Merjenje in vrednotenje proizvodnih procesov

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  • UNIVERZA V MARIBORU FAKULTETA ZA ORGANIZACIJSKE VEDE

    Magistrsko delo podiplomskega tudija Program MANAGEMENT DELOVNIH PROCESOV

    MERJENJE IN VREDNOTENJE

    PROIZVODNIH PROCESOV Mentor: Kandidat: izred. prof. dr. Miro Jeraj Matej Hohnjec

    Kranj, januar 2008

  • ZAHVALA Iskreno se zahvaljujem mentorju izred. prof. dr. Miru JERAJU, za strokovno pomo, tevilne koristne in ivljenjsko uporabne nasvete, vzpodbujanje in podporo pri nastajanju magistrske naloge. Zahvaljujem se tudi ivljenjski sopotnici Mojci in sinu Maksu, ki sta mi omogoila rtvovati svoj prosti as za tudij in pisanje magistrske naloge. Hkrati bi se zahvalil e starema Katarini in Martinu, ki sta mi omogoila predhodno pridobivanje formalne izobrazbe. Za vloen trud pri lektoriranju velja posebna zahvala lektorju Simonu Atelku. Na koncu se zahvaljujem vsem podjetjem in njihovim zaposlenim, ki so se muili z izpolnjevanjem vpraalnika. Na podlagi njihovih podatkov je nastala zanimiva raziskava.

  • POVZETEK V uvodu smo opredelili pomen merjenja v organizacijah. Organizacije e od nekdaj merijo uspenost svojega poslovanja, kajti merjenje vpliva na obnaanje in odloanje zaposlenih, odkriva podroja za izboljanje poslovanja in nakazuje potencialna razvojna podroja. Kljub pomembnosti merjenja procesov tevilna podjetja ne znajo povezati kazalnikov z uspenostjo poslovanja. V prvem delu drugega poglavja smo najprej obravnavali osnove procesov. Te osnove so bile podlaga za drugi del drugega poglavja, kjer smo naredili pregled najpogosteje uporabljenih kazalcev in kazalnikov v proizvodnih procesih. V teoriji in praksi je bilo e veliko poskusov vzpostavitve modelov za merjenje in izboljanje procesov. V praksi najvekrat uporabljeni modeli za upravljanje, vodenje in izboljanje procesov, ki so neposredno povezani z merjenjem in vrednotenjem proizvodnih procesov, so predstavljeni v tretjem poglavju. Vsak model ima svoje prednosti in slabosti, ki smo jih zbrali na koncu tega poglavja. V nadaljevanju smo preko ankete, ki je bila izvedena v slovenskih in nemkih podjetjih, analizirali trenutno stanje na podroju merjenja uspenosti procesov. Na podlagi vseh predhodnih podatkov smo razvili v petih korakih metodologijo za doloitev kazalnika uspenosti poslovanja, katerega povezanost z uspenostjo smo preverili z regresijsko analizo. KLJUNE BESEDE

    - merjenje uspenosti poslovanja - kazalnik uspenosti poslovanja - kazalniki in kazalci procesov

  • ABSTRACT In the introduction, we defined the meaning of measuring in organizations. Organizations have tried for some time to measure the effectiveness of their operations, because the measuring affects employees attitude and decision-making, shows fields for the improvement of operations, and indicates potential development areas. Despite the importance of measuring processes, many companies are not able to connect indicators with effectiveness of operations. In the first part of the second chapter, we discussed firstly the basics of processes. These basics were fundamental for the second part of the chapter where we made an overlook of the most used indicators in production processes. In theory and praxis, there have been many attempts to establish new models for measuring and improvement of processes. In the third chapter are presented the most frequently used models for managing, leading and improving of processes in praxis that are directly connected with measuring and evaluation of production processes. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses and they are presented at the end of the third chapter. In the fourth chapter, we analyzed the present conditions in the field of measuring the effectiveness of processes. On the basis of the preceding data, we developed through five steps a new methodology to determine indicators of effectiveness of operations where the connection of effectiveness to the indicator was verified by the regression analysis. KEYWORDS

