Mongolia: Urban Development Sector Project

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    Regional Seminar on

    Gender, Urban Development

    and Water Supply and

    Sanitation

    14-16 November 2011

    Vientiane, Lao PDR

    MONGOLIA: URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTOR PROJECT

    Tuu Zundui

    The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian

    Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy ofthe data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper donot imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

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    ADBs Support in Urban Development

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    Urban Mongolia

    Two very different and distinct patterns of urban accommodation:

    - 22.5% of the population live in apartments connected to centralized heating, hot and tap water,sewage and electricity.

    - Ger (or tent) areas are growing in all cities due to massive rural-to-urban migration: 60% of the

    population and 80-90% of the poor live here: (i) Poor infrastructure (water supply, sewerage,

    road, flood protection, bus terminal, transportation, school and hospital) (ii) Severe air pollution

    in the winter because of burning coal for cooking and heating (iii) Pit latrines that pollute

    underground water and soil and bad smell (iv) Women and children fetch water to the home (v)

    Health problems and associated economic loss

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    Issues in Ger area

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    Strategic Goal:

    MDG -16: Reduce by half the proportion of people withoutsustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    2005 2010 2015

    39.2%

    47.8%

    60%

    26.6 %

    30%

    40%

    water supply sewerage

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    Accessibility of water supply and sewerage

    plant (as of 2010)

    22.5%

    15.3%

    9.9%0.1%

    52.2%

    Water supply

    centralized water kiosk

    protected well protected spring

    other

    30%

    3%

    2.5%64.5%

    Sewerage

    centralized pitletrine

    vintelized pitletrine other

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    PROJECT IN BRIEF

    Impact: Improved living conditions and quality of life of the urban population,especially in gerareas

    Outcome: Upgraded basic urban services, urban roads, and on-plot facilities (water,sanitation, solid waste)

    Investment: $ 46.1 million (76% ADBs Special Funds; rest from the State budget,Local Governments, and Ulaanbaatar Road Fund)

    Duration: 5 years, 2008-2012

    Geography: Orkhon, Bayanhongor, Gobi-Altai, Ovorhangay

    Sukhbaatar, Bulgan aimag senter and UlaanbaatarClassification: General intervention

    Themes: Inclusive social development and Environmental sustainability

    Subthemes: Human development, and Urban environmentalimprovement

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    Project OutputsBasic Urban Services

    Water supply: 39,880 gerHHs have waterkiosks within 200 meters, total pipe 110.75km; 23 schools, kindergartens, publicinstitutions connected.

    Sewerage: To connect schools, kindergartens

    and hospitals to 10.8 km of improved andexpanded sewerage pipe networks of ger areain Erdenet and Altai, Bayanhongor, Arvaiheer

    Solid waste management: About 354,600people in Erdenet, and Altai, Bayanhongor,

    Arvaiheer, Huvsgul, Tuv, Arhangay supplied bysolid waste trucks and backhoe loaders.

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    Project Outputs (Contd)

    2. Urban Road Improvement

    Public transportation (19.1 km) in 4 ger areas in thecapital (improving concrete asphalt road includingbridge, lighting and sidewalk in ger area)

    3. Institutional Capacity Development:- Erdenet PUSO improve their operational efficiency (i)financially sustainable functioning,

    (ii) implement the proposed tariff reforms,(iii) technological reform,

    (iv) sound O&M plans for future - 60 training sessions

    - help government agencies and local communities

    increase awareness of public health, environmental

    management, traffic safety, technical assistance on tariff

    reforms and alternative technologies for urban

    infrastructure and services 120 training sessions

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    Urban Issues and Project Solutions

    Construct road, sidewalks, lightingLack of infrastructure

    Collection tipper trucks, backhoe loader etcInadequate solid wastemanagement facilities

    Connect to sewerage system Improve sewerage treatment plant

    Pit latrines polluteunderground water and

    soil and cause bad smell

    Connect to centralized water supply with water

    kiosks

    Children and womenburdened with carrying

    water to their homes

    Improve Public Utility Service Organizationscapacity

    Upgrade financial system, accounting procedure,water tariff and company business plan

    Lack of institutionaldevelopment

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    Expected Gender-Inclusive Project Outcomes

    Expected Project Outcomes:

    Water supply, sewerage system and sewerage treatment plant will be improved

    and 270,000 people in 6 provinces serviced PUSO will be independent and financially stable.

