Mobile Source Control Division September 25, 2003 Monitoring and Laboratory Division Board Hearing California Air Resources Board Control Measure to Reduce

  • Published on
    21-Jan-2016

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Mobile Source Control Division September 25, 2003 Monitoring and Laboratory Division Board HearingCalifornia Air Resources BoardControl Measure to Reduce Emissions from Small Off-Road Engines (SORE)

  • OutlineBackgroundProposed Exhaust Emission StandardsProposed Evaporative Emission StandardsEnvironmental BenefitsEconomic ImpactsConclusionCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Small Off-Road Engines and Equipment (SORE)Engines < 19 kWTwo and four-stroke enginesLawn and garden and small industrial equipmentPreempt: farm and construction equipment < 175hp

    California Air Resources Board

  • Examples of SORE Equipment

  • History19901995200020031st SORE Regulation Adopted1st SORE Standards ImplementedSORE Regulation AmendedSORE Amendments Implemented and U.S. EPA Finalizes RegulationsStaff Proposes New Exhaust and Evaporative RequirementsCalifornia Air Resources Board1998

  • Need for Regulation202020102000121 tpd152 tpdExhaust and Evaporative Emissions Statewide HC+NOx Baseline - Nonpreempt111 tpd

  • New SIP CommitmentsIncludes two SORE measuresSMALL OFF-RD-1SMALL OFF-RD-2Staffs proposal designed to accomplish goals of both measuresCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Proposed 2005 Handheld StandardsTier 3 Align with most stringent U.S. EPA HC+NOx standard for engines < 50 cc50 g/kW-hr30% reduction from current standard

    California Air Resources Board

  • Handheld - ExhaustTier 3 Levels Already Met By SomeCurrently 25 CA engine families certified to levels below proposed Tier 3Includes all types of handheld equipmentTechnologiesFour-strokeTwo-stroke with a catalystStratified scavengingTwo-stroke/four-stroke hybridElectric equipment

    California Air Resources Board

  • Proposed 2007/8 Nonhandheld StandardsTier 3Staffs Original Proposal>80 - 80 -
  • Catalyst Test Program to Show Technical FeasibilityThree-way catalystSecondary air injectionSome enleanment of A/FCalifornia Air Resources Board

    Sheet1

    EnginePower (kW)Application

    B&S #14.8WBM

    B&S#24.8WBM

    Tecumseh4.8WBM

    Honda #14.1WBM

    Kawasaki14.2Riding Mower

    Honda #28.2Generator

  • Catalyst Pictures

    B&S #2KawasakiHonda #2

  • Catalyst EfficiencyCalifornia Air Resources BoardTarget Level

  • Exhaust Levels AchievedCurrent StandardAlternative ProposalDeveloped Engine EmissionsCalifornia Air Resources BoardOriginal Proposal>80 cc - 225cc

  • Muffler Surface TemperaturesCalifornia Air Resources Board(@Mode 1)** At 125 hours* At 250 hours

  • Summary of Proposed Tier 3 StandardsCalifornia Air Resources Board* Alternative Standards

    Sheet1

    Size (cc)MYHC+NOx Standard (g/kW-hr)

    < 502005+50

    >50 - 80 - 2252008+6/8*

  • Blue Sky Engine StandardsVoluntaryHC+NOx levels 50% of Tier 3 standardProvides opportunity for clean label and incentivesIncludes zero-emission engine eligibility

    California Air Resources Board

  • Additional Changes to Exhaust RegulationsAlignment with U.S. EPA< 25 hp vs.
  • Additional Changes to Exhaust RegulationsWarranty Defects ReportingVoluntary/Ordered RecallIncluded in Exhaust and Evaporative Program

    Additional text to clarify use of cooling fans during testing

    California Air Resources Board

  • Sources ofSORE Evaporative EmissionsFuel Tank PermeationFuel Line PermeationVented Emissions(Tank & Carburetor)Fuel Connectors

  • OverviewEvaporative Emission Control ElementsControl Technology and Test DataIndustry IssuesNonhandheld AlternativesComparison of AlternativesOverall Cost EffectivenessConclusionsCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Evaporative Emission Control ElementsHandheld standardsNonhandheld standardsCertificationCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Handheld Standard

