Motivating Operations Week 8: Antecedent considerations

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  • Slide 1
  • Motivating Operations Week 8: Antecedent considerations
  • Slide 2
  • Motivation Operations Also referred to as: Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing Behavior altering effect: Frequency Establishing operation: Evocative effect Abolishing operation: Abative effects
  • Slide 3
  • Some clarification Not just Frequency: Magnitude Behavior altering effect is not just due to encounter with change in reinforcement frequency: Extinction! SD is not = MO SD: Differential availability of reinforcement for a behavior MO: differential reinforcer effectiveness of an environmental event.
  • Slide 4
  • Three types of Motivating Operations Surrogate: Stimulus paired with another Not likely to be important to study Reflexive: Stimulus that preceded some form of worsening improvement Thanks and holding doors open for people Transitive: Stimulus that alters value of another stimulus Must be just as available (Dr. asking for scalpel)
  • Slide 5
  • 8 UMO Sex Temperature Pain Food Water Sleep Activity Oxygen Key Point: These are not SDs because to have an SD you must have an Sdelta (neutral stimulus) to signal unavailability of reinforcement is a possible
  • Slide 6
  • Altered States Drugs Anxiety Do not cause behavior! They interact with environment however. Moderation Variables.
  • Slide 7
  • What about treatment? You will never get rid of the UMO effects You will only weaken momentarily Must development treatment that focuses on acceptable behavior to gain access to the reinforcer
  • Slide 8
  • UMOs & Punishment Difficult to know for sure Observation of the abative effect requires the evocative effect of an MO for reinforcement with respect to the punished behavior.
  • Slide 9
  • Multiple Effects Evocative effect: Do what you gotta do Punishment effect: Decreases probability you engage in the behavior that preceded the MO
  • Slide 10
  • SMIRC Model Stimulus Motiviating Operation Individual Response Consequence
  • Slide 11
  • Behavior Analytic Problem- Solving Model Beginning to pull it all together
  • Slide 12
  • Components Contextual Variables: Behavior occurs in some contexts but not others Antecedent Stimuli: Environmental Triggers Individual Mediators: Internal Triggers UMO & CMO Individual Behavior Deficits: Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn) Behavior: Not enough R+ or too much response effort Consequences: Consider function (careful of response topography and response class).
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
  • Slide 15
  • 3 Types of Stimuli Discriminative Stimulus: Reinforcement is available (SD) Neutral Stimulus: No reinforcement or punishment is available (S ) Warning Stimulus: Punishments is available
  • Slide 16
  • Discrimination Training Learning when to behave and when not to behave Reinforcing a response in presence of one stimulus but not another e. g. Colors
  • Slide 17
  • Color Discrimination
  • Slide 18
  • What about you? When have you engaged in stimulus discrimination today?
  • Slide 19
  • Stimulus Control Degree of correlation between stimulus and response Degree to which a behavior occurs in presence of a specific stimulus e.g. Traffic light Stimulus Generalization Gradient: Probability of response reinforced in one stimulus condition are emitted in the presence of untrained stimuli.
  • Slide 20
  • Color Discrimination Revisited
  • Slide 21
  • What about you? What behaviors do you have that are under stimulus control?
  • Slide 22
  • Lets discriminate Learning an Alien Language
  • Slide 23
  • Effective discrimination training Choose distinct signals Minimize opportunities for error Minimize stimulus array Maximize Number of learning trials Make use of rules
  • Slide 24
  • Stimulus Generalization Responding similarly across two or more stimuli The more the stimuli are alike the more likely the response to take place e.g. finding your car
  • Slide 25
  • What about you? What behaviors/responses do you generalize across settings? Can that response always be generalized? Should that response always be generalized?
  • Slide 26
  • Classes of Stimuli Stimulus Class: Set of stimuli with similar characteristics in common AKA: Concept Equivalence Class: Set of stimuli with different characteristics, but represent the same thing e.g. Written name, verbal name, picture of person
  • Slide 27
  • Inducing Stimuli Classes Explicit training is not necessarily needed to induce stimulus control across stimuli Symmetry: A = B Reflexivity: A = A Transivity: A = B; B = C; A = C
  • Slide 28
  • Discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli Stimulus discrimination and escape e.g. hailing a taxi out in the cold: Must have no patrons in it. Stimulus discrimination and punishment e.g. Boiling pan: Do not touch or you get burned.
  • Slide 29
  • Stimulus Discrimination and Differential Reinforcement DR- 2 responses (right way and wrong way)and 1 stimulus e.g. Asking mom for money SD- Two stimuli (Right signal wrong Signal) and 1 response e.g. Asking mom OR dad for money?
  • Slide 30
  • Requirements for stimulus control Attention of the subject Sensory capabilities of the subject The stimulus must stand out relative to other stimuli.