    128,000 people in 4 ger areas of Ulaanbaatar will be close to the concrete asphalt

    road and sidewalks, lighting and public transportation and will live in a safe,

    accessible and comfortable environment.

    Project Focus on Gender will have multiplier effects:

    Economic/Health: Better access to water will create a more healthy environmentand enable women to spare more time for income-generating activities, andattend to family members

    Education of children: With water kiosks connected to water pipes, children will be

    free from the drudgery of waiting for water trucks and collection so, especiallygirls, can go to school.

    Accessible urban transport/safe mobility: Improvement in ger area roads withsidewalks and street lights will improve mobility of the poor through access topublic transportation and safe walking areas in neighborhoods.

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    Gender Action Plan & its Implementation

    Component A:Improvement of Basic

    Urban ServicesComponent B: UrbanRoad Improvement

    equal access to employment opportunities for M/F duringimprovement of urban infrastructure including management and

    project implementation workHow: through agreements with contractors. To be monitored bythe PMU, PIU construction engineers at project sites

    Component D:Institutional

    Development andTraining

    equal access to training opportunities for M/F with gender-sensitive training materials

    40% women in all community groups training, awarenessbuilding and consultation programsequal participation among men and women in sanitation, health,

    and hygiene trainingEngage public health awareness, and training specialist to

    monitor and evaluate project impacts on women

    How: Public health awareness and training specialist will designgender sensitive training materials and involve at least 40%women in training local CBOs and their governing boards.PUSOs with assistance from Institutional Specialist will beencouraged to adopt gender sensitive human resource policiesin assessing their training needs, performance management,

    staff appraisal and rewards.

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    GAP Implementation Mechanisms

    Loan Assurances: Covenant 71: IAs, PUSOs and UMG to implement and monitor the GAP

    through the PPMS, on a annual basis until Project completion. Covenant 69, the EA, and IAs shall ensure that civil works contractors to enforce project

    standards in employment of men and women

    Covenant 70, the EA and IAs shall (a) cause the contractors to disseminate informationon the risks of STIs to employees; and (b) raise public awareness and education onhealth and hygiene in Project areas.

    Each PUSO and Municipal Road Dept will ensure implementation and monitoring of the GAPin their respective sites.

    Management: Through distribution of roles and responsibilities among PMU/PIU andConsultants:

    PMU monitor the implementation of the GAP on annual basis.

    -Construction supervision engineer and Public health awareness and training Specialistare monitor and evaluate project impacts on women

    -Resettlement consultant to assess that priorities of women affected by land acquisitionand resettlement, to identify specific measures to assist them and to avoiddisadvantages for these women.

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    GAP Indicators and Results

    Expected Outcome Indicators/Results to Date

    Relieve time and labor burdens on

    women created by lack ofaccess to infrastructure

    55,168 men and 56,282 women will be involved by the completion of

    the project for public awareness and training of health, hygiene,sanitation. 200 staff from PUSOs and 210 workers from contractors,around 89000 residents trained. Completion of project 91 water kioskconnected with water supply pipeline in 4 provinces and 6 provincessupplied 7 solid waste trucks, 5 backhoe loaders, 4 excavators.

    Improve health and hygiene amongwomen through public health

    awareness training

    Incidence of infectious disease caused by insufficient hygiene amongwomen and children:

    Public health awareness training specialist arranging workshops on: Prevention against infectious disease /proper hand-washing, house

    cleaning, air circulating etc/ Quality of water tank, safety keeping and pure water containers Storing solid waste in garbage bin and dumping in garbage truck Pour out waste water in hole Disinfection of latrine, use vacuum sewerage machinery to clean when

    full.

