs gj `ee tlc

    Hrc`t Fck `ko Xgfck gj tgo`y `ko gj gur

    Hrc`t @kbackt ^`st, tlc _ruc Chypta`k ikgw

    tgo`y `s Kuw`upa`k. _las as truey gur o`y `kotafc! Gkbc ygu ec`rk tg sudstatutc ocjakatc

    ^rakbapecs gjK`turcwlabl as tlc E`ws ak K`turc,

    tlc j`bts, jgr dceacjs, l`zy fctlgos, `ko

    prakbapecs jgr tlc jguko`tagk `ko Juko`fckt`e

    E`ws gj K`turc, ` hrc`t akkcr strckhtl waee `rasc.

    Qgu waee l`vc j`bts dcygko ` sl`ogw gj ` ogudt

    tl`t ygur @kbackt @kbcstr`e Jgrbcs gj K`turc`rc

    watl ygu, ak ygu, `ko wgriakh jgr ygu ak ygur

    cvcryo`y eajc.

    L`vakh tlc F`stcr Icy ygu waee ec`rk Rguko

    Tahlt Tc`sgkakh, ak `kbackt _`F`-Tc (Chypt)

    b`eeco Kuk. _lc F`stcr Icy tc`blcs Tahlt

    ^rakbapecs, `ko suhhcsts fctlgos jgr f`iakh

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    00

    ^r`btab`e @ppeab`tagk gj tlc ^rakbapecs. Xatl

    tlc F`stcr Icy ak ygur pgsscssagk ygu tlc truc

    stuockt gj @kbackt Chypt, ygu waee ec`rk tlcv`euc gj @ppeab`tagk, ygu waee kgw sat `fgkhst

    tlc Ogcrs, tlc Ikgwcrs, `ko tlgsc wlg Tc`sgk.

    Xatl tlc F`stcr Icy, tlc truc Rtuockt gj Chypt,

    waee ec`rk tlc v`euc gj puttakh tg pr`btabc tlc

    Ctcrk`e `ko @efahlty E`ws gj K`turc, watl tlas

    ygu scc _ruc J`btsf`kajcst kgt spggiy dceacjs.

    Ak tlas kcw Faeeckkauf, Rbackbc l`s t`ick gk

    kcw ec`ps, `ko dgukos. _lcy l`vc t`ppco aktg

    fgrc j`bts `dgut tlc v`st ukavcrsc `ko ats

    akjakatc pgssadaeatacs. Ak tlas kcw Faeeckkauf

    b`eeco tlc Rge`r Bybec gj TC ([email protected]) ^cgpec `rcec`rkakh tlc v`euc gj tlc Fako, `ko tlc Fckt`e

    Skavcrsc, wc `rc `ee ec`rkakh Fako gvcr F`ttcr.

    Hr`d ygur F`stcr Icy `ko bgfc up lcrc `ko

    mgak us truc Fckt`e Ha`kts._lc Xlgec Xgreo as

    gk `k Cvc (KcatlDa`ps tlc Fgtlcr gj Ckcrhy,

    Fatgblgkora` [email protected]) gj ` kcw (KS gr KSK)

    Bgksbaguskcss.

    Fakc ygur Fako jgr tlc Mcwces gj ygur Rgue!

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    04

    @TC QGS AK _LCTC7

    Aj ycs

    Ects Rt`rt!

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    02

    [email protected] GJ BGK_CK_R

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7 ph.02

    Xl`t as Fce`kak7 ph.40 Xl`t as tlc Cecbtrgf`hkctasf7 ph.23 Xl`t as tlc Zasadec Eahlt Rpcbtruf7 ..ph.2: Og Luf`k Dcakhs l`vc `k Cecbtrgf`hkctab Jaceo7

    ph.:0

    Xl`t as Eahlt7 ph.:8 _lc Lgeghr`plab K`turc gj _lc Dr`ak ..ph.88 Rguko, Jrcquckby, `ko Zadr`tagk ..ph.81 Xl`t as Kakc Ctlcr7 .ph.0>2 Xlg as KSK7 .ph.003 Xlg as tlc @kbackt _`F`-Tc`k Ocaty (Kctcr) TC7 001 Xl`t as Pu`ktuf ^lysabs7 ..ph.04? Xlg `rc tlc Ilcfcku7 .ph.043 Xl`t as `k @tgf7 ..ph.041 Xl`t as tlc Xcahlt gj ` ]coc7 .ph.02: Xl`t `rc Da`ps gr Cxgtab Fcsgks7 .ph.028 Xl`t as Fatgblgkora` [email protected] ..ph.034 Xl`t `rc Fgecbuecs7 .ph.038 Og 11 Cecfckts rce`tc tg tlc 11 k`fcs gj tlc K`turc

    (Kctcru)7 .ph.031

    Xl`t as F`ttcr7 .ph.0:4 Xl`t as Ckcrhy7 .ph.0:4 Xl`t as Pu`ktuf _lakiakh (Kakc Tc`sgkakh)7 ph.0:4 _lc Cecbtrab`e F`hkctab ^gwcr gj _lguhlt .ph.4>2 Zasu`eaz`tagk Cxcrbasc, @utg Ruhhcstagks, _lc ^gwcr gj

    Rpgick Xgro gk tlc Rudbgksbagus Fako ..ph.4>3

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0?

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    @kswcr= _lc Xgro P`tuf bgfakh jrgf @kbackt

    Chypta`k Fystcry E`khu`hc b`eeco Kuw`upab

    fc`kakh Fce`kak `ko `bbgroakh tg tlc

    Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs Bgeecha`tc Oabtagk`ry tlc

    wgro ^lysabs fc`k= Hrcci - ^lysai`, ^eur`e

    ^lysaigs gj K`turc. Jr. ^lysas Hrgwtl, K`turc.Jrgf ^lycak _g Drakh Jgrtl. @ Rbackbc tl`t

    oc`es watl F`ttcr `ko Ckcrhy `ko tlcar

    aktcr`btagks.

    Pucstagk= As tlcrc `ky rce`tagk dctwcck tlc

    wgro P`tuf ak Kuw`upab `ko Pu`ktuf ak

    Ckheasl tlcy sguko tlc s`fc7

    @kswcr= Qcs, tlc rc`sgk wly wc s`y P`tuf

    (Fce`kak) ak gur @kbackt Chypta`k Fystcry

    E`khu`hc b`eeco Kuw`upab `ko tlc wgro

    Pu`ktuf `rc tlc s`fc wgros plgkctab`eey,

    dcb`usc `s ygu ikgw wc @kbackt _`F`-Tc`k

    (Chypta`ks) ikgwk tgo`y `s Kuw`upa`ks, s`w

    gurscevcs `s tlc Ruprcfc Dcakhs, Blaeorck gj

    K`turc (Kctcru), Blaeorck gj ^@S_ (@EE) `s `Pu`ktuf Dcakh. Pu`ktuf fc`kakh jgur

    rcprcscktakh tlc ? prakbapecs `ko Bybecs ak

    K`turc, ak _`F`-Tc(Chypt) tlcy wlcrc ikgw `s

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    03

    @tuf-Tc, @tuk-Tc, @fuk-Tc `ko @kuk-Tc,

    havakh ygu ` Pu`oaty ^rakbapec, `ko kgt ` _rakaty.

    Ak `kbackt _`F`-Tc wc `ew`ys `bikgwecohco

    tlc Jcf`ec (Jceakc) Jgrbcs gj K`turc gr tlc

    Jcfakakc Jgrbc gr ^rakbapecs ak K`turc. Xc

    @jrab`ks, rcprcsckt ` fahlty r`bc gj ^cgpec tl`t

    l`vc survavco `ee Bybec bl`khcs watlak K`turc,eakiakh us tg ^@S_ (@EE). Xc @kbackt [email protected]@-

    [email protected] gj [email protected] (C`rtl), [email protected] (X`tcr), `ko

    TC (RSK), `bikgwecohc gurscevcs `s Pu`ktuf

    Dcakhs, dcb`usc gj gur plysab`e f`ic up. Xatlak

    gur siak wc l`vc Hgeo `ko tl`t Hgeo wc rcjcr tg

    as Fce`kak. Fce`kak, f`kajcst gk tlas saoc gjLyorghck (L0) jrgf tlc De`bi Ctlcrab wgfd gj

    tlc Lahlcr ^e`kcs gr @dgocs gj Cxastckbc `s

    Eahlt, `ko wlck ygu scc Juee Rpcbtruf Eahlt ak

    ats ^lysab`e Rt`tc, at f`kajcsts `s De`bikcss, `ko

    tlc F`kajcst`tagk gj tlc Rgeao jgrf gj Eahlt as

    Fce`kak.

    @s P`tuf Dcakhs `ko Blaeorck gj ^@@ TC (_lc

    Ruk) wl`t wc fust st`rt tg `bikgwecohc `ko

    dcbgfc `w`rc gj as tl`t cvcrytlakh as bgkkcbtco

    `ko as ocjakco `s oajjcrckt T`tcs, gr Fgocs gj

    Zadr`tagk. Rg tlrguhl ygur [email protected] `ko Fce`kak

    `ko ygur wlgec plysageghab`e (dgoy) f`ic up `s

    ` Fce`kakatc, 1 Ctlcrab Dcakh ygu `rc eakico tg

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0:

    tlc Skavcrsc, eakico tg tlc Ruk (^@@ [email protected], TC),

    ^e`kct C`rtl(^[email protected]) `ko `ee gtlcr Bcecsta`e

    Dgoacs. Fce`kak gr wl`t pcgpec `rc b`eeakhFce`kakas rc`eey B`rdgk d`sco, `esg ikgw ak gur

    KSK Rbackbc`s Ruk Lc`t Hckcs.

    Ruk Lc`t Hckcs`rc ak `btu`eaty ` durkakh tl`t as

    t`iakh pe`bc ak tlc bcees, wlabl `rc ikgwk `s

    F`st Bcees, `ko tl`t durkakh tl`t as t`iakh pe`bc`btu`eey durks tgw`ros tlc scrvabc gj tlc siak.

    Tcfcfdcr eajc as ` durkakh! Xlck ygu t`ic tlc

    tafc tg eggi `t F`ec, F`sbueakc Ckcrhy watl `

    pgsatavc (+) bl`rhc, _lc Havcr, `ko Jcf`ec,

    Jcfakakc Ckcrhywatl ` kch`tavc bl`rhc (-) _lc

    Tcbcavcr bgfc tghctlcr `ko b`usc jrabtagk grLc`t at b`uscs ` Rp`ri gj Eahlt wlabl as tlc 0

    st

    pgakt gj Eahlt (@tuf-Tc). _lc Rpcrf(tlc Eahlt gr

    Eajc b`rracr) tr`vces up tlc spakc gj tlc F`ec tg

    tlc Brgwk Rc`t (^akc`e He`ko) `ko rcbcavcs tlc

    4ko

    sp`ri (@tuk-Tc), tlas kcwey bl`rhco Rpcrf

    bcee tr`vces d`bi ogwk tlrguhl tlc Srctl` ak

    F`ecs`ko huslcs jgrtl aktg tlc occpprafgroa`e

    `dyss, _lc Xgfd `ko rc`blcs tlc chh `ko tlc

    2ro

    pgakt gj eahlt gbburs aksaoc tlc wgfd (@fuk-

    Tc). Jrgf @fuk Tc [email protected] @tuf-Tc, 2

    pgakts gj O`rikcss, `ee l`ppckakh watlak tlc

    ^rakbapec gj tlc Pu`oaty, `ko eakiakh gur dcakh tg

    Pu`ktuf (_lc @EE ak @EE). _lc Fakos gj tlc

    wgreo `rc kgw rc`oy tg rcbcavc Pu`ktuf

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    08

    [email protected]_ BCEER - _lc Lgfc gj Ruk Lc`t Hckcs

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as tlc afpgrt`kbc gj tlc

    Kcrvgus Rystcf7

    @kswcr= _lc Kcrvgus Rystcf as tlc

    Bgffukab`tagks `ko Bgktrge Kctwgri gj tlc

    Dgoy. _lrguhl Cecbtrgblcfab`e (Cecbtrab

    Blcfab`e) afpuescs at sckscs, sgrts, stgrcs `ko

    uscs fcss`hcs tl`t bgktrge cvcrydgoy jukbtagk

    `ko prgbcss. At as `esg rcspgksadec jgr tlguhlt,str`tchy `ko ocbasagk f`iakh. Qgur Kcrvgus

    Rystcfas bgfpgsco gj `k ckgrfgus Kctwgri gj

    Kcrvc Jadcrs `ko bcees tl`t rc`bl cvcry p`rt gj

    tlc Dgoy.

    _lc Bcrcdrgspak`e Kcrvgus Rystcf gr Bcktr`eKcrvgus Rystcf bgksasts gj tlc Dr`ak `ko tlc

    Rpak`e bgro. At bggroak`tcs `efgst `ee tlc

    `btavatacs gj tlc dgoy. _lc Bcktr`e Kcrvgus

    Rystcfrcbcavcs akjgrf`tagk jrgf `ee p`rts gj tlc

    Dgoy dy akbgfakh Rcksgry Kcrvcs9 At tlck sgrts

    gut tlas akjgrf`tagk `ko at sckos tlasakjgrf`tagk ak ats prgpcr grocrs tlrguhl tlc

    guthgakh fgtgr kcrvcs `ko tlck tg tlc p`rts gj

    tlc dgoy rcquarakh `omustfckt.

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    40

    _lc Kcrvgus Rystcf - Cecbtrab`e Rystcf gj tlc Dgoy

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    42

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    4?

    Zcrtcdr`tcs dy stafue`takh Fce`kak syktlcsas ak

    Fce`kgbytcs `ko Fce`kak hr`kuec oaspcrs`e ak

    Fce`kgplgrcs`esg b`eeco Aktcrfcoak.

    Pucstagk= Xly as Fce`kak afpgrt`kt7

    @kswcr= Cxbceeckt qucstagk! Fce`kak as

    afpgrt`kt, dcb`usc at as tlc fgst ^rafatavc

    fc`kakh ^rafc, ^raf`ry 0

    st

    , `ko Skavcrs`e^ahfckt ak Eavakh Grh`kasfs. Fce`kak as

    prgoubco ak tlc ^akc`e He`ko. @duko`ktey jguko

    ak ^rafatavc Grh`kasfssubl `s Jukha, `s wcee `s

    `ov`kbco ^raf`tcs. Jurtlcrfgrc, watlak c`bl

    eavakh grh`kasf, Fce`kak `ppc`rs tg dc egb`tco

    ak f`mgr jukbtagk`e satcs. Jgr cx`fpec, akZcrtcdr`tcs, Fce`kak as kgt gkey prcsckt ak tlc

    siak, cycs, c`rs, Bcktr`e Kcrvgus Rystcf, `ko

    tlc oajjusc Kcurgogbrakc Egba, `fgkh gtlcr

    tlakhs.

    Fce`kak b`k dc jguko ak tlc ^akc`e He`ko (_lcDe`bi Ogt), ^atuat`ry He`ko, _lyrgao He`ko,

    _lyfus He`ko, ^`r`tlyrgao, @orck`e He`ko, `ko

    B`rgtao Dgoy. Fce`kak as `duko`ktey prcsckt ak

    tlc vasbcr`, akbeuoakh tlc Lc`rt. _lc Eavcr, tlc

    @rtcracs, tlc Fusbecs, tlc H`strgaktcstak`e tr`bt,

    `ko tlc Hgk`os. _lus watlak c`bl `ko cvcryeavakh grh`k wlabl `aos tlc Luf`k dgoy Fce`kak

    `ppc`rs. Tch`roecss gj wl`t bgegr ygur siak

    `ppc`rs tg dc `ee Hckcsak `ee brc`turcs gk tlas

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    43

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    4:

    pe`kct `rc de`bi dcb`usc tlcy `rc `ee bg`tco watl

    Fce`kak.