    California Air Resources Board

    SORE Equipment Category

    Effective Date

    Model Year

    Permeation Standard

    Grams ROG/m2/day

    Diurnal Standard

    Grams HC/day

    < 80 cc

    2007

    2.0

    None

  • Nonhandheld Standards

    California Air Resources Board

    SORE Equipment Category

    Effective Date

    Model Year

    Permeation Standard

    Grams ROG/m2/day

    Diurnal Standard

    Grams HC/day

    Walk-Behind Mowers

    > 80 cc - < 225 cc

    2007

    None

    1.0

    > 80 cc - < 225 cc Excluding Walk-Behind Mowers

    2007

    None

    0.21 * Tank Volume (gal.) + 0.95

    > 225 cc

    2008

    None

    2.0

  • CertificationRequires certification of evaporative familiesHandheld tanksTested per TP-901Certified per CP-901 Nonhandheld equipmentTested per TP-902 Certified per CP-902California Air Resources Board

  • Permeation Control TechnologiesTanksMetal and coextruded tanks, nylon tanks, and barrier treatmentsConnectors, Gaskets, and HosesThermoplastic materials, Viton, and TeflonCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Untreated HDPE Tanks vs. Optimized Fluorinated TanksARB Permeation Test DataCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • Diurnal Emission Control TechnologiesSealed systemsCarbon canister systemsHybrid sealed systems

    California Air Resources Board

  • Diurnal Emission Control TechnologiesARB Feasibility TestingARB tested prototype equipmentSix mowers configured with:sealed systems, fluorinated HDPE tankslow permeation fuel linesA generator and commercial mower configured with:carbon canistersmetal tankslow permeation fuel linesCalifornia Air Resources Board

  • ARB Test Results for Sealed Systems

    California Air Resources Board

    Raw Data

    EQUIPMENT NUMBEREQUIPMENT TYPESerial #TEST #Uncorrected Hot Soak Net THC GramsUncorrected Diurnal Net THC GramsCorrected Hot Soak Net THC GramsCorrected Diurnal Net THC Grams

    T1 - Equipment #1BB&S Intek11065890Test 10.6153.0670.5972.969

    T2 - Equipment #2BB&S Intek11065868Test 20.6043.5450.5733.374

    T2 - Equipment #2BRB&S Intek11065868Test 30.579ABORTED

    T4 - Equipment #3BTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120242Test 40.7943.6230.7633.374

    T5 - Equipment #3BRTecumseh (Baseline Repeat)74549065120242Test 50.7343.3510.7093.164

    T6 - Equipment #2BR2B&S Intek (Abort Repeat)11065868Test 60.6863.3040.6533.209

    T7 - Equipment #4BTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120238Test 70.7443.3380.7123.149

    T8 - Equipment #5BHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127048Test 80.4263.1140.4022.963

    T9 - Equipment #6BHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 90.5183.8410.4953.777

    T10 - Equipment #1MB&S Intek11065890Test 100.1930.9350.1860.809

    T11 - Equipment #6BRHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 110.5784.0160.5493.828

    T12 - Equipment #3MTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120242Test 120.6562.0350.6361.955

    T13 - Equipment #3MRTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120242Test 130.3721.6860.3581.615

    T14 - Equipment #2MB&S Intek11065868Test 140.1280.8850.1200.814

    T15 - Equipment #4MTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120238Test 150.2031.4580.1981.390

    T16 - Equipment #2MRB&S Intek11065868Test 160.1581.3700.1471.261

    T17 - Equipment #3MRTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120242Test 170.1991.6830.1931.614

    T18 - Equipment #6MHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 180.173ABORTED

    T19 - Equipment #6MHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 190.2812.0360.2691.906

    T20 - Equipment #1M @B&S Intek @ 4 psi11065890Test 200.1131.069

    T21 - Equipment #2MB&S Intek @ 3 psi11065890Test 210.5001.632

    T22 Equipment #8BToro Lawn TractorTime CutterTest 222.08013.037

    T23 - Equipment #6MRHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 230.2471.8910.2381.784

    T24 - Equipment #6MRHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 240.2332.7310.2242.070

