Motivating Employees - Ten Motivating Employees ... MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES ACROSS the GLOBE •Cultural…

  • View
    214

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • *

    * Chapter Ten

    Motivating

    Employees

    Copyright 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

  • *

    * INTRINSIC REWARDS

    Intrinsic Rewards -- Personal satisfaction felt for a job well done.

    Kinds of Intrinsic Rewards:

    The Value of

    Motivation

    - Pride in your

    performance

    - Sense of

    achievement

    10-2

  • *

    * EXTRINSIC REWARDS

    Extrinsic Rewards -- Something given as a recognition of good work.

    Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards:

    - Pay Raises

    - Promotions

    - Awards

    The Value of

    Motivation

    10-3

  • *

    * FRINGE BENEFITS

    Perks Offered to Employees at Top 50 Employers

    Source: Business Week, www.businessweek.com

    Recognizing a

    Job Well Done

    LG7

    10-4

    http://www.businessweek.com

  • *

    * TAYLORS SCIENTIFIC

    MANAGEMENT

    Scientific Management -- Studying workers to determine the most efficient ways of doing things and

    then teaching those techniques.

    Three Key Elements to Increase Productivity

    1. Time

    2. Methods of Work

    3. Rules of Work

    LG1

    Frederick Taylor:

    The Father of

    Scientific

    Management

    10-5

  • *

    * TAYLORS FOUR KEY

    PRINCIPLES

    1. Study how a job is performed.

    Gather time & motion information.

    Check different methods.

    2. Codify the best method into rules.

    3. Choose workers whose skill matches the rules.

    4. Establish a fair level of performance and pay.

    LG1

    Frederick Taylor:

    The Father of

    Scientific

    Management

    10-6

  • *

    * TIME-MOTION STUDIES

    Time-Motion Studies -- Studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time

    needed to do each task.

    Led to the development of the Principle of

    Motion Economy -- Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions; developed by

    Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

    LG1

    Frederick Taylor:

    The Father of

    Scientific

    Management

    10-7

  • *

    * HAWTHORNE STUDIES:

    PURPOSE AND RESULTS

    Researchers studied worker efficiency under

    different levels of light.

    Productivity increased regardless of light

    condition.

    LG2

    Elton Mayo and

    the Hawthorne

    Studies

    Researchers decided it was

    a human or psychological

    factor at play.

    Hawthorne Effect -- People act differently when they know

    they are being studied.

    10-8

  • *

    * MASLOWS

    THEORY of MOTIVATION

    Hierarchy of Needs -- Theory of motivation

    based on unmet human needs from basic

    physiological needs to safety, social and

    esteem needs to self-actualization needs.

    Needs that have already been met do not

    motivate.

    If a need is filled, another higher-level need

    emerges.

    LG3

    Motivation and

    Maslows

    Hierarchy of

    Needs

    10-9

  • *

    * MASLOWS

    HIERARCHY of NEEDS LG3

    Motivation and

    Maslows

    Hierarchy of

    Needs

    10-10

  • *

    * HERZBERGS

    MOTIVATING FACTORS

    Herzbergs research centered on two questions:

    LG4

    Herzbergs

    Motivating

    Factors

    - What factors controlled by

    managers are most

    effective in increasing

    worker motivation?

    - How do workers rank job-

    related factors in order of

    importance related to

    motivation?

    10-11

  • *

    * JOB CONTENT

    Herzberg found job content

    factors were most important

    to workers workers like to

    feel they contribute to the

    company.

    Motivators -- Job factors that cause employees to be

    productive and that give them

    satisfaction.

    LG4

    Herzbergs

    Motivating

    Factors

    10-12

  • *

    * JOB ENVIRONMENT

    Job environment factors maintained satisfaction

    but did not motivate employees.

    Hygiene Factors -- Job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily

    motivate employees if increased.

    LG4

    Herzbergs

    Motivating

    Factors

    10-13

  • *

    * HERZBERGS MOTIVATORS and

    HYGIENE FACTORS LG4

    Herzbergs

    Motivating

    Factors

    Motivators Hygiene Factors

    Work itself Company policy and

    administration

    Achievement Supervision

    Recognition Working conditions

    Responsibility Interpersonal relations

    Growth and

    advancement

    Salary, status and job

    security

    10-14

  • *

    * COMPARISON of the THEORIES

    of MASLOW and HERZBERG LG4

    Herzbergs

    Motivating

    Factors

    10-15

  • *

    * THEORY X and THEORY Y

    Douglas McGregor proposed managers had two

    different sets of assumptions concerning workers.