    Pucstagk= Lgw fubl Fce`kak b`k dc ak tlc Riak

    gj `ky gkc akoavaou`e7

    @kswcr= _lc `fgukt gj Fce`kak ak tlc siak as

    gkc gj tlc fgst v`ra`dec gj Luf`k tr`ats, `ko

    f`ky ^geyhckcs `rc akvgevco. Hrgups gj pcgpecgr tlc pgpue`tagk gj tlc wgreo wcrc gkbc

    be`ssajaco `bbgroakh tg siak sl`oc= De`bi,

    (@jrab`ks) Xlatc (B`ub`sa`ks Curgpc`ks),

    Qceegw (Grackt`es) `ko Tco (Akoa`ks) Ctb... Qgu

    slgueo rc`eazc tl`t must dcb`usc tlas as tlc w`y

    tlcy l`vc be`ssajaco pcgpec ogcs kgt fc`k tlas as` j`bt. _lc Lucs gj bgegr gj ygur siak ocpckos gk

    scvcr`e j`btgrs. Jarst as tlc `fgukt gj Fce`kakak

    tlc gutcr e`ycrs gj tlc siak. Fce`kak `bts `s `

    jaetcr tg prcvckt o`f`hc tg tlc oceab`tc occpcr

    e`ycrs gj tlc siak, dy pckctr`tagk gj Setr`vagect

    Eahlt (De`bi Eahlt).

    Pucstagk= As tlcrc gkey gkc _ypc gj Fce`kak7

    @kswcr= Kg, gj bgursc kgt! @s fcktagkco c`reacr

    ygu l`vc Dr`ak Fce`kak, ikgwk `s

    Kcurgfce`kak b`eeco Ruprcfc Fce`kak wlablfust dc `btav`tco ak tlas o`y `ko tafc, `ko tlck

    ygu l`vc RiakFce`kak. Kcurgfce`kakogcs kgt

    ruk p`r`eece watl siak fce`kak. Kg f`ttcr wl`t

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    27/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    48

    r`bc, Kcurgfce`kak pe`ys `k afpgrt`kt rgec ak

    tlc jukbtagkakh gj tlc Dr`ak, `ko Kcrvgus

    Rystcf. Fce`kgsgfcs (Rf`ee strubturcs watlaktlc Fce`kgbytc Bcees wlcrc Fce`kak as

    syktlcsazco) jako tlcar w`y aktg tlc l`ar bcees,

    havakh tlcf bgegr. (_wg typcs gj Fce`kak, gkc

    o`ri drgwk `ko gkc rco, `rc rcspgksadec jgr `ee

    l`ar sl`ocs.)

    ^ahfckts tl`t bgktradutc tg siak bgegr `rc b`eeco

    B`rgtckc (Qceegwasl), Lcfghegdak, ak deggo

    vcssces (^aki-Tco), `ko Fce`kak (De`bi, Drgwk,

    `ko Tco). O`ricr siaks `rc ogfak`tco dy

    Fce`kak, wlabl as prgoubco jrgf @fakg @bao

    _yrgsakc, dy ^ahfckt Bcees (Fce`kgbytcs) ak tlcRiak.

    Pucstagk= B`k ygu cxpe`ak `h`ak lgw siak bgegr

    as octcrfakco7

    @kswcr= Rurc, Fce`kak as prgoubco jrgf [email protected] @bao _yrgsakc, dy pahfckt bcees b`eeco

    Fce`kgbytcs. Qgu l`vc tlc s`bs watlak tlc

    Fce`kgbytc, b`eeco Fce`kgsgfcs tl`t `btu`eey

    f`ic tlc Fce`kak. _lcsc eattec s`bs gr bl`fdcrs

    gj Fce`kak, octcrfakc ygur siak bgegr. Xlck

    tlcrc as ` eattec dat gj Fce`kak ak tlcFce`kgsgfc, tlc eattec s`b gr bl`fdcr, ygu eggi

    wlatc (p`ec). Xlck ats tgt`eey jaeeco ygu eggi

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    28/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    4> tg 8>>K`kgfctcrs. _l`t as

    tlc jrcquckby gj Eahlt tl`t tlcar dgoy as f`oc

    gut gj. Lgwcvcr, ygu @jrab`ks w`vceckhtl

    jrcquckby Zadr`tcs jrgf >>>.0 Faecs tg 20>>

    Faecs.

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as ` K`kgfctcr7

    @kswcr= @ K`kgfctcr as 0\ (0> tg tlc ^gwcr gj -

    1) Fctcr. X`vceckhtls gj `dgut ?3> K`kgfctcrs

    (Tcooasl Deuc), 32> Kf (Hrcck), `ko 38> Kf

    (Hrcckasl Qceegw) cxast. Eahlt `t tlcsc

    w`vceckhtls og kgt eggi purc, ygu b`kkgt

    prcoabt jrgf tlc `ppc`r`kbc gj gkc subl

    w`vceckhtl wl`t ` faxturc gj twg gr fgrc waee,

    slgueo eggi eaic. _lc wgro K`kgfctcr bgfakh

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    36/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    2:

    jrgf @kbackt Rufcra`k wgro [email protected]@ tlc Fggk

    Hgo fc`kakh Rak `ko Fctcr bgfakh jrgf

    Fgtlcr gr Fctcr ak @kbackt tgkcs F`y-_`rc,fc`kakh f`ttcr gr f`tcra`e, K`kgfctcr as `

    fgocrk tcrf usco, prcjcrrco gvcr @khstrgf

    usco ak fc`surakh vasadec eahlt. @esg b`eeco

    `khstrgf ukat, `jtcr @kocrs Mgk`s @khstrgf, `

    Rwcoasl @strgkgfcr ko lysabast.

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as Cecbtrgf`hkctasf7

    @kswcr= @bbgroakh tg Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs

    Bgeeah`tc Oabtagk`ry=

    0. Cecbtrgf`hkctasf as ocjakco `s= F`hkctasfocvcegpco dy ` Burrckt gj Cecbtrabaty.

    Rg Cecbtrgf`hkctasfas F`hkctasfprgoubco dy

    `k Cecbtrab bl`rhc ak fgtagk tlc ^lysabs gj

    Cecbtrabaty `ko F`hkctasf. At brc`tco ats gwk

    gppgsatcs. Ats Cecbtrabaty ak Fgtagkgr Ckcrhy akFgtagk gr Cfgtagk`e Ckcrhy. Xatlak tlc

    Cecbtrgf`hkctab Rpcbtruf tlcrc `rc twg

    oajjcrckt gppgsakh ^gecs, gj Ckcrhy. Dgtl

    ^gsatavc `ko Kch`tavc9 cecbtrg (Cecbtrab) jrgf

    fgocrk E`tak cecbtrabus fc`kakh rcscfdeakh

    `fdcr `fdcr, dcakh kch`tavc, `ko f`hkctabjrgf e`tak f`hkctaseg`ostgkc dcakh pgsatavc.

    _lc Eahlt gr tlc aeeufak`ta (aeeufak`takh) dcakh

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    37/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    28

    Cecbtrg (Cecbtrab), `ko tlc Eahlt Rpcbtruf dcakh

    F`hkctasf.

    Xlck wc s`y ^gsatavc `ko Kch`tavc wc og kgt

    fc`k ak tlc scksc gj hggo gr d`o, wc `rc

    spc`iakh `dgut tlc w`y tlc Ckcrhy fgvcs gr

    jegws. ^gsatavc dcakh Gutpgurakh gj Ckcrhy

    fgvakh `w`y jrgf ats bcktcr, `ko Kch`tavc

    fc`kakh fgvakh jrgf tlc gutsaoc tgw`ros atsBcktcrgr `k ak pgurakh.

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as tlc

    Zasadec Eahlt Rpcbtruf7

    @kswcr= Xatlak tlc

    vasadec Eahlt Rpcbtruf

    tlcrc `rc bgegrs, tl`t

    `rc oavaoco aktg 2

    ^raf`ry Bgegrs, `kotlcar bgfpecfckt`ry

    Bgegrs wlabl as wl`t wc

    scc. Qceegw, Deuc, Tco,

    Gr`khc, `ko ^urpec. At

    ruks jrgf ?>>

    K`kgfctcrs tg 8>>k`kgfctcrs ak w`vc

    eckhtl.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    38/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    2

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    41/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?0

    Jrgf 1 C_LCT Fce`kakatc_g : Ctlcr Fce`kak

    Tcbcssavc, tlc purc Fce`kakatc Hckc Hlgstazc

    gr w`slco gut bgfpectcey. Lc egst las

    bgkkcbtagk tg ^@@ KS__lc Skavcrsc

    (Fuetavcrsc). Lc RGEO LAR RGSE @KO EGR_ LARHAJ_ ([email protected])!

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    42/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?4

    ^cgpec watl Fce`kak `rc w`eiakh T`oags, `ko

    vcry o`ri siakkco pcgpec `rc vcry scksatavc tg

    oajjcrckt typcs gj T`oag jrcquckby gr _lguhlt^`ttcrks (X`vcs)tl`t `rc ak gur ckvargkfckt.

    Rg, `s ` P`tuf (Fce`kak) Pu`ktuf dcakh

    cvcrytlakh ygu eastck tg, cvcrytlakh ygu c`t,

    cvcrytlakh ygu og, `jjcbts ygu `ko at `jjcbts ygur

    Fce`kak.

    Qgu P`tuf (Fce`kak) Dcakhs `rc `k @_GF

    (@[email protected]) @_SF, ygu l`vc ` Kubecus (Rge`r

    ^ecxus, Bcktr`e Ruk), ygu l`vc `k Cecbtrg-

    F`hkctab Jaceo gj Ckcrhy (Cecbtrabaty) `rguko

    gur dcakh b`eeco ygur L`e``t (@[email protected]), ygu `rcCecbtrab `ko F`hkctab `ko ocpckoakh gk wl`t

    ecvce gj Kut`tagk`e T`tc ygu `rc spakkakh gk,

    tl`t as tlc Iako gj ^`rtabecs(^cgpec, ^e`bcs, `ko

    _lakhs) ygu `rc @ttr`btakh (Tcjcr tg tlc E`w gj

    @ttr`btagk Ku @jrab`k Fako Zge.2) octcrfakcs

    ygur eajc bgursc. Xatl ygur Fako ^gwcr ygu`ew`ys l`vc tlc `daeaty tg brc`tc ` kcw ygu!

    _lcrc `rc Akjakatc pgssadaeatacs ak tlc Skavcrsc,

    dcbgfc @EE (^@S_) ygu b`k dc, tlus wc s`y A

    `f Ak @EE `ko @EE as ak Fc(@KSIAJA ^@S_ [email protected]

    ^@S_ [email protected] JA KCC).

    Xlck ygu t`p aktg Lahlcr jgrfs gj Ckcrhy

    tlrguhl ygur Cfgtagks wlabl as ` jgrf gj

    Ckcrhy ak Fgtagk, ygu t`p aktg wl`t pcgpec s`y

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    43/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?2

    `rc Far`becs. Qgu l`vc tg rcfcfdcr, `ee tlc

    tlakhs Curgpc`ks l`s pr`btabco, ak grocr tg try

    t`p aktg _lcKakc Rt`hcs gj Ctlcrab Jgrbcswlabltlc Curgpc`k T`bcwaee kcvcr dc `dec tg hg p`ss

    tlc :tl

    Rt`hc gj Ctlcr gr Ctlcrab @dgocdcb`usc

    gj tlc e`bi gj Fce`kak, Rgue Jgrbc ([email protected]@) tlc

    vclabecgr Cfgtagk`e Ckcrhy (Ckcrhy Ak Fgtagk)

    kccoco tg r`asc ygur Zadr`tagks tg b`usc tlc

    @tgfs ak ygur dgoy tg f`ic ` Pu`ktuf Ec`ptgtlc kcxt Grdat`egr Kut`tagk`e Ecvce.

    Qgu tlc Blaeorck gj _lc RSK(^@@ TC) l`vc tlc

    k`tur`e `daeaty gkbc ygu `rc ak ygur rahlt Rt`tc gj

    Fako (Kakc Fako, Fako ak tlc ^gsatavc _lguhlt

    ^rgbcss, Tc`sgkakh) `ko Cfgtagk`e Zadr`tagk, tgt`p aktg wl`t sccfs eaic [email protected] Ckcrhy `t

    waee `ko Fckt`eey ^ge`razc ygur Fakos tg st`y

    tlcrc. Qgu fust ec`rk lgw tg ^ge`razc ygur Fako

    tg tlc ^gsatavc Jrcquckby `ko bgktrge tlc

    Rwakh gj tlc ^ckoueuf, dy ^gsatavc

    Ruhhcstagks wlabl l`vc `k cjjcbt gk ygur

    Rudbgksbagus Dcakh (Akvgeukt`ry Jgrbcs _lc

    Xgreo gj ygur @kbcstgrs) wlabl as eakico tg tlc

    ^e`kc gj Jgrbc. _lc ^e`kceakico tg tlc Jgrbcs gj

    K`turc.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    44/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ??

    Cecbtrgf`hkctab Ckcrhy `ko Fce`kak

    @s prcvagusey st`tco Fce`kak as tlc fgstafpgrt`kt sudst`kbc ak tlc Luf`k Dgoy. At as `k

    gxaoazco jgrf gj [email protected], wlabl ck`decs tlc dgoy tg

    bggroak`tc tlc prgoubtagk gj prgtcaks kccoco ak

    bceeue`r rcp`ar. Xlcrc cvcr tlcrc as bcee o`f`hc

    Fce`kakas scck surrgukoakh tlc satc, jukbtagkakh

    `s ` Kcurg-_r`ksfattcr ak bggroak`tagk watlFce`kgbytc, prgtcak prgoubtagk jgr tlc rcp`ar gj

    O`f`hco [email protected] Fce`kakas ` pahfckt ak tlc Riak

    gj @jrab`k ^cgpec, wlabl as prgoubco dy

    Fce`kgbytc Bcees, `ko ocpgsatco, ak tlc

    cpaocrf`e tassuc. Fce`kgbytcs `rc Kcurg eaic

    bcees wlabl prgoubc Fce`kak `ko kufcrgusprgtcaks ak rcspgksc tg Cecbtrgf`hkctab

    T`oa`tagk.

    _lc ^rgoubtagk gj Fce`kak st`rts watl tlc

    bgkvcrsagk gj _yrgsakc dy tlc ckzyfc

    _yrgsak`sc tg 3,:-Aogec quakakc. _yrgsak`sc as `Bgppcr-bgkt`akakh ckzyfc wlabl b`t`eyzcs tlc

    bgkvcrsagk gj _yrgsakc (`k @fakg @bao) `ko

    st`daeazcs tlc bgkjgrf`tagk gj tlc Fce`kak

    strubturc. _lc Fct`e Agk `bts `s ` d`bi dgkc jgr

    tlc ^geyfcr strubturc gj Fce`kak, rcsuetakh ak `

    fct`egrh`kab bgfpecx. _lc @fakg @bao jgrfs

    ^cptaoc eakico jgrf`tagks watl tlc fct`e agks.

    _lc Eah`kos`rc `tt`blco `t tlc Katrghck @tgfs.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    45/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?3

    _lc prgpgsco strubturc rcscfdecs ` sw`stai` (`k

    `kbackt @jrab`k Ryfdge gj tlc De`bi Ruk tlc

    Ctlcrab Ckcrhydclako tlc [email protected]).

    @kbackt Ryfdges gj tlc De`bi Ruk `ko Bybecs gj K`turc

    _lc Rtrubturc l`s aktcr`btagks gbburrakh

    dctwcck tlc bcktr`e Bu (Bgppcr) Agks. _las

    bgfpecx fct`e bgfpguko as tlc gkey sudst`kbc

    ak tlc dgoy tl`t qu`eajacs `s `k Grh`kab RcfaBgkoubtgr.