    Empower women in local decisionmaking processes

    Erdenet subproject case: 11 CBOs, total 87 members, hence 72female members.

    10 of women on the governing councils of CBOs.

    Create employment and incomegeneration opportunities forwomen

    33 of women employed in construction, operation and maintenance ofinfrastructure with equal wage for equal work

    56,282 of womens home-based businesses created after theprovision of infrastructure (water supply, solid waste disposal, roads)

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    GAP implementation Results:

    Employment and Income

    Project contractors Total

    workers

    Gender Salary $

    male female male female

    1 Hailaast 1.1 km 25 19 6 387.5 383.3

    2 Orbit Tahilt 7.3 km 38 30 8 400.0 400.0

    3 Baruun Salaa 4.1 km 63 61 2 350.0 350.0

    -Local labour 5 5 - 350.0

    4 Erdenet 47 39 8 625.0 625.0

    -Local labour 30 26 4 333.3 333.3

    5 Govi-Altay 29 24 5 342.0 342.0

    Total 237 204 33

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    GAP implementation Results:

    Public Health Awareness Training for Roads(each subproject 4 times organize training, need to involve 100% residents, Hailaast

    100% involved, other 2 subproject 50% involved)

    Hailaast 1.1 kmroad

    Contractor 25workers

    19M/6F

    Beneficiary

    33,652 residents

    (49.5%M/50.5%F)

    Baruun Salaa4.1 km road

    Contractor 38workers

    61M/2F

    Beneficiary

    24,839 residents

    (49.5%M/50.5%F)

    Orbit Tahilt 7.3km road

    Contractor 63workers

    30M/8F

    Beneficiary

    27,144 residents

    (49.5%M/50.5%F)

    Botanik Sharhad6.6 km road

    Not yetselected

    Beneficiary42,485

    residents

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    GAP implementation Results:

    Public Health Awareness Training for Urban Services sector(each subproject 4 times organize training, need to involve 100% residents, Erdenet, Govi-Altai

    50% involved, other

    2 subproject not yet start)

    Erdenet

    PUSO Staff 166

    96M/70F

    Contractor 47workers

    39M/8F

    Beneficiary 51420residents

    (49.5%M/50.5%F)

    Bayanhongor

    PUSO Staff 57

    46M/11F

    Beneficiary

    24200 residents

    Not yetselected

    Ovorhangay

    PUSO Staff 33

    12M/21F

    Beneficiary

    23100 residents

    Not yet selected

    Govi-Altai

    PUSO Staff 43

    34M/9F

    Beneficiary 12730residents

    (49.5%M/50.5%F)

    Contractor 29workers

    24M/5F

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    GAP implementation Results:

    Gender Capacity Building in the PUSO

    Erdenet Bayanhon

    gor

    Ovorhangay Govi-Altai

    Number of PUSO staff 166 57 33 43

    Female staff and how many

    of them are female headed

    household

    70/15 11/4 21/12 9/6

    Average salary of PUSO staff

    ($)

    191.6 218.3 205.0 175.0

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    Challenges vs Achievements

    Salary rate is same for both men andwomen

    Contractor:

    There is dominance of male workers as theproject is implemented in infrastructure field

    Men are not interested to attend publicevents or training in sanitation and health

    Women are more interested to attend inpublic events, especially health/sanitation

    It is difficult to maintain equal participation ofmen and women for any trainings/workshopsabout project information in local level

    It is more efficient to disseminateinformation through, media includinglocal TV, newspapers

    Project targeted beneficiaries are not activelyparticipating in workshops/seminars

    It is traditional manner that man must

    be household head.

    There is dominance of male-headed

    households among affected people underthe project.

    Need to arrange or create possibilityto access professional study/trainingcenter

    It is difficult to recruit affected people to workbecause both men and women do not haveprofessional degrees.

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    Thank youfor

    attention