    Their attitudes about motivating workers was tied

    to these assumptions.

    McGregor called them Theory X and Theory Y.

    LG5

    McGregors

    Theory X and

    Theory Y

    10-16

  • *

    * ASSUMPTIONS of

    THEORY X MANAGERS

    Workers dislike work and seek to

    avoid it.

    Workers must be forced or

    threatened with punishment to get

    them to perform.

    Workers prefer to be directed and

    avoid responsibility

    Only effective motivators are fear

    and money.

    LG5

    McGregors

    Theory X and

    Theory Y

    10-17

  • *

    * ASSUMPTIONS of

    THEORY Y MANAGERS

    People like work, its a part of life.

    Workers seek goals they are committed toward.

    Commitment to goals depends on perceived

    rewards.

    People can use creativity to solve problems.

    Intellectual capacity is only partially realized.

    People are motivated by a variety of rewards.

    LG5

    McGregors

    Theory X and

    Theory Y

    10-18

  • *

    * THEORY Z

    William Ouchi researched cultural differences

    between the U.S. (Type A) and Japan (Type J).

    Type J committed to the organization and group.

    LG5

    Ouchis

    Theory Z

    Type A focused on the

    individual.

    Theory Z is the hybrid

    approach of Types A and J.

    10-19

  • *

    * THEORY Z

    LG5

    Ouchis

    Theory Z

    10-20

  • *

    * GOAL-SETTING THEORY

    Goal-Setting Theory -- Setting ambitious but

    attainable goals can motivate

    workers and improve

    performance if the goals are

    accepted, accompanied by

    feedback, and facilitated.

    LG6

    Goal-Setting

    Theory and

    Management by

    Objectives

    10-21

  • *

    * APPLYING GOAL-SETTING

    THEORY

    Management by Objectives (MBO) -- Involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of

    objectives among top and middle-level managers,

    supervisors and employees.

    Managers formulate goals in cooperation with

    everyone.

    Need to monitor results and reward achievement.

    LG6

    Goal-Setting

    Theory and

    Management by

    Objectives

    10-22

  • *

    * EXPECTANCY THEORY in

    MOTIVATION

    Expectancy Theory -- The amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their

    expectations of the outcome.

    Employees ask:

    Can I accomplish the task?

    Whats my reward?

    Is the reward worth the effort?

    Expectations can vary from person to person.

    LG6

    Meeting Employee

    Expectations:

    Expectancy

    Theory

    10-23

  • *

    * EXPECTANCY THEORY

    LG6

    Meeting Employee

    Expectations:

    Expectancy

    Theory

    10-24

  • *

    * NADLER & LAWLERS

    MODIFICATION

    Researchers Nadler and Lalwer modified

    expectancy theory and suggested five steps for

    managers:

    1. Determine what rewards employees value.

    2. Determine workers performance standard.

    3. Make sure performance standards are attainable.

    4. Tie rewards to performance.

    5. Be sure employees feel rewards are adequate.

    LG6

    Meeting Employee

    Expectations:

    Expectancy

    Theory

    10-25

  • *

    * USING

    REINFORCEMENT THEORY

    Reinforcement Theory -- Positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain

    ways.

    Positive reinforcement includes praise, pay

    increases and recognition.

    Negative reinforcement includes reprimands,

    reduced pay, and layoff or firing.

    Extinction is a way of trying to stop behavior by

    not responding to it.

    LG6

    Reinforcing

    Employee

    Performance:

    Reinforcement

    Theory

    10-26

  • *

    * REINFORCEMENT THEORY

    LG6

    Reinforcing

    Employee

    Performance:

    Reinforcement

    Theory

    10-27

  • *

    * EQUITY THEORY

    Equity Theory -- Employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in

    similar positions.

    Workers often base perception of their outcomes

    to a specific person or group.

    Perceived inequities can l