    De`bi `ko Drgwk Fce`kak Hr`kuecs `rc gv`e ak

    sl`pc, jgrfakh ` sf`ee Oapgec @ktckk`. _lc jaceo

    ouc tg gkc Oapgecb`k akoubc ` Oapgecak `kgtlcr

    Fce`kak hr`kuec kc`rdy. Fce`kakhr`kuecs `bt `staky prafatavc cycs, jgrfakh ` e`rhc kcur`e

    kctwgri strubturc, wlgsc jukbtagk as tg `dsgrd

    `ko ocbgoc Cecbtrgf`hkctab X`vcs.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    46/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?:

    Fce`kak as tlc Rgeao jgrf gj Eahlt, `ko Fce`kak

    havcs ygu tlc `daeaty tg tr`ksoubc tlc Xlgec

    Eahlt Rpcbtruf(Cecbtrgf`hkctab Rpcbtruf).

    _lc fc`kakh gj tlc wgros Oapgec @ktckk`as=

    Oapgec= Hrcci (Oapeggs Ogudec)= B`kbceegus

    dgky tassuc dctwcck tlc cxtcrk`e `ko Aktcrk`e

    E`ycrs gj tlc Riuee.

    @ktckk`= ` spcba`e scksatavatygr rcbcptavckcss.

    Rg watlak tlc Luf`k Riuee tlcrc as eatcr`eey

    scksatavc rcbcptgrs tl`t `rc rcbcptavc tg

    Cecbtrgf`hkctab Eahlt.

    Kcur`e Kctwgri bgfputcrs `rc ec`rkakh

    f`blakcs wlabl `rc f`oc watl ` kufdcr gj

    rcbcptgrs tl`t b`k `omust tlcar wcahlts

    (Pu`ktat`tavc ^rgpcrtacs) tg prgoubc ` spcbajab

    gutput. _lc ^lysageghab`e f`ic up gj @jrab`ksbgkt`ak f`ssavc `fgukts gj Fce`kgbytcs tl`t

    ckbgoc `ee eajc cxpcrackbcs ak tlcar Fce`kak

    prgoubtagk, watl tlc `af gj brc`takh `k `btu`e

    rc`eaty st`tc `jtcr oc`tl. Ourakh eajc, vasagks

    `ppc`r jrcqucktey `ko CR^ (Cxtr` Rcksgry

    ^crbcptagk) as bgffgk.

    @s ` scfabgkoubtgrFce`kakl`s `k ckcrhy h`p.

    _lc `dsgrptagk gj ckcrhy as rcquarco dcjgrc

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    47/241

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    48/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ?

    _yrgsakc as tlc affcoa`tc prcbursgr tg tlc

    tlyrgao lgrfgkctlyrgxak`ko Fce`kak, wlabl as

    tlc pahfckt ak tlc siak tl`t `eegws jgr t`kkakhpahfckt ak siak `ko tlc de`bi pahfckt ak l`ar

    b`eeco Fce`kak.

    Ocjabackbacs gj ^lckye`e`kakc gr _yrgsakc f`y

    rcsuet ak aktcrruptagk gj tlc syktlcsas gj Fce`kak

    gr _lyrgxak.

    _yrgsakc as `k affcoa`tc prcbursgr gj tlc

    Ogp`fakc j`faey gj lgrfgkcs. Ogp`fakcs `rc

    syktlcsazco ak tlc @orck`e Fcouee` `ko Bcktr`e

    Kcrvgus Rystcf, `ko rchue`tco bcktr`e `ko

    pcraplcr`e kcrvgus systcf `btavaty.

    _lcsc Lgrfgkcs akbeuoc @orck`eakc `ko

    Kgr`orck`eakc. Kgr`orck`eakc `ko @orck`eakc

    `rc rce`tco tg tlc prgpcr fct`dgeasf gj _yrgsakc

    `ko ^lckye`e`kakc._yrgsakc as `esg fct`dgeazco

    tg B`tcblge ocrav`tavcs, wlabl f`y pe`yafpgrt`kt rgecs `s Kcurgtr`ksfattcrs. _lc

    rgutc gj jgrf`tagk gj tlc B`tcblge`fakcs as

    tlrguhl bl`khc gj _yrgsakc aktg _yr`fakc, `ko

    tlc sudscquckt bgkvcrsagk tg ogp`

    (ogp`6oalyorgxyplckye`e`kakc)._yrgsakc wlabl

    as tr`ksjgrfco aktg ` scbgko prcbursgrOgp`quakgkcva` tlc `btagk gj _yrgsak`sc.

    _las bgfpguko as cjjcbtavc ak trc`tfckt gj

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    51/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    30

    ^`riaksgk's oasc`sc. (rcsuet gj tlc e`bi gj

    ogp`fakc ak bcrt`ak rchagks gj tlc dr`ak). _lc

    f`mgr rgutc gj ochr`o`tagk gj _yrgsakc as tlcbgkvcrsagk tg ^`r`lyorgxyplckyepyruv`tc. _las

    bgfpguko as tlck jurtlcr ochr`oco dy `k

    ckzyfc b`eeco oagxyhck`sc tg Lgfghcktaksab

    @bao. _lc _lyrgao He`ko as rabl ak agoaoc. _las

    rc`bts ukocr tlc akjeuckbc gj ` ^crgxao`sc

    ckzyfc tg agoak`tc _yrgsakc tg jgrf tlc `btavc_lyrgao Lgrfgkcs.

    _yrgsakc as `esg fct`dgeazco tg b`tcblge

    ocrav`tavcs, wlabl pe`y afpgrt`kt rgecs `s

    Kcurgtr`ksfattcrs. _lc f`mgr rgutc gj

    ochr`o`tagk gj tyrgsakc as tlc bgkvcrsagk tg^`r`lyorgxyplckyepyruv`tc. _las bgfpguko as

    tlck jurtlcr ochr`oco dy `k ckzyfc b`eeco

    Oagxyhck`sc tg Lgfghcktaksab @bao.

    _lc fct`dgeab drc`iogwk gj `orck`eakc `ko

    Kgr`orck`eakcgbbur dy w`y gj `k ckzyfc b`eecoFgk`fakc Gxao`sc ([email protected]), watl tlc uetaf`tc

    cxbrctgry prgoubt dcakh Z`kceeab @bao wlabl as

    cxbrctco ak tlc urakc. _lc scbgko drc`iogwk

    rgutc jgr tlcsc kcurgtr`ksfattcrs as dy w`y gj

    B`tcblge`fakc G-fctlye tr`ksjcr`sc (BGF_), `

    vcry `btavc ckzyfc ak kcur`e tassucs.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    52/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    34

    _lc Dr`ak Bcktcr watl tlc Occpcst

    ^ahfckt`tagk as tlc

    Egbus Bgcruecusgr De`bi Ogt

    _lc Egbus Bgcruecus (De`bi Ogt) suppeacs tlc

    ^akc`e He`ko watl Kgrcpakcplrakc. _lc ^akc`e

    He`kobgktrges tlc jegw gj Fce`tgkakourakh tlc

    kahlt lgurs tg `btav`tc T.C.F seccp wlabl `eegwsus tg bgffukab`tc watl aktcrk`e fcfgry pgges

    gr gtlcr oafcksagks gj eajc ak k`turc. Fce`kak

    `esg b`uscs Rcrgtgkaktg jegw fgrc cjjcbtavcey ak

    tlc w`iakh st`tc sg tg C\^CTACKBC fgrc

    sparatu`eaty. _las `esg lceps tg iccp sparatu`e

    aktukcfckt `t `k `pcx. _lc ecss Fce`kak ak `kakoavaou`e, tlc fgrc b`ebajaco tlc ^akc`e He`ko

    `ko ecss `bbcss tlc akoavaou`e l`s tg tlc sparatu`e

    wgreo. Fce`kak as `esg usco tg f`ic tlc De`bi

    Ogtfgrc ak tgubl watl tlc Skavcrsc. _las De`bi

    Ogt (_laro Cyc) w`s scck dy gur Chypta`k

    @kbcstgrs `s tlc `bbcss pgakt tg akkcr wasogf

    `ko oavakaty. _las w`s tlc akvasadec oggr tg tlc

    pyr`fao wlabl wlck `btav`tco wgueo ocbaplcr

    tlc fystcracs. Fce`kak `dsgrds eahlt r`ys `ko

    stgrcs tlcf sg tl`t tlcy b`k dc usco `s Ckcrhy

    e`tcr gk. _las as wly Fce`kak ogfak`kt pcgpec

    `rc `dec tg usc sukeahlt fgrc cjjcbtavcey. @

    pcrjcbt cx`fpec gj Fce`kaks usc as rce`tco tg

    Zat`fak O.

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  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    54/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    3?

    Zat`fak O b`k dc jguko ak tlc siak gj Fce`kak

    ogfak`kt akoavaou`es `jtcr Ruk cxpgsurc,

    wlcrc`s ecss Fce`k`tco pcgpec rcquarc tlcakt`ic gj o`ary prgoubts tg scbrctc Zat`fak O.

    Jgr gur pcgpec, c`takh oa`ry ec`os tg degbi`hc

    oasc`scs ak tlc dgoy. @esg `kgtlcr aktcrcstakh dat

    gj akjgrf`tagk `dgut _yrgsakc as atl`s `esg dcck

    suhhcstco tg dc uscjue jgr tlc f`k`hcfckt gj

    bcrt`ak Kcrvgus Rystcf oasgrocrs wlabl `rc`ssgba`tco watl egw Ogp`fakc gutput subl `s

    ocprcssagk. Ak tlgsc ocprcssavc p`tackts wlg og

    kgt rcspgko tg ^lckye`e`kakc gr _ryptgpl`k

    suppecfckt`tagk, ` tra`e watl _yrgsakc fahlt

    prgvc dckcjaba`e.

    Fce`kakak ats fgst bgkbcktr`tco jgrf as De`bi. At

    as De`bi dcb`usc ats Blcfab`e (@E Blcfab`e)

    Rtrubturc waee kgt `eegw `ky Ckcrhy tg csb`pc

    gkbc tl`t Ckcrhy l`s bgfc ak bgkt`bt watl at.

    _las havcs us `k aksahlt `ko slgws tl`t Fce`kak

    Ogfak`kt pcgpec og kgt rcquarc tlc s`fc

    `fgukt gj Fakcr`es `ko Kutracktsak tlcar oact `s

    ^cgpec watl ecss Fce`kak. Ikgwakh `ee tlas `dgut

    Fce`kak as vcry afpgrt`kt dcb`usc ygu `rc `

    P`tuf (Fce`kak) Dcakh dy K`turc! Xc fust

    ikgw wlg `ko wl`t wc `rc `ko gur

    ^gtckta`e`s F`stcrs gj tlc Skavcrscdy gro`akco

    dy K`turc.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    55/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    33

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as tlc rce`tagkslap dctwcck tlc

    Skavcrsc, Fce`kak `ko tlc ^akc`e He`ko7

    @kswcr= _lc ^akc`e He`ko as tlc bgrc rchue`tgr

    gj lgw fubl gj tlas dageghab`e eajc ygu `rc `dec tg

    rcsgk`tc watl `t `ky p`rtabue`r tafc, `ko at

    `btu`eey as gk ` bybeab aktcrbl`khc. Rg wc ikgw

    jgr cx`fpec ak gur Rge`r Rystcf tlcrc `ppc`rs tg

    dc wl`t ^cgpec l`vc dcck tr`akco tg b`eeo`ytafc `ko kahlt tafc, `ko wc ikgw tlcrc `rc

    bcrt`ak tlakhs tl`t l`ppck ourakh o`ytafc `ko

    kahlt tafc, dcb`usc `s jrcquckby gj eahlt bl`khcs

    tlc tcfpcr`turc `esg bl`khcs. @ko sg watl tlc

    ^akc`e He`ko dcakh ` rchue`tgr, gj tlc

    fgoue`tagk gj tlc `btavaty gj Fce`kak, tlas atogcs, at as tlc fgoue`tgr `ko at as ` rchue`tgr jgr

    tlc `btavaty gj Fce`kak. Rg tlc ^akc`e He`ko

    ogcs twg tlakhs praf`raey `s j`r `s blcfab`e

    `btavaty. O`ytafc at brc`tcs ` blcfab`e ikgwk `s

    Rcrgtgkak`ko ourakh kahlt tafc (Rl`ogw Lgurs)

    at brc`tcs ` Blcfab`e(@E [email protected]) ikgwk `s

    Fce`tgkak. Rcrgtgkak as kccoco tg `eegw tlc

    bcees tg dchak tg dcbgfc vcry `btavc ak

    oasbl`rhakh w`stc, `ko `dsgrdakh kutrackts.

    @t kahlt tafc Fce`tgkakbgfcs gut ak o`rikcss,

    `ko tlc Dr`akl`s tg dc sc`eco gjj jrgf eahlt, sg

    tlc cycs l`vc tg dc begsco, tg `btav`tc Fce`kak

    stafue`takh Lgrfgkcs. _las stafue`tcs tlc

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    56/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    3:

    prgbcss gj Fce`tgkak9 jrgf tlc ^akc`e He`ko

    Fce`tgkak as rcec`sco aktg tlc deggo strc`f, tg

    b`usc tlc bcees tg kgw dchak tg usc tlc kutracktsourakh tlc o`y `ko tg rcduaeo tlc bcees. Rg

    eatcr`eey ygurc suppgsco tg oac ourakh tlc

    o`ytafc `ko dc rchckcr`tco ourakh tlc kahlt.

    Eahlt as akjgrf`tagk `ko tlc _cecvasagk jgr

    cx`fpec, tlc _Z w`vc as ` d`ko gr `k `spcbt gjtlc Xlgec Jrcquckby gj Eahlt b`eeco tlc

    Cecbtrgf`hkctab Rpcbtruf. Dcakh tl`t ygu l`vc

    Fce`kakygu `rc `dec tg pabi up gk Lahlcr Eahlt

    Jrcquckbacs bgfakh jrgf tlc Xlgec Eahlt

    Rpcbtruf, `ko gur dr`aks watl tlc bybec wc `rc

    kgw ak, b`eeco tlc Rge`r Bybec gj Tc(T`)( rcjcr tg_lc Rge`r Bybec gj TC F`stcr Icy Zge.4)`rc

    ocvcegpakh aktg `k Cecbtrgf`hkctab Bgfputcrs.

    Xc l`vc tlc `daeaty tg scko _lguhlt Jgrfs ak

    tlc jgrf gj pabturcs `brgss sp`bc tg `k gpck

    rcbcavcr, `ko tlcsc tlguhlt jgrfs wgri must eaic

    _cecvasagk X`vcs dut tr`vce j`stcr tl`k tlc

    Rpcco gj Eahlt.

    _lcrcjgrc gtlcr T`bcs gk tlc ^e`kct tl`t og kgt

    l`vc `k `duko`kbc gj Fce`kak, l`o tg brc`tc

    `rtajaba`e fc`ks gj t`ppakh aktg tlcsc lahlcr

    jgrfs gj tlc Xlgec Eahlt Rpcbtrufdcb`usc tlcy

    bgueo kgt k`tur`eey t`p aktg tlcsc jrcquckbacs.

    Xl`t wc kcco tg rc`eazc watl gur Tc`e Cycs (2ro

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    57/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    38

    CQC) as tl`t ` pabturc as ` jrcquckby gj Eahlt

    X`vc.

    Ak bueturcs wlcrc pcgpec `rc Fce`kakogfak`tc

    tlcy l`o tlcsc pabturcs, `s rceabs, `s Lacrgheypls,

    `ko `s Bgocs, tl`t sahkajy tl`t gur @kbackt

    @kbcstgrs wlcrc `ew`ys pueeakh jrgf ` lahlcr

    spcbtruf jrgf Cecbtrgf`hkctab Jrcquckbacs.

    Xc l`vc tlc `daeaty, tg scc ` pabturc ak gur fakos`ko scko ` tlguhlt tg ` pcrsgk `ko wlck `

    pcrsgk as gpck tg rcbcavc tlc tlguhlt w`vc, tlcy

    waee dc `dec tg scc tlas af`hc ak tlcar fakos.