    T25 - Equipment #5MHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127048Test 250.1211.1710.1131.093

    T26 - Equipment #3MB&S Intek @ 2 psi11065890Test 260.4521.615

    T27 Equipment #8BMToro Lawn TractorTime CutterTest 270.5065.154

    T28 - Equipment #6MRHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127010Test 280.1150.9140.1110.861

    T25 - Equipment #5MHonda GCV 160MZBZ-6127048Test 290.1280.8610.1210.782

    T26 - Equipment #4MRTecumseh Magna Torque74549065120238Test 300.2311.434

    T27 - Equipment #3BRTecumseh (Baseline Repeat)74549065120242Test 310.2411.3

    T = TestB = Baseline

    M = ModifiedBR = Baseline Repeat

    MR = Modified RepeatBM = Baseline Modified

    Test #1 - B&S #1B SN: 5890 (04/16/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.253.9653.2503.965

    Ending THC25.168108.49324.541105.1330.5972.9692.969

    Ending Baro29.74929.823

    Ending Volume1754.31742.1

    Ending Wall Temp.93.2866.76

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.5242.834

    Gas Speciation PPM19.70596.25

    Test #2 - B&S #2B SN: 5868 (04/16/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.1774.1583.1774.158

    Ending THC25.570129.77324.397123.7190.5733.3743.374

    Ending Baro29.72529.790

    Ending Volume1699.3001672.800

    Ending Wall Temp.96.18065.320

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.6523.637

    Gas Speciation PPM19.672115.087

    Test #3 - B&S #2B SN: 5868 (04/18/02)

    Hot SoakDiurnal

    Background THC3.21

    Ending THC24.754

    Ending Baro29.805ABORTED!!

    Ending Volume1686.2

    Ending Wall Temp.96.00

    Impinger Ethanol PPM

    Test #4 - Tecumseh #3B SN: 0242 (04/18/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.5374.3883.5374.388

    Ending THC32.144129.08231.009121.8540.7633.4143.414

    Ending Baro29.84929.71

    Ending Volume1737.11722.4

    Ending Wall Temp.95.0563.86

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.9695.813

    Gas Speciation PPM24.93110.99

    Test #5 - Tecumseh #3BR SN: 0242 Repeat (04/23/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC4.5364.4664.5364.466

    Ending THC30.479117.47429.580111.1590.7093.1643.164

    Ending Baro29.84629.855

    Ending Volume1767.41747.9

    Ending Wall Temp.94.663.54

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.7635.136

    Gas Speciation PPM23.50899.4

    Test #6 B&S #2BR2 SN: 5868 Repeat (04/23/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.9364.6093.9364.609

    Ending THC29.083120.1527.845116.7960.6533.2093.209

    Ending Baro29.80529.876

    Ending Volume1713.01687.0

    Ending Wall Temp.96.2564.17

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.6921.986

    Test #7 Tecumseh #4B SN: 0238 (04/25/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.9384.6943.9384.694

    Ending THC30.779118.90929.601112.4650.7123.1493.149

    Ending Baro29.79329.648

    Ending Volume1734.81737.7

    Ending Wall Temp.94.5764.5

    Impinger Ethanol PPM1.0065.233

    Test #8 Honda #5B SN: 7048 (04/25/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.5554.573.5554.570

    Ending THC19.033112.97918.169107.7230.4022.9632.963

    Ending Baro29.75829.633

    Ending Volume1724.91714.8

    Ending Wall Temp.94.9466.24

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.4633.149

    Test #9 Honda #6B SN: 7010 (04/30/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC2.9143.672.9143.670

    Ending THC22.048139.77421.169137.4760.4953.7773.777

    Ending Baro29.7429.684

    Ending Volume1703.81678.4

    Ending Wall Temp.96.4465.07

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.4721.34

    Test #10 B&S #1M SN: 5890 (04/30/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC4.0523.7524.0523.752

    Ending THC11.02535.68810.76431.4120.1860.8090.809

    Ending Baro29.78129.722

    Ending Volume1736.01733.6

    Ending Wall Temp.94.8663.86

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.1993.567

    Test #11 Honda #6BR Repeat SN: 7010 (05/02/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.3763.7383.3763.738

