Mental Imagery and Human Memory - Universitt Mental imagery definition properties Human memory long-term memory working memory short- term memory Imagery Models psychologyAuthors: John T E RichardsonAffiliation: Open UniversityAbout: Memory Mental image

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<ul><li><p>Mental Imagery andHuman Memory</p><p>Seminar Spatial CognitionSummer Term 2003</p><p>Thomas Barkowsky</p></li><li><p>What is mental imagery?</p><p>The trunk exampleYou've got a car, numerous pieces of baggage, sports equipment, </p><p>A geographic exampleIn which direction with respect to Bremen are located:</p><p>Berlin?London?Vienna? </p></li><li><p>Outlook</p><p>Mental imagerydefinitionproperties</p><p>Human memorylong- term memoryworking memoryshort- term memory</p><p>Imagery Modelspsychologyartificial intelligence</p></li><li><p>Mental imagery A definition</p><p>Mental imagery is "the mental invention or recreation of an experience that in at least some respects resembles the experience of actually perceiving an object or an event, either in conjunction with, or in absence of, direct sensory stimulation" (Finke, 1989)</p></li><li><p> invention or recreation </p><p>mental image constructionbased on memorycombined from elements</p><p>image inspectionutilization of image constructed</p><p>image modificationalternatives in constructed and inspected images </p></li><li><p> of an experience </p><p>issue of interest: cognitive principles (not experience!)indirect measurement!are mental images 'real'?cf. imagery debate</p></li><li><p> visual perception </p><p>imagery tightly coupled with visionimagery with perception</p><p>e.g. combination of seen and mentally constructed elements</p><p>imagery without perceptionpure construction from memory</p><p>no perception without imageryimagery precondition for vision processes</p></li><li><p>Mental rotation</p><p>[Shepard &amp; Metzler, 1971]</p></li><li><p>Mental scanning</p><p>[Kosslyn et al., 1978]Learn artificial mapScanning the imagined mapReaction time proportional to distance</p></li><li><p>Conclusion</p><p>Spatio-analogical representation in the mindCritics: difference between </p><p>experienceexperimental behaviorphysical realization in the mind / brain</p></li><li><p>The imagery debate</p><p>Do 'mental images' have a specific representation format?</p><p>dual codingjust propositional coding</p><p>e.g. "who 'looks' at the internal picture?"evidence from patients with brain damagesmental imagery quite accepted</p></li><li><p>Mental images: Characteristics</p><p>not epiphenomenalquasi-pictorial mental representation structures</p><p>not retrieved in a ready-made formmental constructionsmental storage differs from form in usageuse of pieces of knowledge</p></li><li><p>Mental images: Characteristics</p><p>composition from well-organized pieces of knowledge</p><p>hierarchical structure in long-term memoryorganization in mental storage influences image construction time</p><p>image construction from both pictorial and propositional information</p><p>e.g. image construction from verbal descriptions</p></li><li><p>Unifying principles</p><p>implicit encodingperceptual equivalencespatial equivalencetransformational equivalencestructural equivalence</p><p>[Finke, 1989]</p></li><li><p>Implicit encoding</p><p>imagery allows to exhibits information not explicitly stored in memoryretrieve implicit information from memoryadvantageous w.r.t. space requirementcf. diagrammatic reasoning in AI</p></li><li><p>Perceptual equivalence</p><p>"Imagery is functionally equivalent to perception to the extent that similar mechanisms in the visual system are activated when objects or events are imagined as when the same objects or events are actually perceived"Imagery is essential for vision, not the other way around!</p></li><li><p>Spatial equivalence</p><p>"The spatial arrangement of the elements of a mental image correspond to the way objects and their parts are arranged on actual physical surfaces or in an actual physical space"Visual buffer structure both in vision and in imagery</p></li><li><p>Transformational equivalence</p><p>Cf. mental rotation"Imagined transformations and physical transformations exhibit corresponding dynamic characteristics and are governed by the same laws of motion"Cf. mental animationAlso used in diagrammatic reasoning systems</p></li><li><p>Structural equivalence</p><p>Structure of images corresponds to that of real objects</p><p>organized, coherent structurereorganizationreinterpretation</p><p>e.g. in configuration tasks, anticipation and planning of motion and change</p></li><li><p>Human memory</p><p>long-term memoryworking memoryshort-term memory</p></li><li><p>Working memory [Baddeley 1986]</p><p>information from the sensesinformation from long-term memory(at least) 2 sub-systems</p><p>visuo-spatial sketchpadarticulatory loop</p><p>Centralexecutive</p><p>Articulatoryloop</p><p>Visuo- spatialscratchpad</p></li><li><p>Central executive</p><p>mediates betweenworking memory subsystems long-term memory</p><p>controls rehearsal processestranslates between modalities</p></li><li><p>Visuo-spatial sketchpad</p><p>short-term memorytransient structure</p><p>fading (approx 1.5 sec)rehearsal</p><p>subdivision by Logie, 1995visual informationspatial information</p></li><li><p>Capacity restriction in working memory</p><p>7+/-2 items (Miller, 1956)4 items (Cowan, 2001)swapping with long-term memorychunking in working memory</p></li><li><p>Long-term memory</p><p>network structurespreading activationhierarchical organization</p><p>conceptual hierarchiesindividual hierarchies</p></li><li><p>Memory for mental imagery</p><p>imagery takes place in working memoryimage construction and modification</p><p>information from long-term memoryactivation of information</p></li><li><p>Memory for mental imagery (contd.)