    Ak gtlcr wgros dcakh wc `s @kbackt _`F`-Tc`k

    (Chypta`k) Fce`[email protected]`k ^cgpec wc l`vctlc `daeaty tg tr`ksjcr tlguhlts ak tlc jgrf gj

    pabturcs tg `kgtlcr pcrsgk watlgut tlc `ao gj

    `ky typc gj cxtcragr f`blakc gr ocvabc. Kgw tlc

    afpgrt`kt tlakhs tg rcfcfdcr as aj ygu og kgt

    usc ygur hajts, ygur hajts tg vasu`eazc, tg lc`r watl

    ygur akkcr c`r, gr akkcr jcceakhs (akkcr`w`rckcss, akkcr scksakh), ygu waee egsc tlcsc

    hajts gr tlcsc hajts waee hg ogrf`kt.

    Qgu l`vc tg rcfcfdcr cvcrytlakh as Eahlt, `ko

    wl`t wc `rc spc`iakh `dgut as @tgfs (@tuf),

    ikgwk `s ^lgtgks, `ko tlc Zadr`tgry T`tc, `twlabl tlcsc ^lgtgks `rc pues`takh, as

    octcrfakakh tlc bgegrs wc scc, gr octcrfakakh

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    58/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    3

    as bgoco ak Fce`kak & ygur Ruprcfc Fce`kak

    (Dr`ak-Kcurgfce`kak) l`s tg dc `btav`tco ak tlas

    o`y `ko tafc. [email protected] as tlc Rgue ([email protected]@) wlablwlck trahhcrco gpcks ak `w`rckcss. Rgue

    ([email protected]@) Rcco ([email protected]_ DGOQ) ygu l`vc tg rc`bl

    ogwk ak ygur [email protected] `ko puee oavakaty gut. Qgur

    Rparat ([email protected]@) as ak tlc [email protected] Qgur @jrab`k scej

    (Dgoy) `s ygu b`k scc as ` sf`ee Skavcrsc watlak `

    e`rhcr Skavcrsc tlus _lc @ee ak @ee. Gur Dgoacs`rc ` taky Kctwgri gj Cecbtrgf`hkctab Ckcrhacs

    r`oa`takh `t oajjcrckt Rpccos `ko Fggos gj

    Zadr`tagk watlak ` E`rhcr Kctwgri _lc @EE

    (^@@ ^@S_). Xc fust dchak tg rc`eazc tl`t wc

    `rc ocatacs `ko tlrguhl gur [email protected] (Hckcs-

    Hckctabs), wc l`vc kg rc`sgk tg dc `jr`ao, rc`bl

    ogwk ak ygur hckcs `ko puee gut oavakaty!

    _lrguhl tlc ^gwcr gj _lguhlt, (ak Chypt tlc

    Ocaty - Kctcr gj _lguhlt w`s ikgwk `s _lgtl gr

    _cluta.) Fako ^gwcr. _lc Mgurkcy st`rts watl `

    Farc _lguhlt! Qgur ^gtckta`e as gpckakh `ko

    hr`spakh tlc f`hkajabckt bgoc([email protected]) tl`t wc `ee

    l`vc dcck ckogwco watl. Xlck ygu `rc kgt

    cecv`takh watl tafc tlck ygu `rc oc`o.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    61/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :0

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as [email protected], `ko wly as at

    afpgrt`kt7

    [email protected] @bao

    [email protected] as sg afpgrt`kt dcb`usc watlak ygur [email protected]

    tlrguhl wl`t as b`eeco Lcrcoaty tlcrc as `

    rcbgroco p`st gj cvcrytlakh tl`t l`s cvcrl`ppckco tg ` pcrsgk `ko tlcrc j`faey Eakc`hc

    (deggoeakc) tlrguhlgut tafc, ec`oakh tg tlc jarst

    hrgups gj pcgpec gk C`rtl. @s wc ikgw, `ee eajc

    st`rtco ak @jrab`!

    Xatl [email protected] f`ky `rc `dec tg jako ` oarcbt

    deggo eaki tg `ee @kbackt`ko Hrc`t Tuecrs. F`ky

    wcee tr`akco F`stcr Fakos tlrguhlgut lastgry

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    62/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :4

    l`vc dcck `dec tg t`p aktg akjakatc rcsgurbcs

    ogrf`kt ak tlcar [email protected], sg KGX as ygur tafc tg

    t`p aktg ygur Laoock ^gtckta`e`ko truc ^gwcrsgj ygur Fako, sg tl`t ygu b`k gkbc `h`ak t`ic

    ygur rahltjue pe`bc ak tlc wgreo. Ak grocr tg ikgw

    wlcrc ygu hgakh ygu fust ikgw wlcrc ygu

    b`fc jrgf, R`kigj`!

    Qgurc Cecbtrg-F`hkctab Dgoy!

    Pucstagk= Og Luf`k Dcakhs l`vc `k

    Cecbtrgf`hkctab Jaceo7

    @kswcr= Qcs! _lcrc `rc twg burrckts gj Cecbtrab`e

    Ckcrhy tl`t ruk tlrguhl ygur dgoy brc`takh `

    F`hkctab Jaceo b`eeco ygur L``e`t gr @ur`.

    Qgur Cecbtrg-F`hkctab Jaceo (@ur`) as ` p`rt gj

    C`rtls (^[email protected]) F`hkctab Jaceo ak wlabl

    ygur @ur` (Cecbtrg-F`hkctab Jaceo) fgvcsakocpckocktey. _lcsc jaceos `rc bgfpgsco gj

    Kch`tavc `ko ^gsatavc Zadr`takh Ckcrhacs gr

    Jgrbcs. _lcsc jgrbcs `rc ikgwk `s=

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    63/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :2

    Bcktrapct`e Jgrbc _l`t bgfcs tgw`ros tlc

    ^e`kct C`rtl (^[email protected]) jrgf tlc ukavcrsc (a.c.

    Ckcrhy jrgf tlc Ruk, Fggk, `ko st`rs gr gtlcrRge`r Dgoacs.)

    Bcktrajuh`e Jgrbc Jgrbc tl`t bgfcs jrgf

    (watlak) tlc ^e`kct C`rtl (^[email protected]), (A.c.

    ckcrhy jrgf pe`kts, fakcr`es, tlc sgae, `ko

    w`tcr).

    Luf`k Dcakhs @ur` (L`e``t) bgkt`aks ygur Rparat

    ([email protected]@), Rgue ([email protected]@), `ko ^lysab`e ([email protected]_) jgrf. _lc

    L`e``t (@ur`) wlabl as tlc Eajc Jgrbc (@kil,

    Rcilcfab Ckcrhy) gj tlc Dgoy f`y dc eggico

    upgk `s tlc @tfgsplcrc gj tlc Dgoy, dcb`uscygur @ur`rcjecbts tlc Tc`e vat`e Dgoy, Fckt`e

    Fggo, Cfgtagk`e Ckcrhy, Lc`etl `ko Bl`r`btcr.

    Kgtabc tlc wgro @tfgsplcrc, wlabl as vcry

    icy tg ikgwakh ygur rce`tagkslap watl ^e`kct

    C`rtl (^[email protected]) `ko @EE (^@S_).

    _lc wgro @tfgsplcrc as ocjakco `bbgroakh tg

    tlc Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs Bgeeah`tc Oabtagk`ry `s=

    (K) Hrcci @tfgs Z`pgr, Rpl`cr`, Rplcrc.

    (_lc h`scgus ckvcegpc gj ` bcecsta`e dgoy, s `

    pe`kct), ` surrgukoakh akjeuckbc grckvargkfckt.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    64/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :?

    _lc wgro Akjeuckbc as ocjakco `s= (Akjeucrc tg

    jegw ak) jrgf Jeucrc tg Jegw.

    - @k Ctlcrc`e (Ctlcrab) jeuao lceo tg jegwjrgf tlc st`rs (wlabl `rc Ruks) `ko tg

    `jjcbt tlc `btagks gj Luf`ks.

    - @k Cf`k`tagk gj gbbuet (laoock) pgwcrlceo tg ocravc jrgf st`rs (RSKR).

    - @k Cf`k`tagk gj Rparatu`e gr fgr`e jgrbc.- _lc `bt gr pgwcr gj prgoubakh `k cjjcbt

    watlgut `pp`rckt cxcrtagk gj jgrbc gr

    oarcbt cxcrbasc gj bgff`ko.

    - _lc ^gwcr gr b`p`baty gj b`usakh `k cjjcbtak akoarcbtgr akt`khadecw`ys= _g sw`y

    _lc wgro Cf`k`tcas ocjakco `s= jrgf F`k`rc

    tg jegw, tg bgfc gut jrgf ` sgurbc. Cfat.

    Rg `bbgroakh tg tlcsc ocjakatagks ygur @ur`

    wlabl as tlc `tfgsplcrc gj tlc dgoy, b`k dc

    scck `s l`vakh `k akjeuckbc gk ygur

    ckvargkfcktva` ygur tlguhlts wlabl as ygur

    fckt`e st`tc `ko fggo wlabl as ygur Cfgtagk`e

    Ckcrhy gr Ckcrhy ak Fgtagk, wlabl as Cecbtrg-

    F`hkctab ak k`turc. Rg `t tafcs ocpckoakh gkygur Cfgtagk`e Fggos ygu b`k l`vc ` @ur` gr

    @tfgsplcrc `rguko ygu gj ^gsatavc (1ctlcr),

    eajc havakh jgrbcs (ckcrhacs), gr Kch`tavc, or`akakh

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    65/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :3

    (:ctlcr) oc`tl b`usakh h`scs (ckcrhacs). Rg tlcsc

    oajjcrckt e`ycrs gr Fggos gj Zadr`tagk (Cfgtagk`e

    Ckcrhy) `rc rcjecbtco ak bgegrs, wlabl f`y`ppc`r beguo eaic gr drahlt `ko bec`r `bbgroakh tg

    tlc Cfgtagk`e Fggo ` pcrsgk as vadr`takh gk.

    _lc bgegrs `ko fggos gj vadr`tagk jeubtu`tc

    ocpckoakh gk ` pcrsgks fckt`e st`tc, `ko

    fckt`e `ttatuoc. ^gsatavc Fckt`e @ttatuoc

    (_lguhlts) rcjecbts drahlt, bec`r`ko vavao bgegrswlabl `ttr`bt 1ctlcreajc havakh, vat`eaty p`rtabecs.

    @ ^crsgks @ur` b`k dc jcet, wlabl as wly ygu

    l`vc lc`ro tlc st`tcfckt f`ky tafcs tl`t

    pcrsgk havcs gjj ` hggo vadc, _lc wgro Zadc

    cqu`es Zadr`tagk. Rgfc pcgpec `rc ` pec`surctg dc `rguko, tlcy sccf tg rcvat`eazc, `ko

    akvahgr`tc cvcrygkc tlcy bgfc ak bgkt`bt watl.

    _lcsc `rc ygur eajc havakh pcgpec wlg l`vc

    ^gsatavc Ctlcrab p`rtabecs watlak tlcar Ckcrhy

    Jaceos gr @ur`. @ee tlcy `ttr`bt as hggo `ko

    ^gsatavc. _lcsc `rc tlc pcgpec wlg `ew`ys sccf

    eubiy gr `ew`ys sccf tg dc updc`t `ko l`vc `

    ^gsatavc guteggi gk cvcrytlakh. _lcy `rc updc`t

    `ko juee gj eajc!

    _lck ygu l`vc tlc pcrsgk wlg sccfs tg or`ak

    ygur ckcrhy wlck ygu bgfc ak bgkt`bt watl

    tlcf, ygu l`vc stcppco aktg ` Kch`tavc @ur`

    @tfgsplcrc(Ckcrhy jaceo), `k @ur`@tfgsplcrc

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    66/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    ::

    juee gj jc`r, ogudt, wgrry, `ko `kxacty. @jtcr

    dcakh `rguko subl ckcrhacs cfattakh jrgf tlcsc

    iakos gj pcgpec, ygu st`rt tg ogudt ygurscej, `koygur bgkjaockbc as ukocrfakco. _las fc`ks

    tlcrc @ur` as spaeeakh aktg ygurs, `ko tlcy `rc

    subiakh ygur ckcrhy, subl pcgpec ak tlas o`y `ko

    tafc `rc ikgwk `s Ckcrhy Z`fparcs. _lcy

    sccf tg bgfpe`ak `dgut eajc `ko `ee tlc Kch`tavc

    tlakhs tl`t l`ppck. _lcy egvc tg pe`y tlc vabtafrgec gr wly fc, pggr fc rgec. _lcsc iakos gj

    pcgpec l`vc bryst`eeazco ` Kch`tavc @ur` Jaceo

    `rguko tlcfscevcs Rudbgksbagusey, wlabl

    rcfcfdcr, as rcjecbtco dy ygur Fckt`e @ttatuoc

    (_lguhlts). L`vakh Kch`tavc _lguhlts `ttr`bt

    tlcsc Kch`tavc :ctlcr bl`gtab Ckcrhy Jgrbcs

    watlak ygur @urab Jaceos.

    _lcsc typcs gj pcgpec aj ygu `rc kgt `dec tg r`asc

    tlcar Fckt`e Rt`tc, tlus r`asakh tlcar Zadr`tagk gr

    `t ec`st tc`bl tlcf lgw tg st`y gk tlc ^gsatavc

    Eajc, jrcquckby slgueo dc `vgaoco `t `ee bgst.

    Ak @kbackt tafcs Ctlcrab Jgrbcs wcrc scck `s

    Eattec @khceab lcepcrs, gr Ocfgkab Lakocrs,

    `ee @ttr`btco tg us dy tlc _lguhlts wc `rc

    iccpakh `ko bl`rhco dy us tlrguhl gur

    Cfgtagks. _lcsc Ctlcrab Jgrbcs `rc eattec

    fabrgsbgpab bgsfab jgrbcs vadr`takh gk ` fubl

    j`stcr vadr`tagk tlus kgt octcbt`dec dy tlc k`ico

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    67/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :8

    cyc dut b`k dc scck eavakh `ko `kaf`takh `ko

    t`iakh jgrf tlrguhl ^cgpec, ^e`bc, _lakhs, `ko

    cvckts gr satu`tagks.

    Pucstagk= @s P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs `rc wc

    eakico tg @EE tl`t as `rguko us7

    @kswcr= Qcs, `s P`tuf (Fce`kakatc Blaeorck)

    Dcakhs ygu `rc eakico `ko akjeuckbco dy ygurckvargkfckt, ygu `rc eakico tg tlc ^e`kts, jgr

    ^e`kts l`vc `k @ur` gr Ckcrhy Jaceo, @kaf`es

    l`vc `k @ur`, _rccs, Duhs, Akscbts, Oart, X`tcr,

    `ee cfat `k @ur``ko ` Fggo, ` Zadr`tagk. @h`ak

    wl`t wc waee st`rt tg rc`eazc ak tlc bgfakh yc`rs

    ec`oakh up tg 4>04 `ko dcygko, ygu `rc P`tuf(Fce`kakatc) dcakhs, ygur @ur` as akjakatc `ko

    dgukoecss, ygur @ur` as oarcbtco dy tlc

    ^gwcrs gj ygur Fako. Cvcrytlakh l`s `k cjjcbt

    gk cvcrytlakh. Kg f`ttcr wlcrc ygu `rc gk tlc

    ^e`kct C`rtl (^[email protected]), ak tlc Skavcrsc gr

    H`e`xy. ^e`kcts l`vc `k cjjcbt gk gtlcr ^e`kcts9Rge`r dgoacs l`vc `k cjjcbt gk gtlcr Rge`r

    dgoacs, tlus wc `rc @EE watlak @EE.

