METAL FORMING Metal forming can be defined as a process in which the desired size and shape are obtained through the deformation of metals plastically

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  • METAL FORMING Metal forming can be defined as a process in which the desired size and shape are obtained through the deformation of metals plastically under the action of externally applied forces. The volume of the metal of the product remains constant before and after forming process.
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  • HOT WORKING (Forming) Mechanical working processes which are done above recrystallisation temperature of the metal are known as hot working processes
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  • 5.1.EFFECT OF HOT WORKING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 1- This process is generally performed on a metal held at such a temperature that the metal does not work-harden 2. Raising the metal temperature lowers the stresses required to produce deformations and increases the possible amount of deformation 3. Surface finish of hot worked metal is not nearly as good as with cold working, because of oxidation and scaling. 4. One has to be very careful as regards the temperatures at which to start hot work and at which to stop because this affects the properties to be introduced in the hot worked metal.
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  • Cold WORKING (Forming) Cold working of a metal is carried out below its recrystallisation temperature. 5.2.PURPOSE OF COLD WORKING The common purpose of cold working is given as under 1. Cold working is employed to obtain better surface finish on parts. 2. It is commonly applied to obtain increased mechanical properties. 3. It is widely applied as a forming process of making steel products using pressing and spinning. 4. It is used to obtain thinner material.
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  • Forming processes may be classified as follows Bulk forming processes. Sheet Metal Processes
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  • BULK FORMING PROCESSES Bulk Forming processes includes: forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing.
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  • 5.3. FORGING Forging process may be classified according to various aspects, as one of the forming processes, forging may be classified into hot and cold. According to the type of die used, forging may classified into Open- die forging (free forging) and die forging
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  • FORGING
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  • Coining
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  • Rolling
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  • Rolling may be classified into 1. flat rolling - reduces the thick. of a sheet of material. 2.shape rolling produces new parts with a complex cross section.
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  • EXTRUSION
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  • WIRE DRAWING
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  • SHEET METAL WORK In sheet metal work, the thickness of the sheet usually remains unchanged. The operations that carried out on sheet metals are; shearing, bending, drawing, press forming, spinning and explosive forming.
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  • SHEET METAL WORK
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  • Shearing Piercing Blanking Bending Deep drawing Spinning Embossing
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  • FORMING PLASTICS Extrusion Extrusion blow-molding Injection molding Compression molding Vacuum forming