Mites Associated with Vine Trees in the U.A.R. (Acarina)
By ABD EL TAWAB A. YOUSEF~
Mites inhabiting vines in U.A.R. fall into the two suborders Trombidiformes and Mesostig- mata. Seven trombidiform species belonging to the superfamilies Tetranychoidea and Erio- phyoidea were recorded, of which Tentlipalpus granati Sayed, Tetranychus arabicus Attiah, Eriophyes oculiwitis Attiah and Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.) were persistent pests, while Brewi- palpus phoenicis (Geijskes), Brevipalpus lewisi McG., and Oligonychus vitis Zaher and Shehata were less abundant. Also, the raphignathoid predetor mite, Agistemus exsertus (Gonzalez), was found associated with the other phytophagous species. Of the Mesostig- mata, the two phytoseiid mites, Phytoseiur plttrnifer (C. Pr F.) and Typhloduomus pyri Scheuten were recorded.
Investigations by ATTIAH (1956 and 1969), YOUSEF (1967), SHEHATA (1967) and GOMAA (1968) indicated that vines are inhabited by several mite species, some of which are plant feeders and the others are predators. In the present study a complete picture of the mites occurring on vines, their distribution and abundance in different localities of the U.A.R. are given.
Key to the collected Species
1. Pedipalpal tarsus with two tined claws; stigmata located in the area between coxae I1 and anterior margins of coxae IV, usually associated with elongated peritreme. Chelicerae with opposed chelae, male chelae with spermatodactyl. With not more than 20 pairs of dorsal setae; ven- tral and anal plates contiguous . . . . Suborder MESOSTIGMATA
Not as above . . . . Suborder TROMBIFORMES . . . (2) 2 . Body worm like, rings similar above as below; with two pairs of legs in
the adult stage; shield setae in front of rear margin of shield . . . (9) Body normal, with four pairs of legs in the adult stage; tracheal system
distinct, peritremes may be present; palpus with a thumb-claw complex Cohort PROMATA, Subcohort ELEUTHEROGONA . . . . . . (3)
3. Movable chelae very long, whiplike, strongly recurved proximally and set in an eversible stylophore. Genital opening transverse . . . .
Family PHYTOSEIIDAE Berlese . . . . . . . . . . . . (8)
Plant Protection Laboratory National Research Centre, Dokki, U.A.R.
2 Abd El Tawab A . Yousej
. . . . . . . . . . . . Superfamily TETKANYCHOIDEA (4) Movable chela not as above. Genital opening longitudinal. Empodial
raylets originate on an erect rod. Dorsum with one unpaired plate covers any part of middorsal line of hysterosoma (suranal plate excepted). With prominent post-ocular bodies . . . . Superfamily RAPHIGNATHOI- DEA, Family STIGMAEIDAE Oudemans, Agistemus exsertus (Gonzalez).
(5) . . . . . . . .
5. Empodium claw like, about as long as the proximoventral setae. Wlth twelve pairs of dorsal setae arranged in six transverse rows: 2 , 4, 6, 4, 4, 4. The shaR of aedeagus bent a t right angle . . . . . . . . . .
Empodium consisting of three pairs of hairs, the proximoventral spur short. Lobes of dorsal integumentary striae most frequently oblong; color usually green, occasionally yelowish or dark green . . . . . . .
6. Body triangular with tapperd posterior end; hysterosoma with three pairs
Body with a broad podosoma and a narrow opisthosoma; hysterosoma with one pair of dorsocentral setae. Podosoma with two pairs of posterior medioventral setae . . . . . . . . Tenuipalpus gvanati Sayed
7. Tarsus I1 with one sensory rod; dorsal seta of femur I and femur I1 lanceolate, serrate, about half as long as width of segment. Hysterosoma with six pairs of dorsolateral setae, slightly lanceolate, serrate . . . .
Tarsus I1 with two sensory rods; femur I and femur I1 each with dor- sal seta broadly lanceolate, serrate about three fourths as long as width of segment. Hysterosoma with five pairs of dorsolateral setae, lanceolate, serrate . . . . . . . . . . Bvevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)
8. Seta Si on dorsal shield, dorsal setae thickened, thornlike and heavily serrated. Ventri-anal plate elongate with lateral margins concaved besides the third pre-anal; with three pairs of pre-anal setae of equal length
Seta Si on interscutal membrane, lateral setae not thickened or ser- rated. Ventri-anal plate pentagonal, with four pairs of pre-anal setae
9. Feather claw with five rays; body rings with a round and more spaced micro-tubercles: . . . . . . . . Eviophyes vitis (Von Siebold)
Feather claw with six rays; body rings with a longitudinal and more compact micro-tubercles . . . . . . Eriophyes oculivitis Attiah
4. Palpi with thumb-claw complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family TETKANYCHIDAE Donnadieu . . . .