</p><p>working memory consists of long-term memory and short-term memoryimage construction in visual buffer = visuo-spatial sketchpadimage inspection in visual bufferimagery processes in central executive</p></li><li><p>Integration of memory systems</p><p>short-termmemory</p><p>(not activated)</p><p>long-termmemory</p><p>(activated)workingmemory</p><p>activation</p><p>representation/</p><p>maintenance</p></li><li><p>Imagery models</p><p>Psychological modelsimplemented (Kosslyn, 1980)conceptual (Kosslyn, 1994)</p><p>Artificial intelligence modelssimulation (Funt, 1980)spatial reasoning (Khenkhar, 1991)computational imagery (Glasgow &amp; Papadias, 1992)</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1980</p><p>cathode-ray tube metaphorsurface vs. deep representation</p><p>surface representationshort- term / working memoryquasi- pictorial positional structure (raster matrix)limited spatial extendapprox. circular shapedefinite grain and limited resolutionresolution decreases towards peripheryfading of image parts</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1980 (contd.)</p><p>deep representationlong-term memory2 kinds of deep representations</p><p>perceptual / literal image representationskeletal encodingsindividual encodingshierarchical organization</p><p>discursive description (propositions)qualitative spatial descriptionsinformation about parts, location, and category</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1980 (contd.)</p><p>image constructionPICTURE, FIND, PUT, IMAGE (control)</p><p>image inspectionLOOKFOR (control), RESOLUTION, REGENERATE</p><p>image modificationZOOM, PAN, ROTATE, SCAN</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1994</p><p>conceptual modelbased on high-level vision processes (neurospsychology)interaction between subsystemsimplementation only of partial aspects</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1994 (contd.)</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1994 (contd.)</p><p>1. pattern code</p><p>2.</p><p>2.</p><p>3.</p><p>3. 4.</p><p>image construction</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1994 (contd.)</p><p>1. pattern code</p><p>2.</p><p>2. 3. 4.</p><p>adding additional parts</p><p>5.</p></li><li><p>Kosslyn, 1994 (contd.)</p><p>2.</p><p>image inspection</p><p>1.</p><p>1.2.</p><p>spatial properties</p><p>object properties3.</p></li><li><p>Funt, 1980 (WHISPER)Reasoning about mechanicsPrediction of motionPositional representation of initial stateRepresentation of intermediate statesComponents</p><p>diagramhigh-level reasoner'retina'</p></li><li><p>Funt, 1980 (contd.)high-level reasoner</p><p>procedural propositional problem solverqualitative physical knowledge</p></li><li><p>Funt, 1980 (contd.)</p><p>'retina'positional diagrammatic structurecircular structure of concentric ringsparallel processorsneighborhood structuresupervising processorvariable position</p></li><li><p>Funt, 1980 (contd.)</p><p>retina: percptual primitivesfocus center of entitycheck for symmetrycheck for congruencescaling, rotationconnections, collisionsboundary features (convexity, slope)identify neighboring entities</p><p>simulation of tentative movement of objects</p></li><li><p>Depic-2D (Khenkhar, 1991)</p><p>hybrid system: propositional and pictorial reasoningregular rectangular cell structuredepiction of objects in cells</p></li><li><p>Depic-2D (Khenkhar, 1991)</p><p>depiction of objects in cellsuse of neighborhood structure</p><p>spreading activatione.g. buffering</p></li><li><p>Depic-2D (Khenkhar, 1991)</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (Glasgow &amp; Papadias, 1992)</p><p>diagrammatic reasoning architecture for technical applications</p><p>chemistrygeography</p><p>3 subsystems</p><p>visualrepresentation</p><p>interpret</p><p>store</p><p>spatialrepresentation</p><p>deeprepresentation</p><p>perceive reconstruct</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (contd.)</p><p>surface representation subdividedspatial representation</p><p>'where' aspects: location w.r.t. other objectsvisual representation</p><p>'what' aspects: shape, color, texture</p><p>visualrepresentation</p><p>interpret</p><p>store</p><p>spatialrepresentation</p><p>deeprepresentation</p><p>perceive reconstruct</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (contd.)</p><p>deep representationlong-term storage (before and after processing)hierarchical organization</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (contd.)visual representation</p><p>positional structure: occupancy arraysshape, distance, (relative) distancestexture, color, surface orientation3D, viewer independentstandard computer graphics operations</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (contd.)</p><p>spatial representationqualitative relationships between objectsrelational structure: symbolic arrays</p></li><li><p>Computational imagery (contd.)</p><p>topology and (coarse) orientationno exact shapes and sizeshierarchiesprocesses for</p><p>information transferplacing, detecting, moving, deletingchecking for adjacencypattern recognition by attention control</p></li><li><p>Thanks!</p><p>questions?comments?</p></li></ul>

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