    Eahlttlc Dartl gj Cfgtagk (Ckcrhy ak Fgtagk)

    _lc Eahltgj tlc Dgoy as tlc Cyc= aj tlcrcjgrctlakc cyc dc sakhec tly wlgec Dgoy sl`ee dcjuee

    gj Eahlt. F`tlcw :=44

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    68/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    : K`kgfctcrs. @ K`kgfctcras ` fgocrk tcrf usco, wlabl as prcjcrrco gvcr

    @khstrgf usco ak Fc`surakh Zasadec Eahlt. Xlck

    `ee oajjcrckt Bgegrs gj Eahltb`eeco ^rasfs jrgf

    tlc E`tak wgro ^rasf` `rc faxco tghctlcr gur

    Cycs scc tlas `s Xlatc Eahlt. Xlck ygu scc Juee

    (Xlgec) Rpcbtruf Eahlt ak ats ^lysab`e Rt`tc. At

    f`kajcsts `s De`bikcss. _l`t as, `ee Eahlt (Xlgec

    Eahlt) `ko Bgegr bgfdakco `rc De`bikcss, `ko

    tlc f`kajcst`tagk gj tlc Rgeao jgrf gj Eahlt `h`ak

    as Fce`kak. Xlck Xlaec Eahlt lats `ky Bgegrco

    tlakh, sgfc gj tlc Eahlt as `dsgrdco `ko sgfc gj

    tlc Eahlt as dgukbco gjj gr rcjecbtco tgw`ro

    gur Cycs, `ko tlgsc rcjecbtco Bgegrs `rc wl`t

    ygu scc `s oajjcrckt Bgegrs. Rg ygu scc ats `ee `k

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    69/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    :1

    Aeeusagk. Eahlt as kgt Eahlt dut Ckcrhyfgvakh ak

    O`rikcss `s Zadr`takh X`vcs `t oajjcrckt spccos.

    _lus tlc ocbasagk tg ocbaoc wl`t as uhey, as `

    ^crsgk`e blgabc9 tg scc Bgegrs`ko tg fast`ickey

    prcjcr gkc gvcr tlc gtlcr, gr tlas ^crsgk gvcr

    tl`t ^crsgk, Eaic `ko Oaseaic, b`rakh `ko

    Skb`rakh, Bgkbcrkco `ko Kgk Bgkbcrkco, Egvcr

    `ko L`tc, X`r `ko ^c`bc, `ee dcbgfc f`kajcsttlrguhl tlc Eahlt gj Ikgwakh, Ikgwecohc. Xlck

    ^cgpec scc tlcy w`kt tg scc fgrc. Rubl `s, ak

    Akkcr Rahlt (Rparatu`e, Akkcr @w`rckcss) gkc hcts

    tlc `ssur`kbc wlctlcr tlcar Cycs `rc gpckco gr

    begsco gj cxastckbc tlrguhl jcceakh. _lus, tlc

    _ruc ^rakbapec gj Kctcr (K`turc, Ocaty) as kgtRcck, dut Jcet.

    Gkbc gkc gpcks tlcar Cycs, tlcy hct tlc aeeusagk

    gj Tc`eaty, tlus tlcy kcco af`hcry tg scko

    fcss`hcs gj tlakhs tlcy ikgw gr ikgw gj, tg

    octcrfakc Kctcr (Ocaty-K`turc). Rg tlcbgkbcpt tl`t Eahlt as hggo `ko O`rikcss as d`o,

    as gkc gj tlc uetaf`tc ocbcptagks. _lc oajjcrckt

    Fgkgtlcastab Rblgges gj _lguhlt f`akey

    Muo`asf, Blarstasf, `ko Ful`ff`oasf tc`bl

    ygu tg st`y ak tlc Eahlt. _lcy tcee ygu tl`t

    O`rikcss as ahkgr`kbc. Qct tlc HGO tl`t brc`tco

    tlc Eahlt w`s ak O`rikcss dcjgrc lc brc`tco tlc

    Eahlt. Kgw tlaki, wl`t as fgrc Gfkaprcsckt

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    70/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    8>

    tlc Eahlt tl`t as bgkjakco watlak ` sp`bc watlak `

    splcrc gr tlc O`rikcss tl`t as Akjakatc ak tlc

    Dgukoecss Skavcrsc7 _lc O`rikcss ak tlcSkavcrsc gj bgursc! Qgu b`k scc Eahlt ak O`rikcss

    dut ygu b`kkgt scc O`rikcss ak Eahlt, tlus Eahlt

    as `k Aeeusagk.

    Pucstagk= As tlcrc ` bgkkcbtagk dctwcck tlc

    Rt`tc De`bikcss `ko ^@S_ (_lc @EE)7

    @kswcr= Gi ygu `rc spc`iakh `dgut tlc Rt`tc gj

    De`bikcss `ko ^@S_ (@EE), rahlt7 Gi wl`t `ee

    Csgtcrab Rblgges gj _lguhlt `rc b`eeakh ^@S_

    (@EE) prcbcocs Eahlt, dcb`usc Eahlt as ` tlakh,

    `ko ect fc cxpe`ak wl`t wc fc`k dy tlas. _lcrcas kg subl tlakh `s wl`t wc l`vc dcck t`uhlt as

    Eahlt gr tlc Eahlt. Xlck wc wcrc t`uhlt

    `dgut Eahlt wl`t tlcy `rc tc`blakh us as

    oajjcrckt Fggos gj Zadr`tagk`e Ckcrhacs, tl`t

    fc`ks fakutc p`rtabecs tl`t `rc bgfakh `t ygu

    jrgf tlc Ruk (^@@ TC) `t oajjcrckt spccos, `koygu b`ee tlcsc fakutc p`rtabecs Eahlt.

    _lcrc as kg subl tlakh `s tlc Eahlt, wlck ygu

    st`rt tg vacw tlas bgkbcpt gj eahlt jrgf ` Lahlcr

    Fako (@w`rckcss), Rbacktajab Fako `ko

    Pu`ktuf Fako(Kakc Fako)._lck ygu waee dchaktg rc`eazc tlcrc as Ckcrhy bgfakh jrgf tlc Ruk

    (^@@ TC) `ko wc `rc pabiakh at up `ko l`vc dcck

    t`uhlt tg b`ee at EAHL_ jgr e`bi gj ` dcttcr wgro.

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    73/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    82

    wlabl as wly tlc wgro @khecs `ko @KHCER

    eggi `ko sguko plgkctab`eey safae`r. _lc @khces,

    rceahagk w`s spc`iakh gj w`s rc`eey oajjcrcktvadr`tgry r`tcs gj tlc Xlgec Eahlt Rpcbtruf,

    oajjcrckt jrcquckbacs.

    Ak fgst Csgtcrab sblgges gj tlguhlt Fceblazcoci

    `esg ikgwk `s tlc @khce Fabl`ce s`brco bgegrs

    `rc ikgwk `s Zagect (Setr` Zagect SZ T`y 6De`bi Eahlt) wlabl as s`ao tg f`kajcst gk tlas saoc

    gj tlc Zasadec Eahlt Rpcbtruf `s Hrcck Eahlt,

    scck ak pe`kt eajc syfdgeazakh [email protected]

    F`e`bla BL ?, `ko tlc Lcdrcw wgro F`e`bla

    fc`ks FQ @KHCE `ko ak F`e`bla bl`ptcr ?=4

    Dut uktg ygu tl`t jc`r fy k`fc sl`ee tlc Ruk( @@ TC) gj rahltcguskcss ([email protected]@_) sl`ee `rasc

    watl Lc`eakh (Hrcck Eahlt Ckcrhy) ak las wakhs.

    Pucstagk= Xl`t Eahlt Jrcquckby as tlc Rgue

    ([email protected]@)7

    @kswcr= _lc Eahlt gj tlc Rgue hgcs d`bi tg

    wl`t tlc @kbackt _`f`-Tc`k (Chypta`k) b`eeco

    Ku gr KSK tl`t ^rafcv`e (Jarst) Ckcrhy ikgwk

    tgo`y `s De`bi Eahlt (SZ-T`y gr Setr` Zagect

    Eahlt). Qgur Rgues Eahlt Jrcquckby as jrgf tlc

    Grahak`e Brc`tavc Jgrbcs b`eeco Ku^u KSK(Kakc Ctlcr) tl`t dartlco `ee gtlcr Ckcrhacs `ko

    H`scs tlrguhlgut tlc dgukoecss Skavcrscs.

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    74/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    8?

    Tcfcfdcr QGS`rc gk ` mgurkcy tg tl`t Rgurbc

    gj Ckcrhy ak ygu, tl`t De`bi Eahltgr De`bi Ogt.

    O`ri Eahlt (De`bi Eahlt) tr`vces j`stcr tl`k tlc

    Zasadec Eahlt Rpcbtruf, j`stcr tl`k tlc Rpcco gj

    Eahlt. _lc Rpcco gj Eahlt oajjcrs ak c`bl sge`r

    systcf wlabl as octcrfakco dy tl`t Rge`r

    Rystcfs Rge`r Dgoy (Ruk) dut _lguhlt tr`vces

    j`stcr tl`k Zasadec Eahlt, `ko Cfgtagks grCkcrhy ak Fgtagk gr @fdcr Eahlt tr`vces j`stcr

    tl`k Hrcck Eahlt (O`ri) Aktceecbtu`e Eahlt.

    Aktceecbtu`e eahlt as Lc`eakh Eahlt. At tr`vces

    segwcr dcb`usc ygu l`vc tg sat d`bi `ko tlaki

    dcjgrc ygu `bt gk `kytlakh wlabl segws ogwk

    tlc jegw gj Ckcrhy, dut wc tcko tg je`rc up

    quabicr. Ec`rk tg bl`kkce ygur @fdcr Eahlt

    (Kch`tavc, Egwcr Ocsarcs) tg tlc ^gsatavc

    Jrcquckbytlck ygu `rc HGO(Ocaty) ak bgktrge gj

    ygurscevcs.

    De`bi Eahlt (KSK) 6 ^urc J`bts

    Hrcck Eahlt 6Lc`etl, Lgeastab Lc`eakh, K`turc

    Tco (@fdcr) Eahlt 6^ec`surc, Ocsarc, Ckmgyfckt

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    75/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    83

    Pucstagk= Aj Eahlt as `k Aeeusagk tlck wl`t asRahlt7

    @kswcr= @bbgroakh tg tlc Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs

    Oabtagk`ry Rahltas ocjakco `s= tlc ^lysab`e Rcksc

    dy wlabl Eahlt stafuea rcbcavco dy tlc Cyc `rc

    aktcrprctco dy tlc Dr`ak `ko bgkstrubtco aktg `rcprcsckt`tagk gj tlc ^gsatagk, Rl`pc, Drahltkcss,

    `ko Bgegr gj gdmcbts ak Rp`bc. Fckt`e gr Rparatu`e

    ^crbcptagk.

    Rahlt as gkc gj tlc javc cxtcrk`e ^lysab`e Rckscs

    tl`t Luf`ks l`vc. Bgktr`ry tg wl`t wc l`vcdcck t`uhlt tlc Cycs og kgt `btu`eey scc, tlc

    Cycs bgkt`ak rcbcptgr bcees wlabl rcspgko tg

    fcss`hcs jrgf tlc Dr`ak `s tlcy cxpcrackbc

    cxtcrk`e stafuea. _lcy wgri dy tgubl, tlc gkc

    rc`e scksc. Tcbcptgr bcees `rc scksatavc tg

    spcbajab be`sscs gj stafuea watlak ` bcrt`ak r`khcgj aktcksaty gr vadr`tagk. _g cxpe`ak stafuea (peur`e

    jgr stafueus) As cxtcrk`e aktcrjcrckbc gr `btagk

    upgk rcbcptgr bcees. Eahlt, jgr cx`fpec, as `

    stafueus jgr Zasagk. Qgur `daeaty tg scc ocpckos

    upgk ` bcrt`ak `fgukt gj Eahltpckctr`takh tlc

    ecks `ko bgrkc` gj tlc Cycs. Rg tl`t at jgbuscs gktlc oceab`tc rctak`. _lc p`rt gj tlc Cyc l`s kcrvc

    bcees wlabl rce`y afpuescs tg tlc Bcrcdr`e Bgrtcx

    gj tlc Dr`ak. _lus `k Af`hc as Zasu`eazco.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    76/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    8:

    Pucstagk= Rg lgw og tlc Cycs jukbtagk7

    @kswcr= Qgur Cycs `rc gjtck s`ao tg dc tlcwakogws gj tlc Rgue. _lc Cycs `rc splcrab`e

    strubturcs `kblgrco dy sax fusbecs aktg dgky

    sgbicts ak tlc Riuee. Skocr tlc oarcbtagk gj tlc

    Dr`ak, tlcsc fusbecs b`usc tlc Cyc tg tr`bi

    fgvakh gdmcbts. _lc akkcr fcbl`kasf gj tlc Cyc

    l`s ` supcrjaba`e rcscfde`kbc tg tl`t gj `

    B`fcr`9 Eahlt T`ys `rc jgbusco tlrguhl ` ecks

    gk- tg ` eahlt-scksatavc @rc`, _lc Tctak`. Dut tlas

    b`fcr` as ` lahley jecxadec gkc, `ko ats `tt`blco

    tg ` Rupcrbgfputcr(_lc Dr`ak). _lc Tctak`atscej

    as f`oc gj `dgut 02> faeeagk rcbcptgrs, `ko tlc

    Cyc b`k oastakhuasl < faeeagk bgegrs.

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    77/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    88

    _lc CQC as fgvco dy sax vgeukt`ry fusbecs `ko

    as icpt jarf dy tr`ksp`rckt jeuaos watlak at. _lc

    Cycd`ee bgksasts gj tlrcc e`ycrs gj tassuc. _lcgutcr e`ycr as wl`t as ikgwk `s tlc Xlatc gj tlc

    Cyc, tlc De`bi faooec bg`t bgkt`aks tlc deggo

    suppey `ko tlc akkcrfgst e`ycr as bgfpgsco

    fgstey gj kcrvgus tassuc. @t tlc jrgkt gj tlc Cyc,

    tlcsc bg`ts bl`khc. _lc gutcr bg`ts dcbgfc tlc

    tr`ksp`rckt Bgrkc`. @ rguko gpckakh ak tlcfaooec bg`t as tlc ^upae, `ko dclako at as tlc

    Ecks. _lc fusbue`r Aras surrgukoakh tlc ^upae

    bl`khcs tlc sazc gj tlc gpckakh `ko havcs tlc

    Cyc ats bgegr. _lc Ecks drakhs tghctlcr tlc Eahlt

    jrgf tlc gdmcbts gkc eggis `t `ko jgrfs ` vasu`e

    fckt`e af`hc. Xlck ygu eggi `t tlc wgro

    af`hak`tagk ygu scc tlc wgro Af`hc (af`hc-

    k`tagk) ak tlas wgro. Rg af`hak`tagk as tlc

    brc`tavc `daeaty gj tlc Fakotg jgrf vasu`e fckt`e

    pabturcs gr af`hcs. @kgtlcr wgro jgr tlas

    prgbcss gj sccakh fckt`e af`hcs as b`eeco

    Zasu`eaz`tagk.

    Pucstagk= Rg Xl`t as Af`hak`tagk7

    @kswcr= @bbgroakh tg tlc Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs

    Oabtagk`ry Af`hak`tagk as ocjakco `s= _lc `bt gr

    pgwcr gj jgrfakh fckt`e af`hcgj sgfctlakh

    kgt prcsckttg tlc Rckscsgr kcvcr dcjgrc wlgeey

    pcrbcavco ak Tc`eaty, Brc`tavc @daeaty. Rg `s ygu

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    78/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    8 ^crsgk`eatacs bgfc jrgf

    03 hckctab @kbcstgrs tl`t wcrc p`ssco gk akygur Hckc pgge jrgf ygur Fgtlcrs saoc`ko 03

    jrgf ygur J`tlcrs Hckcs `ee `t tlc tafc gj

    Bgkbcptagk (Dartl). @ee 2> ^crsgk`eatacs gr

    @kbcstgrs`rc `ee tryakh tg l`vc ` pe`bc, `ko w`kt

    tg eavc tlrguhl ygu. Rgfc `rc tlcrc tg `ao `ko

    huaoc ygu `ko gtlcrs `rc tlcrc jgr tlcar gwk

    scejasl fc`ks, dcb`usc tlcy f`y staee dc tr`ppco

    gk tlas ^lysab`e ^e`kc gj Cxastckbc `s

    oascfdgoaco Rgues `ko kcco ygur ckcrhy, tg

    sudsaoc gjj gj, ak grocr tg durk gut bcrt`ak

    ocsarcs sg tlcy b`k Cecv`tcgr Tcvgevctg LahlcrZadr`tagk`e Ecvces. Rg tlc @rt Jgrf gj

    Fcoat`tagk lceps tg huaoc gkcs scej d`bi ak

    @ttukcfckt`ko @eahkfcktwatl tlc Tc`e Qgu,

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  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    88/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    89/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    90/241

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    91/241

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    92/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    14

    Kgw tlc ?1tl

    gbt`vc prgoubcs Eahlt, Bgsfab T`ys

    f`kajcst wlck ckcrhy akbrc`scs dctwcck 84ko

    `ko

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    94/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    1?

    r`kis. Dut ak tlas Bcktury plysab`e sbackbc rc-

    oasbgvcrco tlc trutl `ko tlc 40st Bcktury

    sbacktajab oasbgvcracs l`vc `ooco `ooatagk`e prggjgj tlc bgrrcbtkcss `ko trutl gj tlas bckturacs-geo

    Chypta`k ogbtrakc.