Family TENUIPALPIDAE Berlese (6)
Oligonychus vitis Zaher and Shehata
Palpi simple, without a thumb-claw complex . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tetranychus avabicus Attiah
of dorsocentral setae Genus Bvevipalpus Donnadieu (7 ) . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bvevipalpus lewisi McGregor
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phytoseius plumifev (C. & F.)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typhlodromus pyvi Scheuten
Suborder Trombidiformes Supercohort Prostigmata
Seven trombidiform mite species of the subcohort Eleutherogona and Tetra- podili, and belonging to the cohort promata were recorded. The Eleuthero-
Mites Associated with Vine Tsees in the U.A.R. 3
gona inincluded the superfamily Tetranychoidea and Raphignathoidea. The 'retranychoidea was represented by two tetranychid and three tenuipalpid species, n-hile only one stigiiiaeid species of the superfamily Rapignathoidea was found. The subcohort Tetrapodili included the superfamily Eriophyoi- dea, of which two plant feeding mites belonging to family Eriophyidae were rccorded.
Family Tetranychidae Donnadieu, 1871
Tetranychus avabicus Attiah
Tahreer Governorates. This species was collected from vine leaves, in Alexandria, Fayoum and
Oligonychus vitis Zaher and Shehata
It was recorded on vine leaves in Assuit (ZAHER and SHEHATA 1965 and SOLIMAN 1966); Fayoum, Kom Ombo, El Menia and Suez Governorates '(SOLIMAN 1966). This species was olso collected from the same host in Cairo and Natroon Valley.
Tetranychus arabicus Attiah and Oligonychus vi t is Zaher and Shehata are persistent pests of vines; as the former species is widely distributed.
Family Tenuipalpidae Berlese, 1913
Three tenuipalpid mite species were noticed on vine leaves, buds, twigs and beneath the bark of branches. The recorded species were Tenuipalpus granati Sayed, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Bvevipalpus lewisi McG.; the former species was more widely distributed.
Tenuipalpus granati Sayed S y n o n y m : Tenuipalpus orchidarum Sayed, 1942.
This species was recorded on vines in different localities of U.A.R.
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) S y n o n y m s : Tenuipalpus phoenicis Geijskes, 1939; Brevipalpus phoenicis Sayed,
1946; Brevipalpus yothersi Baker, 1949; Brevipalpus mcbridei Baker, 1949; Brevipalpas papayensis Baker, 1949; Brevipalpus pseudocuneatus Baker, 1949.
This species was found on vine leaves in Tahreer and El-Menia Go- vernorates.
Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor
It was recorded on vine leaves in Cairo and Bani Suief Governorates.
4 Abd El Tawab A . Youset
Family Stigmaeidae Oudemans, 1931
Genus Agistemus Summers, 1960
The genus Agistemus Summers, is represented by the mite Agistemus exsertus (Gonzalez), which was observed on leaves, buds and twigs of vines, associ- ated with other plant feeding species. Agistemus exsertus (Gonzalez) acts as a successful predator on tetranychid and tenuipalpid species, playing a great role in controlling the phytophagous mites. The S L I C C ~ S S of development of this species on pollen grains when the prey was absent increase its efficacy as a predetor.
Agistemus exsertus (Gonzalez) S y n o n y ni : Agistemus fleschneri Summers, 1960.
It was recorded on vines in several parts of U.A.R. (SOLIMAN 1966 and GOMAA 1968).
Family Eriophyidae Nalepa, 1898
Genus Eriophyes v o n Siebold
Vines trees are usualy infested by the two mites, Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.) and Eriophyes oculivitis Attiah, the former is a leaf-inhabiting species while the other one infests, the buds. Eriophyes oculivitis Attiah could be considered of great economic importance as it reduced the crop yield and the prospected pruning branches (ATTIAH 1967).
Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.)
Eriophyes occulivitis Attiah
It was recorded by SOLIMAN (1966) on vine leaves in Alexandria and
ATTIAH (1967) collected it from vine buds in Bagour district.
Suborder Mesostigmata Supercohort Monognaspida
Family Phytoseiidae Berlese, 1916
Subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese, 1916
The subfamily phytoseiinae Berlese is represented by the two predators, Phytoseius plumifer (C. & F.) and Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. They are
Mites Associated with Vine Trees in the U.A.R. 3
widely distributed in different localities of U.A.R., being inore abundant in Lower Egypt and the coastal araes. Investigations by SHEHATA (1967) proved that the two mites species could consume a large number of the prey, but Typhlodromus p y r i Scheuten was inore efficient than Phytoseius plumifer (C. & F.). Also the former species could develop and reproduce on a wide range of pollen grains which may be of great value when the prey was absent. Thus, they can play 3 considerable role in checking the populn- tion of the phytophagous mites.
f-hytoseiur plurnifer (Canestrini and Fanzago) S y n o n y m s : Gamasus plumifer Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876; Phytoseius plumijer
(Canestrini and Fanzago); RIBAGA 1902, NESBITT 1951 ; ATHIAS-HENRIOT 1957; CHANT 1957; WAINSTEIN 1959. Phytoseius (P.) plumifer (Cancstrini and Fanzago), CHANT 1959; Kampimodromus dubinini (Beglarov), WAINSTEIN 1959.