    - business performance measuring - business performance indicators - indicators of processes

  • KAZALO

    1 UVOD IN OPIS PROBLEMA.....................................................................................................8

    1.1 UVODNE MISLI ........................................................................................................................8 1.2 OPIS PROBLEMSKEGA STANJA.............................................................................................10 1.3 CILJ IN NAMEN MAGISTRSKE NALOGE ..................................................................................14

    2 TEORETINE OSNOVE..........................................................................................................17

    2.1 KAJ JE PROCES?..................................................................................................................17 2.1.1 Lastnosti procesov .......................................................................................................17 2.1.2 Procesna organizacija .................................................................................................19 2.1.3 Proizvodni proces .........................................................................................................20

    2.2 KAZALNIKI IN KAZALCI PROIZVODNIH PROCESOV ................................................................21 2.2.1 Kazalniki in kazalci postopka ......................................................................................23 2.2.2 Kazalniki in kazalci za stroje in opremo ....................................................................33 2.2.3 Kazalniki in kazalci za ljudi..........................................................................................38 2.2.4 Kazalniki in kazalci za material...................................................................................45 2.2.5 Kazalniki in kazalci za okolico ....................................................................................48

    3 MODELI ZA UPRAVLJANJE, VODENJE IN IZBOLJANJE PROCESOV ...................50

    3.1 STANDARD ISO 9001:2000 .................................................................................................50 3.1.1 Standard ISO/TS 16949 ..............................................................................................53

    3.2 EKONOMSKA DODANA VREDNOST (EVA) .............................................................................54 3.3 SISTEM URAVNOTEENIH KAZALNIKOV ...............................................................................56 3.4 EVROPSKA POSLOVNA ODLINOST .....................................................................................60 3.5 BENCHMARKING...................................................................................................................64 3.6 20 KLJUEV (20 KEYS)........................................................................................................65 3.7 EST SIGMA (SIX SIGMA)......................................................................................................67

    3.7.1 Statistino ozadje 6....................................................................................................68 3.7.2 projekt 6.......................................................................................................................69

    3.8 CELOVITO OBVLADOVANJE KAKOVOSTI (TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT) ...........................71 3.9 REINENIRING POSLOVNIH PROCESOV (BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING) ................73 3.10 OVREDNOTENJE MODELOV..................................................................................................74

    4 ANALIZA OBSTOJEEGA STANJA ...................................................................................79

    4.1 MERJENJE USPENOSTI PROCESOV....................................................................................91

    5 MODEL DOLOITVE KAZALCA USPENOSTI POSLOVANJA PROIZVODNEGA PODJETJA .........................................................................................................................................94

    5.1 DOLOITEV ROBNIH POGOJEV VELJAVNOSTI MODELA KAZALNIKOV...................................95 5.2 IZBIRA KAZALNIKOV IN VALIDACIJA MODELA ........................................................................97

    5.2.1 Doloitev potreb gonilnega drevesa ..........................................................................97 5.2.2 Doloitev gonilnikov gonilnega drevesa....................................................................98 5.2.3 Doloitev kazalcev in kazalnikov..............................................................................106 5.2.4 Doloitev merskih veliin kazalnikov .......................................................................112 5.2.5 Doloitev utei in validacija modela .........................................................................114

    5.3 POVZETEK METODOLOGIJE RAZVOJA KAZALNIKA USPENOSTI POSLOVANJA ..................131

    6 ZAKLJUKI .............................................................................................................................135

    6.1 OCENA MODELA KAZALNIKA USPENOSTI POSLOVANJA ...................................................135 6.2 ODGOVORI NA POSTAVLJENE HIPOTEZE IN RAZISKOVALNA VPRAANJA ..........................137 6.3 MONOSTI NADALJNEGA RAZVOJA ....................................................................................140

    LITERATURA IN VIRI .....................................................................................................................142

  • PRILOGE .......