    _lc Chypta`k _c`blakhs `rc tl`t kgt gkey as

    cvcrytlakh ak bgkst`kt fgvcfckt`ko vadr`tagk,

    dut tl`t tlc oajjcrckbcs dctwcck tlc v`ragusf`kajcst`tagks gj tlc ukavcrs`e pgwcr `rc ouc

    cktarcey tg tlc v`ryakh r`tc `ko fgoc gj

    vadr`tagks. Kgt gkey tlas, dut tl`t cvck _LC @EE,

    ak atscej, f`kajcsts ` bgkst`kt vadr`tagk gj subl

    `k akjakatc ochrcc gj aktcksaty`ko r`pao fgtagk

    tl`t at f`y dc pr`btab`eey bgksaocrco `s `t rcst,tlc tc`blcrs oarcbtakh tlc `ttcktagk gj tlc

    stuockts tg tlc j`bt tl`t cvck gk tlc plysab`e

    pe`kc ` r`paoey fgvakh gdmcbt (subl `s `

    rcvgevakh wlcce) sccfs tg dc `t rcst. _lc

    _c`blakhs `rc tg tlc cjjcbt tl`t Rparat as `t gkc

    cko gj tlc ^gec gj Zadr`tagk, tlc gtlcr ^gec

    dcakh bcrt`ak cxtrcfcey hrgss jgrfs gj F`ttcr.

    Dctwcck tlcsc twg pgecs `rc faeeagks upgk

    faeeagks gj oajjcrckt T`tcs `ko Fgocs gj

    Zadr`tagk.

    Fgocrk Rbackbc l`s prgvck tl`t `ee tl`t wc b`ee

    F`ttcr `ko Ckcrhy`rc dut Fgocs gj Zadr`tgry

    Fgtagk, `ko sgfc gj tlc fgrc `ov`kbco

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    95/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    13

    sbacktasts `rc r`paoey fgvakh tgw`ro tlc

    pgsatagks gj tlc Rparatu`easts wlg lgeo tl`t tlc

    plckgfck` gj Fako `rc eaicwasc Fgocs gjZadr`tagkgr Fgtagk. Ect us scc wl`t Rbackbcl`s

    tg s`y rch`roakh tlc qucstagk gj Zadr`tagks ak

    F`ttcr`ko Ckcrhy.

    Ak tlc jarst pe`bc, sbackbc tc`blcs tl`t `ee F`ttcr

    f`kajcsts, ak sgfc ochrcc, tlc Zadr`tagks`rasakhjrgf tcfpcr`turc gr lc`t. Dc `k gdmcbt bgeo gr

    lgtdgtl dcakh dut ochrccs gj tlc s`fc tlakhs

    at f`kajcsts bcrt`ak lc`t Zadr`tagks, `ko ak tl`t

    scksc as ak Fgtagk`ko Zadr`tagk.

    _lck `ee p`rtabecs gj F`ttcr `rc ak barbue`rfgvcfckt (Kut`tagk gr Kut`tagk`e T`tc), jrgf

    bgrpusbec tg Ruks. _lc pe`kcts rcvgevc `rguko

    suks, `ko f`ky gj tlcf turk gk tlcar `xas. _lc

    Ruks fgvc `rguko hrc`tcr bcktr`e pgakts

    (vgrtcxcs), `ko tlcsc fgvc `rguko staee hrc`tcr,

    `ko sg gk, `s akjakatuf. _lc fgecbuecs gj wlabltlc p`rtabue`r iakos gj F`ttcr`rc bgfpgsco `rc

    ak ` st`tc gj bgkst`kt Zadr`tagk `ko Fgvcfckt

    `rguko c`bl gtlcr `ko `h`akst c`bl gtlcr. _lc

    fgecbuecs `rc bgfpgsco gj @tgfs, wlabl,

    eaicwasc, `rc ak ` Rt`tc gj Bgkst`kt Fgvcfckt

    `ko Zadr`tagk. _lc @tgfs `rc bgfpgsco gj

    Bgrpusbecs, sgfctafcs b`eeco Cecbtrgks,

    agks, gk tg Pu`ris`ko ]cecs, wlabl `esg `rc ak

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    18

    as pgstue`tco dy sbackbc watlgut ats k`turc dcakh

    gvcrstggo bec`rey, as lceo dy tlc Chypta`ks tg dc

    dut ` lahlcr f`kajcst`tagk gj tl`t wlabl ascrrgkcgusey b`eeco F`ttcrtl`t as tg s`y, F`ttcr

    `t ` lahlcr ochrcc gj Zadr`tagk`ko as b`eeco dy

    tlcf _lc Ctlcrc`e Rudst`kbc.

    _lc Chypta`ks tc`bl tl`t tlas Ctlcrc`e Rudst`kbc

    as gj cxtrcfc tckuaty `ko ce`stabaty, `ko pcrv`ocs

    Skavcrs`e Rp`bc, scrvakh `s ` fcoauf gj

    tr`ksfassagk gj w`vcs gj vadr`tgry ckcrhy, subl

    `s Lc`t, Eahlt, Cecbtrabaty, F`hkctasf, ctb. _lc

    _c`blakhs `rc tl`t _lc Ctlcrc`e Rudst`kbc as `bgkkcbtakh eaki dctwcck tlc jgrfs gj Zadr`tgry

    Ckcrhyikgwk `s F`ttcr gk tlc gkc l`ko, `ko

    Ckcrhy gr Jgrbc gk tlc gtlcr9 `ko `esg tl`t at

    f`kajcsts ` Ochrcc gj Zadr`tagk, ak r`tc `ko

    fgoc, cktarcey ats gwk. Rbacktasts l`vc gjjcrco

    tlc aeeustr`tagk gj ` r`paoey fgvakh wlcce, tgp, grbyeakocr, tg slgw tlc cjjcbts gj akbrc`sakh T`tcs

    gj Zadr`tagk. _lc aeeustr`tagk suppgscs ` wlcce,

    tgp, gr rcvgevakh byeakocr, rukkakh `t ` egw r`tc

    gj spccowc waee b`ee tlas rcvgevakh tlakh tlc

    gdmcbt ak jgeegwakh gut tlc aeeustr`tagk. Ect us

    suppgsc tlc gdmcbt fgvakh segwey. At f`y dc

    scck rc`oaey, dut kg sguko gj ats fgvcfckt

    rc`blcs tlc c`r. _lc spcco as hr`ou`eey

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    98/241

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    99/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    11

    `ko gtlcr sudtec r`ys gj eahlt. _lck dchak tg

    f`kajcst tlc pcbuea`r r`ys ikgwk `s tlc \

    T`ys, ctb., `s tlc bgkstatutagk gj tlc gdmcbtbl`khcs.

    Cecbtrabaty `ko F`hkctasf (Cecbtrgf`hkctasf)

    `rc cfattco wlck tlc `pprgpra`tc T`tc gj

    Zadr`tagkas `tt`akco. Xlck tlc gdmcbt rc`blcs `

    bcrt`ak T`tc gj Zadr`tagk ats Fgecbuecsoasaktchr`tc, `ko rcsgevc tlcfscevcs aktg tlc

    grahak`e Cecfckts gr @tgfs. _lck tlc @tgfs,

    jgeegwakh tlc ^rakbapec gj Zadr`tagk, `rc

    scp`r`tco aktg tlc bguktecss bgrpusbecs gj wlabl

    tlcy `rc bgfpgsco. @ko jak`eey, cvck tlc

    bgrpusbecs oas`ppc`r `ko tlc gdmcbt f`y dc s`aotg dc bgfpgsco gj _lc Ctlcrc`e Rudst`kbc,

    Pu`ris, gr ]cecs (]cocs). Rbackbc ogcs kgt o`rc

    tg jgeegw tlc aeeustr`tagk jurtlcr, dut tlc

    Chypta`ks tc`bl tl`t aj tlc Zadr`tagks dc

    bgktaku`eey akbrc`sco tlc gdmcbt wgueo fgukt up

    tlc subbcssavc Rt`tcs gj F`kajcst`tagk `ko

    wgueo ak turk f`kajcst tlc v`ragus Fckt`e

    Rt`hcs, `ko tlck gk Rparatw`ro, uktae at wgueo

    jak`eey rc-cktcr _LC @EE (^@@ ^@S_), wlabl as

    @dsgeutc Rparat watl tlc pgwcr tg brc`tc gr hrgw

    F`ttcr gut gj atscej. _lc gdmcbt, lgwcvcr,

    wgueo l`vc bc`sco tg dc `k gdmcbt egkh dcjgrc

    tlc Rt`hc gj Ctlcrc`e Rudst`kbc w`s rc`blco,

    dut gtlcrwasc tlc aeeustr`tagk as bgrrcbt ak`sfubl

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    100/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>>

    `s at slgws tlc cjjcbt gj bgkst`ktey akbrc`sco

    T`tcs `ko Fgocs gj Zadr`tagk. At fust dc

    rcfcfdcrco, ak tlc `dgvc aeeustr`tagk, tl`t `ttlc st`hcs `t wlabl tlc gdmcbt tlrgws gjj

    Zadr`tagks gj Eahlt, Lc`t, ctb., at as kgt `btu`eey

    rcsgevco aktg tlgsc jgrfs gj ckcrhy (wlabl `rc

    fubl lahlcr ak tlc sb`ec), dut safpey tl`t at

    rc`blcs ` Ochrcc gj Zadr`tagk ak wlabl tlgsc

    jgrfs gj Ckcrhy `rc Eadcr`tco, ak ` ochrcc, jrgftlc bgkjakakh akjeuckbcs gj ats Fgecbuecs, @tgfs

    `ko Bgrpusbecs, `s tlc b`sc f`y dc. Must `s Lc`t

    csb`pcs tlc je`fcs.

    _lcsc jgrfs gj Ckcrhy, `etlguhl fubl lahlcr ak

    tlc sb`ec tl`k f`ttcr, `rc afprasgkco `kobgkjakco ak tlc f`tcra`e bgfdak`tagks, dy rc`sgk

    gj tlc ckcrhacs f`kajcstakh tlrguhl, `ko usakh

    f`tcra`e jgrfs, dut tlus dcbgfakh ckt`kheco

    `ko bgkjakco ak tlcar brc`tagks gj f`tcra`e jgrfs,

    wlabl, tg `k cxtckt, as truc gj `ee brc`tagks. _lc

    brc`takh jgrbc dcbgfakh akvgevco ak ats brc`tagk,

    jarc tg Lc`t, X`tcr tg wct, `ko Abc tg bgeo. Dut

    tlc Chypta`k _c`blakhs hg fubl jurtlcr tl`k og

    tlgsc gj fgocrk sbackbc. _lcy tc`bl tl`t `ee

    F`kajcst`tagk gj _lguhlt, Cfgtagk, Tc`sgk,

    Xaeegr Ocsarc, gr `ky Fckt`e Rt`tcgr Bgkoatagk,

    `rc `bbgfp`kaco dy Zadr`tagks, ` pgrtagk gj

    wlabl `rc tlrgwk gjj `ko wlabl tcko tg `jjcbt

    tlc Fakosgj gtlcr pcrsgks dy akoubtagk. _las

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    101/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>0

    as tlc ^rakbapec wlabl prgoubcs tlc plckgfck`

    gj tcecp`tly9 Fckt`e Akjeuckbc `ko gtlcr

    jgrfs gj tlc `btagk `ko ^gwcr gj Fako gvcrF`ttcr, watl wlabl tlc hckcr`e pudeab as r`paoey

    dcbgfakh `bqu`aktco, gwakh tg tlc waoc

    oasscfak`tagk gj Chypta`k fystcry ikgwecohc dy

    tlc v`ragus sblgges, tlguhlt `egkh tlcsc eakcs `t

    tlas tafc. _las as tlc Kcw Faeeckkauf _c`blakh.

    Cvcry _lguhlt, Cfgtagkgr Fckt`e Rt`tcl`s ats

    bgrrcspgkoakh T`tc`ko Fgoc gj Zadr`tagk. @ko

    dy `k cjjgrt gj tlc waee gj tlc pcrsgk, gr gj gtlcr

    pcrsgks, tlcsc fckt`e st`tcs f`y dc

    rcprgoubco, must `s ` fusab`e tgkc f`y dc

    rcprgoubco dy b`usakh `k akstrufckt tg Zadr`tc`t ` bcrt`ak r`tcmust `s bgegr f`y dc rcprgoubco

    ak tlc s`fc w`y.

    Dy ikgwecohc gj tlc ^rakbapec gj Zadr`tagk, `s

    `ppeaco tg Fckt`e ^lckgfck`, gkc f`y

    ^ge`razclas Fako`t `ky ochrcc lc waslcs, tlush`akakh ` pcrjcbt bgktrge gvcr las Fckt`e Rt`tcs,

    Fggos, ctb. Ak tlc s`fc w`y tlcy f`y `jjcbt tlc

    Fakos gj gtlcrs, prgoubakh tlc ocsarco Fckt`e

    Rt`tcs ak tlcf. Ak slgrt, dc f`y dc `dec tg

    prgoubc gk tlc Fckt`e ^e`kctl`t wlabl sbackbc

    prgoubcs gk tlc ^lysab`e ^e`kck`fcey,

    Zadr`tagks `t Xaee. _las pgwcr gj bgursc f`y

    dc `bquarco gkey dy tlc prgpcr akstrubtagk,

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    102/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>4

    cxcrbascs, pr`btabc, ctb. tlc Rbackbc dcakh tl`t gj

    Fckt`e _r`ksfut`tagk, gkc gj tlc dr`kblcs gj

    tlc Chypta`k @rt. @ eattec rcjecbtagk gk wl`t wcl`vc s`ao waee slgw tlc stuockt tl`t tlc

    ^rakbapec gj Zadr`tagk ukocreacs tlc wgkocrjue

    plckgfck` gj tlc pgwcr f`kajcstco dy tlc

    F`stcrs`ko @ocpts, wlg `rc `dec tg `pp`rcktey

    sct `saoc tlc E`ws gj K`turc, dut wlg, ak rc`eaty,

    `rc safpey usakh gkc e`w `h`akst `kgtlcr9 gkc^rakbapec `h`akst gtlcrs9 `ko wlg `bbgfpeasl

    tlcar rcsuets dy bl`khakh tlc Zadr`tagks gj

    f`tcra`e gdmcbts, gr jgrfs gj Ckcrhy, `ko tlus

    pcrjgrf wl`t `rc bgffgkey b`eeco Far`becs.

    @s gkc gj tlc geo Chypta`kwratcrs l`s truey s`ao=

    Lc wlg gvcrst`kos tlc ^rakbapec gj Zadr`tagk,

    l`s hr`spco tlc sbcptcr gj ^gwcr, Rcilcf.

    _lc Jgurtl Oafcksagkb`eeco _lc Oafcksagk gj

    Zadr`tagk 6 Eavakh ak Rparat `ko _rutl (Aktuatavc

    Ikgwecohc gr Ikgwakh) ` Tc`ef gr Oafcksagk

    wlcrc tlcrc waee dc kg fgrc Rcbrcts, wlcrc

    ^cgpec `ko tlakhs waee dc scck `ko cxpgsco jgr

    truey wlg `ko wl`t tlcy `rc.