It was recorded on vine leaves at Giza and Assuit (SHEHATA 1967).
Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten S y n o n y m s : Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, 1857; Typhlodromus tiliae Oudemans,
1929; Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, OUDEMANS 1930; VITZTHUM 1941 ; NESBITT 1951 ; Typhlodromus tiliae Oudemans, NESBITT 1951 ; CUNLIFFE and BAKER 1953, CHANT 1956; COLLYER 1956; CHANT 1958; Typhlodromus (T.) pyri Scheuten, CHANT 1959.
SHEHATA (1967) recorded it on vine leaves in Giza Tahrear and Assuit Governorates.
Milben in agyptischen Weinkulturen Die in Weinkulturen in der Vereinigten Arabischen Republik bisher gefundenen Milben gchoren den Unterordnungen Trombidiformes und Mesostigmata an. Von Trombidiformen wurden 7 Arten der Dberfamilie Tetranychoidea und Eriophyoidea beobachtet, von denen Tenuipalpus granati Sayed, Tetranychus arabicus Attiah, Eriophyes oculivitis Attiah und Eriophyes witis (Pgst.) ernste Schadlinge sind, wahrend Brewipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), Brevipalpus lewisi McG. und Oligonychus witis Zaher u. Shehata geringcre Bedeutung haben. Als rauberische Art wurde Agisternus exsertus (Gonzalez) festgestcllt. Die Mesostig- mata waren mit zwei schadlichen Arten, Phytoseius plumifer (C. & F.) und Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, vertreten.
ATTIAH, H . H., 1956: The Genus Brevipalpus in Egypt (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Bull. SOC. ent. Egypte XL, 433-448.
- 1967: Eriophyes oculivitis Attiah, A new bud mite, infesting grapes in the U.A.R. (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Bull. SOC. ent. Egypte LI, 17-19.
- 1969: The Tetranychini of the U.A.R. The genus Tetranychus Dufour (Acarina: Tetrany- chidae), Acarologia, XI (4), 737-741.
BAKER, E. W., CAMIN, J. H., CUNLIFFE, F., WOOLLEY, T. A., and YUNKER, C. E., 1958: Guide to the families of mites. Insr. of Acardology, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Cont. 3, 242 pp.
- and PRITCHARD, A. E., 1960: The tetranychoid mites of Africa. Hilgardia 29 (7), 455-574.
GOMAA, E. A., 1968: Family Stigmaeidae as predators of the Red Spider Mites on Field Crops and Fruit trees in the U.A.R. 144 pp. (M. Sc. Thesis, Cairo University).
KIDO, H., and STAFFORD, E. M., 1955: The biology of the grape bud mite Eriophyes witis (Pgst.). Hilgardia 24 (6), 119-142.
PRITCHARD, A. E., and BAKER, E. W., 1958: The false spider mites (Acarina: Tenuipalpi- dac). Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 14 (3), 175-274.
Acarology Unit, Nat ional Research Centre , Dokki, Cairo, U.A.R.
Relation between Predaceous and Phytophagous Mites on Citrus'
By ALY H. RASMY
With 2 Figures
The citrus brown mite Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) was scarce in early summer but predators were unable to prevent a high summer peak in two citrus orchards in Egypt in 1967. The peak of phytophagous mites was below the economic level. The predaceous mites, Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, Amblyseius sp., Tydeus kochi Oud. and Pronematus ubiquitus (McG.) appeared to be important in the biological control of E. orientalis. The population density of Tydeus californicus (Banks) was in no way correlated with that o f E. orientalis so it was not considered to be predaceous on citrus mites in the U.A.R.
A survey and population studies of some phytophagous and predaceous mites on a number of crops including citrus in Egypt was made by ZAHER and EL-BADRY (1962 and 1964). The relationships of predaceous to phyto- phagous mite populations were not investigated. The information on preda- tor prey relationships, however, is necessary for the development of success- ful management for citrus pests as discussed by RASMY (1966 and 1968).
The investigation was carried out in two orange orchards, one in the Province of Giza and the other in Taheer Province. Neither orchard was treated with pesticides from 1964 to 1967. Periodically, at about two week intervals in 1967, each orchard was sampled for mites by examining 50 leaves from each orchard. Twenty five of the leaves were taken at random from the inside part of a number of trees and twenty five from the outside. Both sides of the leaves were examined and the numbers of each species of mite were recorded.
1 A paper presented at XII I th Int. Cong. of Ent., Moscow.