    Ending THC24.908144.21723.846137.6060.5493.8283.828

    Ending Baro29.74929.746

    Ending Volume1687.21693.7

    Ending Wall Temp.96.364.17

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.5843.978

    Test #12 Tecumseh #3M SN: 0242 (05/02/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.7974.2633.7974.263

    Ending THC27.26272.50926.54769.8500.6361.9551.955

    Ending Baro29.77829.778

    Ending Volume1755.11765.0

    Ending Wall Temp.95.7864.52

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.6022.26

    Test #13 Tecumseh #3MR SN: 0242 (05/07/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.6544.3953.6544.395

    Ending THC17.02461.31316.52258.9630.3581.6151.615

    Ending Baro29.74329.737

    Ending Volume1745.81755.7

    Ending Wall Temp.94.9864.83

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.4142.003

    Test #14 B&S #2M SN: 5868 (05/07/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.043.5813.0403.581

    Ending THC7.83434.8337.50232.3650.1200.8140.814

    Ending Baro29.73129.707

    Ending Volume1677.51682.3

    Ending Wall Temp.93.2165.53

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.1381.444

    Test #15 Tecumseh #4M SN: 0238 (05/09/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC4.814.5614.8104.561

    Ending THC12.11654.08811.90751.8080.1981.3901.390

    Ending Baro29.76329.657

    Ending Volume1746.61754.2

    Ending Wall Temp.95.4965.95

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.1531.944

    Test #16 B&S #2MR SN: 5868 (05/09/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.8984.0863.8984.086

    Ending THC9.79552.819.34348.9200.1471.2611.261

    Ending Baro29.72529.607

    Ending Volume1696.71681.07

    Ending Wall Temp.95.3766.52

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.2112.314

    Test #17 Tecumseh #3MR SN: 2042 (05/14/02) VT#1Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC4.8364.3484.8364.348

    Ending THC11.98161.30411.75559.0160.1931.6141.614

    Ending Baro29.6129.61

    Ending Volume1757.01763.2

    Ending Wall Temp.95.2566.03

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.1681.951

    Test #18 Honda #6MB SN: 7010 (05/14/02)

    Hot SoakDiurnal

    Background THC3.7

    Ending THC10.201

    Ending Baro29.56ABORTED

    Ending Volume1701.37

    Ending Wall Temp.95.48

    Impinger Ethanol PPM

    Test #19 Honda #6MB SN: 7010 (05/16/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.7683.9773.7683.977

    Ending THC14.30276.64113.81671.9660.2691.9061.906

    Ending Baro29.6929.666

    Ending Volume1679.81668.2

    Ending Wall Temp.93.4365.25

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.2322.794

    Test #20 B&S #1M @ 4 psi SN: 5890 (05/16/02)

    Hot SoakDiurnal

    Background THC4.3754.632

    Ending THC8.3839.941

    Ending Baro29.70729.701

    Ending Volume1759.51792.9

    Ending Wall Temp.94.9364.57

    Final HC Mass0.1131.069

    Test #21 B&S #1M @ 3 psi SN: 5890 (05/21/02)

    Hot SoakDiurnal

    Background THC4.1684.422

    Ending THC21.86258.619

    Ending Baro29.85529.672

    Ending Volume1762.51791.3

    Ending Wall Temp.94.6965.08

    Final HC Mass0.5001.634

    Test #22 Toro Lawn Tractor (05/23/02)

    Hot SoakDiurnal

    Background THC3.4784.953

    Ending THC77.741442.882

    Ending Baro29.65429.672

    Ending Volume1765.11778.4

    Ending Wall Temp.94.8666.17

    Final HC Mass2.08413.067

    Test #23 Honda #6MR SN: 7010 (05/23/02) VT#2Alcohol Corrected FID ResponsesCorrected Net THC Grams

    Hot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalHot SoakDiurnalDiurnal

    Background THC3.2933.7333.2933.733

    Ending THC12.40470.55412.06866.7760.2381.7841.784

    Ending Baro29.62829.622

    Ending Volume1712.81689.6

    Ending Wall Temp.95.7766.11

    Impinger Ethanol PPM0.2663.171

    Test #24 Honda #6MR SN: 701...

Recommended

View more >