    _lc Zadr`tagk`e ^gwcr gj _lguhlt

    Xc fust bgfc tg rc`eazc watl gur truc akkcrcycs (Rparatu`e2

    roCyc) tl`t tlguhlt as ` Jgrbc`

    f`kajcst`tagk gj Bgsfab Ckcrhyl`vakh F`hkctab

    eaic pgwcr gj @ttr`btagk. Xlck wc tlaki wc scko

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    103/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>2

    gut vadr`tagks gj ` jakc ctlcrc`e sudst`kbc, wlabl

    `rc `s rc`e `s tlc Zadr`tagks f`kajcstakh lc`t,

    eahlt, cecbtrabaty, `ko f`hkctasf. _lcsc Fckt`eZadr`tagks`rc kgt cvaockt tg gur javc sckscs `rc

    kg prggj tl`t tlcy og kgt cxast. Must eggi `t at tlas

    w`y, ` pgwcrjue f`hkct waee scko gut vadr`tagks

    `ko cxcrt ` jgrbc sujjabackt tg `ttr`bt tg atscej `

    pacbc gj stcce wcahlakh ` lukorco pgukos, dut

    wc b`k kcatlcr scc, t`stc, sfcee, lc`r kgr jccetlc fahlty jgrbc.

    _lcsc _lguhlt Zadr`tagks, eaicwasc, b`kkgt dc

    scck, t`stco, sfceeco, lc`ro kgr jcet ak groak`ry

    w`y9 `etlguhl at as truc tlcrc `rc rcbgroco b`scs

    wlcrc ^cgpec pcbuea`rey scksatavc tg ^syblabafprcssagks wlg l`vc rcbcavco pgwcrjue

    _lguhlt X`vcs, `ko f`ky gj us b`k tcstajy tl`t

    wc l`vc jcet tlc _lguhlt Zadr`tagks gj gtlcrs,

    dgtl wlaec ak tlc prcsckbc gj bcrt`ak pcgpec `ko

    `t ` oast`kbc. ^cgpec `rc dcbgfakh fgrc `ko

    fgrc scksatavc tg _lguhlt Zadr`tagks. Ak tlas o`y

    `ko tafc gur tlguhlts `ko vasagks fust dc

    bryst`e bec`r, ^gsatavc`ko `eahkco watl tlc waee gj

    gur K`tur`e pe`k `ko ^urpgsc `bbgroakh tg

    K`turc. Xc `rc kgw eavakh ak ` hrc`t cr` gj tafc

    b`eeco tlc Rge`r Bybec gj TC (rcjcr tg Rge`r Bybec

    gj TC, F`stcr Icy vge.4) wlcrc tlc vcae gj Asas

    (@RC_) as dcakh eajtco gjj tlc wgreo, tlc Bgsfab

    Zcae gj tlc Aeeusagk`ry wgreo gj sudst`kbc `ko tlc

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    104/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>?

    rc`e wgreo gj ctlcrc`e f`ttcr. Xc l`vc p`ssco

    tlrguhl tlc `hc gj ^lysab`e, tg tlc `hc gj @ar,

    1Ctlcr, ^gsatavc _lguhlts ctbXc waee sggkrc`eey ec`rk tlc ^gwcr gj _lguhlt Zadr`tagks `ko

    tlc ^gwcr gj tlc E`w gj @ttr`btagk `s P`tuf

    (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs. _lguhlt as tlc j`stcst

    fgvakh jgrbc ak tlc Skavcrsc, `ko tlguhltw`vcs

    tr`vce j`stcr tl`k tlc spcco gj eahlt.

    Kakc Ctlcr_lc Grahak`e Bgsfab Brc`tgr

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as Kakc Ctlcr7

    @kswcr= Kakc Ctlcras tlc Grahak`e Brc`tgr gj tlc

    Skavcrsc. _g gvcrst`ko wl`t wc fc`k KakcCtlcr b`k dc scck `s Bgksbagus`ko Bgksbackbc

    H`scs. @s P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs ygu `rc

    tlc ^lysab`e jgrf gj Kakc Ctlcr.

    @bbgroakh tlc Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs Oabtagk`ry

    Bgksbagus fc`ks= ^crbcavakh, `pprclckoakh, grkgtabakh watl ` ochrcc gj bgktrgeeco tlguhlt

    gr Gdscrv`tagk= @[email protected]= f`rico dy strgkh

    jcceakhs gr kgtagks. @[email protected]

    ICQXGTOR= ^crbcavakh (^crbcptagk)=

    Gdscrv`tagk (_G GDRCTZC `s tlc Gdscrvcr)[email protected]`ic(Jueey Bgksbagus)= @w`rc(Ikgwakh)

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    105/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>3

    @bbgroakh tg tlc Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs Oabtagk`ry

    tlc wgro Bgksbackbc Fc`ks= _lc scksc gr

    bgksbaguskcss gj tlc fgr`e hggokcss grde`fcwgrtlakcss gj gkcs gwk bgkoubt,

    aktcktagks, gr bl`r`btcr tghctlcr watl ` jcceakh

    gj gdeah`tagk tg og rahlt gr dc hggo.

    Icywgros= RCKRC(AKKCT IKGXAKH

    AK_S_AGK, AK_S_AZKCRR), BGKRBAGSRKCRR(@[email protected])

    Rg wc `s ` P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs (KAKC

    C_LCT) gkbc wc `rc d`bi ak gur rahlt fako jueey

    usakh gur FAKO ^GXCT tlus HGO ^GXCT, gur

    ^crbcptagk Ecvce as `t juee f`xafuf `ko wc

    gdscrvc cvcrytlakh tlus dcbgfakh tlc CQCR gj

    tlc Skavcrsc (@EE) `s ` watkcss, wc st`rt tg eavc

    gjj gur akkcr jcceakhsaktuatagk tlus dcbgfakh

    truey @[email protected] gj ` Xgreo tl`t fgst og kgt cvck

    ikgw cxast. Ak dcbgfakh wl`t ygu truey `rc ygu

    l`vc kgw dcbgfc ` 1akc oafcksagk`e dcakhtl`t

    ikgws truey Bgksbackbc, Tahlt jrgf Xrgkh

    gr @uhlt `ko K`uhlt, fc`kakh tl`t wlabl A

    @uhlt tg og `bbgroakh tg K`turc (Kctcru) `ko

    tl`t wlabl A k`uhlt tg og `bbgroakh tg tlc

    Eavakh e`ws gj @efahlty Ctcrk`e K`turc(Kctcru).

    Kakc Ctlcrygur truc @kbcstr`e Rparatu`e(Ctlcrab)

    Jgrbcs ak tlcar Ctlcrab jgrf hrcw tlc Skavcrsc,

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    106/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>:

    wlabl w`s tlc praf`ry brc`tagk dcjgrc tlc

    eahltcst @tgf ikgwk `s LQOTGHCK (L0). Xc

    fust dcakh tg rc`eazc tl`t ckcrhacs cxastco `s `jgrf gj ckcrhy cxastakh ak tlc jgrf gj H`scs.

    Kakc Ecvcesgj tlcf cxastco jrgf Pu`ris tg Da-

    @ps tg ]cocs/]cecs, tgo`y rcjcrrco tg `s Rud-

    @tgfab ^`rtabecs(Ckcrhy), dcjgrc tlc wcahlt gr

    tlc Ruf gj `ky wcahlt rchastcrakh `s

    Kgtlakhkcss yct staee cxastakh. _las fc`ks dcakhEahltcr tlck tlc 0

    st jgrf gj octcbt`dec

    cxastckbc.

    Ects eggi `t Kgtlakhkcss gr tlc Rt`tc gj

    Kgtlakhkcss `s tlas, fgocrk o`y Pu`ktuf

    ^lysabasts l`vc tcrfco tlc wgreo tl`t cxast

    dcygko tlc @tgfwlabl as tlc wgreo gj Pu`ris,

    [email protected], `ko ]cocs/]cecs `s Kgtlakhkcss,

    fc`kakh Lyorghck @tgf tlcsc sf`ee fakutc

    p`rtabecs gj ckcrhy cxast dut tlcy b`kkgt dc

    bgfp`rco tg `kytlakh gk tlas saoc gj L0 gr

    Lyorghck. Rg tlc dcst wgro tl`t w`s havck w`s

    Kgtlakh (Kg._lakh), `ko wlck ygu truey

    cx`fakc tlc wgro Kgtlakh ygu scc Kg _lakh

    gr Kg. wlabl as tlc `ddrcva`tagk jgr tlc wgro

    Kufdcr `ko tlck _lakh, tlc s`fc watl tlc

    wgro sgfctlakh gr Ruf _lakh, tlc RSF gj `_lakh. Ak F`tlcf`tabs wc ec`rk tl`t Ruf as tlc

    tgt`eaty, sg tlc wgreo cxastakh dcegw @tgfsogcs

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    107/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    0>8

    kgt Ruf up tg gr @OO up tg `ky _LAKH ak

    ^lysab`e cxastckbc gr Tc`eaty, yct at staee Cxast.

    Kakc Ctlcr as tlc bgfdak`tagk gj `ee cxastakh

    H`scs `kywlcrc ak K`turc. Kgtlakh b`k dc `s

    pgwcrjue `s `ee cxastakh H`scs. Rg Kakc Ctlcr gur

    truc @kbcstr`e jgrbcs pcrjgrfco ^raf`ry (0st

    )

    Brc`tagk `ko `h`ak tlas safpey fc`ks tl`t `s

    Kakc Ctlcr jgrbcs b`eeco Ctlcra`ks (CtlcrabJgrbcs) tlcy Hrcw tlc Skavcrsc. Xc `s P`tuf

    (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs `rc p`rt gj tlc grahak`e

    hrgwtl gj kgt gkey C`rtl (^[email protected]) dut tlc

    cktarc Skavcrsc. Rg P`tuf (Fce`kak) hrcw watl

    Grahak`e Brc`tagk, tg bgfc `egkh watl ` tlakhs

    fc`ks tg hrgw watl gr watlak at. Kakc Ctlcr as 1

    pgakts jrgf Ctlcr 0 aktg o`rikcss b`eeco Dcygko

    Dcygko, tl`t purc tr`kquae, deassjue st`tc, `ko

    wc P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs f`kajcst jrgf

    pgakt 0 ak Lyorghck gk aktg 1 Cecfckts, `ko

    pec`sc ikgw tl`t tlc 1

    Rtgkcw`s ` syfdge gj tlc De`bi Ogttlc cssckbc

    gj Luf`k Dcakhstlc Tc`e _ruc Rcej gr Akkcr

    Dcakh (_lc [email protected]@ RGSE). Ak @eblcfy wlablfc`ks tlc De`bi Rbackbcs, De`bi fc`kakh

    Ctlcr gr tl`t ^c`bcjue Rt`tc, Laoock jgrbcs gj

    K`turc. _las De`bi Rtgkc w`s ikgwk `s tlc

    ^laegsgplcr Rtgkc, wlabl wlck `ee d`sc fct`es

    wlcrc tr`ksjgrfco `ko tr`ksfutco ygu wgueo

    rc`bl ` st`tc gj pcrjcbtagk, ak ygur @eblcfab`ewgri.

    Cvck ak tlas o`y `ko tafc Jr`tcrk`e Rgbactacs eaic

    tlc @r`dab Grocr gj tlc Kgdecs gj tlc Fystab

    Rlrakc wgueo b`rry `rguko ` De`bi Gkyx Rtgkc`s

    ` syfdge gj tlgsc ^rgtcbtgrs gj tlc R`brco

    Rcbrct, tlc ^rgtcbtgrs gj tlc ^yr`faos `ko gtlcr

    R`brco satcs `ko _cfpecs gj tlc Xgreo.

    _las De`bi Rtgkc rc`eey as tlc De`bi Eahlt Ckcrhy

    (SZSetr` Zagect Eahlt) gj tlc juee eahlt Rpcbtruf

    tl`t gur Fakos `rc `dec tg t`p aktg `s P`tuf

    (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs ak tlas o`y `ko tafc. _lc

    De`bi Rtgkcgr De`bi Ogtas `esg ` syfdge gj Kakc

    Ctlcr. Rg tlc Csgtcrabgr Laoock Gbbuetfc`kakh

    Ase`f QGS @[email protected] w`s suppgsco tg dc t`uhlt

    tlrguhl Fystab`e grocrs eaic tlc Ruja tg f`ic

    tl`t akkcr mgurkcyp`ss tlc Lyorghck(L0) @tgf(@[email protected] gr @[email protected]@L), p`ss tlc Pu`ri gr tlc ?

    ^e`kcs gj Cxastckbc wlabl `rc Rgeao ^e`kc gj

    tlc ^lysab`e, Eaquao^e`kc gj Jgrbcs, H`s_lc

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    110/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    00>

    ^e`kc gj Rparatgktg tlc Jgurtl (?tl

    ) _lc Fckt`e

    ^e`kc wlcrc ygur tlguhlts `rc jgrfco `ko

    jako tlcar grahak.

    Ak Ase`f ygu waee jako tlc < ^gaktco Rt`r Ryfdge

    gj _lc Fckt`e ^e`kc fc`kakh @s @dgvc sg

    Dcegw. Rg `ee tlas ec`os d`bi tg Kakc Ctlcr, tlc

    fgrc ygu drakh Kakc Ctlcr ^`rtabecs aktg ygur

    Eajc, tlrguhl ^gsatavc @ttatuoc, ^gsatavcZasu`eaz`tagks, Fcoat`tagk, ^r`ycr `ko Fckt`e

    Jgbus gk ` Hrcck Eahlt Lc`eakh Jgrbc eattec

    sccfakh Far`becs waee dchak tg l`ppck ak ygur

    eajc `ko ygu waee st`rt l`vakh ` juee cjjcbt gk tlc

    Pu`ktuf Jaceos gj Tc`eaty, tlus ygu dcakh tlc

    sl`pcr `ko fgeocr gj satu`tagks ak ygur eajc `ko

    kgt bgktrgeeco dy tlcf. _las as afpgrt`kt

    dcb`usc tlc fgrc ygu dchak tg rcsgk`tc gk Kakc

    Ctlcr Lc`eakh Eajc Ckcrhy, tlck ygu fgvc tg `

    Lahlcr Zadr`tagk, ` lahlcr grdat`e Rpak watlak

    ygur @tgfsgj ygur Dgoy, tlus l`vakh `k cjjcbt

    gk ygur gvcr `ee Bgksbaguskcss.

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    111/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    000

    _lc Fckt`e ^e`kc - Oggrw`y tg @EE

    Xc `rc f`oc up gj @tgfstlus wc wcrc b`eeco ak

    tlc Rblgge gj Tceahagk @o`f ak @kbackt _`F`-

    Tc (Chypt) @tuf gr @tgf tlc 0st

    pgakt gj

    Eahlt. Xc `s `k @_GF `rc kgtlakh dut

    Cfgtagk`e Ckcrhygr Ckcrhy ak Fgtagk, `ko wc

    `rc oarcbtco dy tlc Fako gur _lguhlt ^gwcr.

    _lc _lguhlts wc iccp as wl`t wc `ttr`bt

    dcb`usc _lguhlt Ckcrhyas Cecbtrab`ko F`hkctabak K`turc, sg tlcrc `rc Ctlcrab ^`rtabecs tl`t

    @ttr`bt tg us wlck wc `rc tlakiakh Kch`tavc,

    ocprcssavc tlguhlts, wlabl `rc @kta-Eajc `ko `rc

    tlc Oc`tl Jgrbcs ak K`turc. _lc fgrc ygu tlaki

    kch`tavc tlc fgrc ygu @ttr`bt kch`tavaty ak

    ygur eajc.

    Kgw hct tlas! Kakc Ctlcr oc`es watl Lc`etl,

    Lc`eakh, `ko ^gsatavc ak K`turc, sg wlck ygu

    dchak tg tlaki _lguhlts gj tlas K`turc ygu

    @ttr`bt tg ygur Eajc havakh Cecbtrg-F`hkctab

    ^`rtabecs tl`t bgrrcspgko tg tlcsc Lc`eakh Eajchavakh tlguhlts. Qgu scci ^c`bc`ko _r`kquaeaty

    ak ygur Eajc, ygu scci ^gsatavaty ak ygur Eajc,

    tlck hct gk tlc Kakc Ctlcr w`vc eckhtldy jarst

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    112/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    004

    safpey st`rtakh tg tlaki fgrc dcttcr qu`eaty

    tlguhlts `ko sccakh lgw ygu `s ` P`tuf

    (Fce`kakatc) Dcakh as eakico tg @EE `ko ygu b`kl`vc ` ^gsatavc cjjcbt gk ygur Eajc `ko `ee tlgsc

    `rguko ygu. Qgu w`kt ` ^gsatavc Rubbcssjue Eajc,

    tlaki ^gsatavc `ko Rubbcss. Kakc (1) Ctlcr as `esg

    Cjjcbtavc (@btagk) Jeuao (_g Jegw, Fgvcfckt)

    Jarc (Durkakh ^`ssagk, Eavceakcss gj Af`hak`tagk=

    Akspar`tagk). _`ic `btagk `ko fgvc dyakspar`tagk `ko rcvce`tagk. Cxp`koco

    Bgksbaguskcss `ko @w`rckcss, gkey Bgksbagus

    pcrbcptagk `etcrs rc`eaty `s wc ikgw at.

    _lc Kufdcr Kakc (1)

    _lc Kufdcr Kakc (1) as tlc syfdge gj tlc Barbec

    `ee ckbgfp`ssakh, Fako gj tlc Skavcrs`e @EE,

    tlus ak P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs at as gur

    FAKO ^GXCT! Kakc Ctlcr as ^gsatavc EAJC

    havakh jgrbcs ak K`turc tlc Grahak`e Brc`tgr,

    ^STC EAJC! Kakc Ctlcr `esg rcprcsckts dcygko

    Akjakaty Kakc tg tlc Kaktl pgwcr gj Kakc (111), 1

    6 De`bi Riak, 1 6 De`bi Fako, 1 6 De`bi Rgue. 1 6

    tlc ^crjcbt Bybec wlcrc `ee Tc`eatacs fcct.

    _lc Kufdcr 1 as ` pgwcrjue `ko syfdgeabkufdcr. _lc kufdcr Kakc as syfdgeab gj

    Lc`vck, Lcee, `ko Brc`tagk. Kakc as ` kufdcr

    wlgsc squ`rc rggt as tlrcc(2), `ko Kakc as `

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    002

    kufdcr wlck fuetapeaco rcprgoubcs tlc s`fc

    jahurcs jrgf up tg ogwk `ko jrgf ogwk tg up,

    `ko at cqu`es atscej.

    Kakc tlc Ruprcfc Kufdcr

    - >+161- 0+

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    114/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    00?

    @s P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs wc `rc bgfprasco

    gj Kakc ^rakbapecs `ko p`rts gj gur Dcakh tl`t

    f`ic us wlg wc `rc. _lc 1 ^rakbapecs tl`t f`icup QGS=

    0. [email protected]@_lc Rparatu`eQgu

    4. ILS_lc Fckt`e2. [email protected]__lc Dgoy?. [email protected]@Qgur Rgue3. [email protected]__lc

    ^e`sf`tab (Deggo)

    :. @IL_lc Ctlcrab Qgu8. [email protected]_A Qgur ^lysab`e Lc`rt

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    003

    Gur Kakc Ctlcrab @kbcstr`e Jgrbcs tl`t staee

    rcsaoc watlak us, jgr wc `rc tlcf `ko tlcy `rc

    us, ikgwk ak @kbackt _`F`-Tc `s tlc R`pzoctu(Rcomct, Ckkc`os) _lc Lc`o gj ^@@ Kctcru Rlae

    Kctcru(_lc K`turc gj K`turc).

    _lc Kakc R`pzoctu `rc=

    0. @tuf-Tc4. Rlu2. _cjkut?. Hcd3. Kut:.

    @s`ru

    8. @sct

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    116/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    00:

    tg ` prgdecf. Bgfakh tg ` bgkbeusagk d`sco gk

    J`bts `ko Bgkjarf`tagks. Kakc Tc`sgk as

    Fako ^gwcr, wlabl as Hgo ^gwcr. _lc `daeaty tgFckt`eeyrc`bl d`bi ak tlc De`bi Ctlcrs(KSK) gj

    ygur Fakotg rc-bgkkcbt `ko puee gut hrc`tkcss!

    Pucstagk= Xlg as KSK7

    @kswcr= Ak @kbackt _`F`-Tc KSK w`s gkc gjtlc < @kbcstr`e Jgrbcs gj K`turc b`eeco Ilcfcku

    (Ghog`os) bgfakh gut gj tlc O`ri X`tcry @dyss

    syfdgeab gj tlc wgreo gj Ctlcrs gr Ctlcrab Tc`ef

    `esg b`eeco tlc Skocrwgreo gr Ou`t.

    < Ilcfcku Tcprcsckt Ckcrhacs ak @efahlty

    Ctcrk`e K`turc.

    F`sbueakc ^rakbapecs

    0. Kuk6 ^rafgroa`e X`tcrs, Occp @dyss,Ctlcrab Tc`ef.

    4. Lcl6 Dgukoecss2. Ici6 Ruprcfc O`rikcss?. @fuk6 Laoock

    Jcfakakc ^rakbapecs

    0. Kukct6 Lc`vck4. Lclct6 _l`t wlabl l`s dguko`racs2. Icict6 Eahlt?. @fukct6 _l`t wlabl f`kajcst

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

    117/241

    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    008

    Kuk 6 ^rafgroa`e X`tcrs (@dyss) Ctlcrab Tc`ef,

    X`tcr Ryfdge gj Rparat (Eajc).

    Ak tlas o`y `ko tafc KSK as tlc Ckcrhy gj

    Grahak`e Brc`tagk (^gsatavc Ckcrhy Eajc) wlabl

    ygu `s ` P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakh as eakico tg,

    tl`t waee t`ic ygu aktg tlc Lcrc`jtcr. Lcrc`jtcr

    wlabl as Fckt`e Tcsurrcbtagk, truc Fako ^gwcr,

    HGO ^GXCT `ko Tuecr slap dy K`turc. Xlcrcygu `rc eavakh jrgf aksaoc gut fc`kakh ygu `rc

    eavakh jrgf akkcr prgfpts, akkcr ikgwakh `s wc

    b`ee at Aktuatagk gr Aktuatavc ikgwecohc wlabl

    as tlc vgabc gj _lc @EE ak @EE, wlcrc wc hg jrgf

    Bgksbagus tg Rudbgksbagus gktg Rupcr bgksbagus.

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as Aktuatagk `ko lgw afpgrt`kt

    as aktuatagk ak tlas o`y `ko tafc7

    @kswcr= @bbgroakh tg Fcrra`f Xcdstcrs

    Oabtagk`ry Aktuatagk fc`ks= Puabi `ko rc`oy

    aksahlt. _lc ^gwcrgr J`buetygj `tt`akakh oarcbt

    ikgwecohc gr bghkatagk watlgut aktcrjcrckbc gj

    r`tagk`e tlguhlt.

    _lc wgro Aktuatfc`ks= tg Ikgw, Rcksc.

    Icy Xgros= ^GXCT= [email protected]_Q= IKGX= RCKRC

  • 7/23/2019 Melanin Physics by NEB HERU

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    00,3>> yc`rs `hg rcbgroco ak

    `kbackt _`F`-Tc `ko Rufcra`k bueturc `s tlc

    OCESHC, tlck ygu l`vc tlc Cko gj ` 4?,

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    044

    wlabl f`kajcst tlrguhl `ko jrgf _LC RSK(^@@

    TC).

    TC as tlc Oavakc, Skavcrs`e Bgksbaguskcss, `ko

    tlc Eavakh Fako gj K`turc. TC 6 tlc Laoock

    Rgurbc gj tlc Ctcrk`e, scej grahak`tco, akvasadec,

    Ctcrk`e Dcakh, J`tlcr ak Rparat (F`sbueakc

    Ckcrhy). TC6 _LC [email protected], tlc J`tlcr gj Ckcrhy.

    @fuk-TC 6 tlc Laoock Eahlt, watlak c`blpcrsgk, tlc akkcr ygu, tlc Rgue, Hrcck Eahlt

    gktg De`bi Eahlt ckcrhy, tl`t as cxastakh dut fgst

    og kgt bgfprclcko.

    Kgw as ygur tafc `s Blaeorck gj TCgr safpey tlc

    Blaeorck gj tlc De`bi Eahlt, @fuk-TC (LaoockEahlt), TC `esg cqu`es Ctlcr. _lc Rge`r Bybec gj

    TcAR QGST TC-BGKKCB_AGK watl [email protected]

    RC_ LS.(Tcjcr tg tlc Rge`r Bybec gj TC F`stcr

    Icy Zge.4) _l`t as _` (C`rtl), FS([email protected]_CT), KCJS

    (@AT), `ko RC_ (RSK), `ee f`kajcstakh jrgf LS

    (_l`t brc`tavc jgrbc gj Xaee).

    @esg tlc laoock Csgtcrabfc`kakh gj TC as tlc

    Brc`tavc pgwcr, tg f`ic, Bgsfab

    Bgksbaguskcss, `ko ak Luf`k Dcakhs at as

    Bgksbaguskcss tlc @w`rc Fako.

    Bgksbaguskcss as tlc rcbcavakh b`p`baty gj tlcRgue ([email protected]@) gr akoavaou`e aktceeahckbc. @kgtlcr

    w`y gj s`yakh tlas as tlc cvcr durkakh eahlt gr

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    042

    jarst f`kajcst`tagk gj tlc Skavcrs`e Aktceeahckbc

    gr Skavcrs`e Rgue.

    [email protected] tlc Zasadec Eahlt (RSK)

    Tc6 Ckcrhy Dclako tlc Zasadec Eahlt (RSK). De`bi

    Eahlt (KSK gr @-KSK-TC) _lc Ruk Dclako tlc

    Ruk. (Tcjcr tg tlc Rge`r Bybec gj TC, F`stcr Icy

    Zge.4)

    TC6 Rcej dchgttck, Rcej Grahak`tco.

    _afc tg F`ic tlc "Mgurkcy Xatlak"

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    043

    Pucstagk= Xl`t as Pu`ktuf ^lysabs7

    @kswcr= Pu`ktuf ^lysabs as tlc ^lysabs gjAkjakatc ^gssadaeatacs. Pu`ktuf ^lysabs as tlc

    stuoy gj [email protected]`ko ^`rtabecstl`t

    `rc Rud fc`kakh Dcegw tlc @tgf(Lyorghck

    L0), tlc stuoy gj tlc @ee ak tlakhs, tlus tlc

    @EE ak @EE. Pu`ktuf ^lysabs, Pu`ktuf Tc`eaty,

    tlc ecvce gj juee Bgksbagus @w`rckcss.

    Pucstagk= As tlcrc ` Bgkkcbtagk dctwcck

    Pu`ktuf ^lysabs `ko P`tuf (Fce`kak)7

    @kswcr= Qcs tlcrc as ocjakatcey ` bgkkcbtagk,

    tlrguhl ygur Fce`kak wlabl as ` bgkocksco

    jgrf gj Eahlt, ygu `s ` P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakh

    `rc bgkkcbtco tg @EE, tl`t wlabl Rbacktast `rc

    b`eeakh Pu`ktuf. @s P`tuf (Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs

    wc fust ec`rk tlc rc`eatacs gj Cxastckbc `ko

    rcvcrsc tlc prgbcss gj Rcej Octcragr`tagk, dgtl

    ^lysab`eey `ko Fckt`eey, `ko watl tlas bgkjarfco

    j`bt dcbgfc p`rt gj @EE, dcbgfc p`rt gj tlc

    sgeutagk, tlc B`usc. Xc `h`ak fust dchak tg

    rc`eazc tl`t tlc Cssckbc gj gur Dcakh as tl`t wc

    cxast `ko watl tl`t bgkjarf`tagk cxastckbc as `s

    wc `rc. _afc as `s wc dc! @EE as, @EE `bts, @EEogcs, @ee tlakhs `rc ` p`rt gj @EE gk aktg @eekcss.

    _lc d`dy gj @eekcss as jguko ak tlc wgfd gj

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    04:

    Pu`ktuf ^lysabs, Dgrk jrgf Aksaoc-Gut ak

    Ctlcrab Cxastckbc.

    Pucstagk= Xlg `rc tlc Ilcfcku7

    @kswcr= _lc Ilcfcku `esg ikgwk `s tlc

    Ghog`os ak @kbackt _`F`-Tc (Chypt) `rc tlc yc`rs, stuoacs tl`t l`vc traco tg

    jako tlc sf`eecst ^`rtabecgr tg cxpegrc tlc gutcr

    eafats gj sp`bc l`vc bgfc up watl `kswcrs wlabl

    suppgrt tlc @kbackt Chypta`k tc`blakhs vacw gj

    tlc bgsfgs `ko gur rce`tagk watl at `s P`tuf(Fce`kakatc) Dcakhs.

    Rbackbc as oasbgvcrakh tl`t tlc Skavcrsc as akjakatc

    ak `ee oarcbtagks, dgtl `t tlc @tgfab (Fabrg)ecvce

    `ko `t tlc ^e`kct`ry (F`brg) ecvce. Rbackbc as

    `esg jakoakh tl`t wl`t tlcy `rc b`eeakh F`ttcr,as kgt wl`t at `ppc`rs tg dc. Ak j`bt, stuoacs tl`t

    f`ttcr as 11.1% cfpty sp`bc surrgukoco dy `k

    aoc`, akjgrf`tagk, tlguhlt, `ko bgksbaguskcss.

    _lc @tgf as s`ao tg dc bgfpgsco gj `

    pgsatavcey (+) bl`rhco ^`rtabec b`eeco `^rgtgk `ko ` ^`rtabec watl kg bl`rhc (K),

    b`eeco ` Kcutrgk, ak tlc bcktcr. _lcsc twg

    p`rtabecs `rc s`ao tg dc surrgukoco dy `k

    Cecbtrgk (Ckcrhy ak Fgtagk, Cfgtagk`e Ckcrhy)

    wlabl b`rry ` Kch`tavc (-) bl`rhc `ko rcvgevcs

    `rguko tlc Kubecus (Bcktcr, @xas). @ee F`ttcr asjguko tg dc bgfpgsco gj tlc s`fc ^rgtgks,

    Kcutrgks `ko Cecbtrgks. _lc oajjcrckbc ak

    `ppc`r`kbc bgfcs jrgf tlc oajjcrckt kufdcrs

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    Xl`t as P`tuf ^lysabs7

    020

    gj ^`rtabecs ak c`bl @_GF (@_SF) `ko `esg

    jrgf tlc bgfdak`tagk gj oajjcrckt `tgfs watl

    v`raco bgfdak`tagks gj tlc tlrcc p`rtabecs,f`ics up `ee ^crsgks, ^e`bcs, `ko _lakhs. Rg wc

    fust kgw ec`rk tg tlaki p`st tlc @tgf, fc`kakh

    fckt`eey hg d`bi p`st tlc @tgf. Hg p`st ^crsgk,

    ^e`bcs, `ko _lakhs, `ko tlaki gk ` fgrc

    Pu`ktuf ecvce, `ko ec`rk tg dcbgfc tlc

    b`usc gj tlc f`ky cjjcbts gj ygur eajc, ak tlc^gsatavc.

    Jurtlcr, at as ikgwk tl`t Cecbtrgks l`vc kg

    wcahlt `ko tl`t tlcrc as ` v`st cfpty sp`bc

    dctwcck tlc ^rgtgks `ko tlc Cecbtrgks tl`t

    barbue`tc `rguko tlcf9 `esg tl`t tlcrc as cfptysp`bc aksaoc gj tlc ^rgtgks,