Motivation Operations Also referred to as: Value altering effect: establishing/abolishing Behavior altering effect: Frequency Establishing operation: Evocative effect Abolishing operation: Abative effects
Some clarification Not just Frequency: Magnitude Behavior altering effect is not just due to encounter with change in reinforcement frequency: Extinction! SD is not = MO SD: Differential availability of reinforcement for a behavior MO: differential reinforcer effectiveness of an environmental event.
Three types of Motivating Operations Surrogate: Stimulus paired with another Not likely to be important to study Reflexive: Stimulus that preceded some form of worsening improvement Thanks and holding doors open for people Transitive: Stimulus that alters value of another stimulus Must be just as available (Dr. asking for scalpel)
8 UMO Sex Temperature Pain Food Water Sleep Activity Oxygen Key Point: These are not SDs because to have an SD you must have an Sdelta (neutral stimulus) to signal unavailability of reinforcement is a possible
Altered States Drugs Anxiety Do not cause behavior! They interact with environment however. Moderation Variables.
What about treatment? You will never get rid of the UMO effects You will only weaken momentarily Must development treatment that focuses on acceptable behavior to gain access to the reinforcer
UMOs & Punishment Difficult to know for sure Observation of the abative effect requires the evocative effect of an MO for reinforcement with respect to the punished behavior.
Multiple Effects Evocative effect: Do what you gotta do Punishment effect: Decreases probability you engage in the behavior that preceded the MO
SMIRC Model Stimulus Motiviating Operation Individual Response Consequence
Behavior Analytic Problem- Solving Model Beginning to pull it all together
Components Contextual Variables: Behavior occurs in some contexts but not others Antecedent Stimuli: Environmental Triggers Individual Mediators: Internal Triggers UMO & CMO Individual Behavior Deficits: Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn) Behavior: Not enough R+ or too much response effort Consequences: Consider function (careful of response topography and response class).
Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
3 Types of Stimuli Discriminative Stimulus: Reinforcement is available (SD) Neutral Stimulus: No reinforcement or punishment is available (S ) Warning Stimulus: Punishments is available
Discrimination Training Learning when to behave and when not to behave Reinforcing a response in presence of one stimulus but not another e. g. Colors
What about you? When have you engaged in stimulus discrimination today?
Stimulus Control Degree of correlation between stimulus and response Degree to which a behavior occurs in presence of a specific stimulus e.g. Traffic light Stimulus Generalization Gradient: Probability of response reinforced in one stimulus condition are emitted in the presence of untrained stimuli.
Color Discrimination Revisited
What about you? What behaviors do you have that are under stimulus control?
Lets discriminate Learning an Alien Language
Effective discrimination training Choose distinct signals Minimize opportunities for error Minimize stimulus array Maximize Number of learning trials Make use of rules
Stimulus Generalization Responding similarly across two or more stimuli The more the stimuli are alike the more likely the response to take place e.g. finding your car
What about you? What behaviors/responses do you generalize across settings? Can that response always be generalized? Should that response always be generalized?
Classes of Stimuli Stimulus Class: Set of stimuli with similar characteristics in common AKA: Concept Equivalence Class: Set of stimuli with different characteristics, but represent the same thing e.g. Written name, verbal name, picture of person
Inducing Stimuli Classes Explicit training is not necessarily needed to induce stimulus control across stimuli Symmetry: A = B Reflexivity: A = A Transivity: A = B; B = C; A = C
Discriminating discrimination among other discriminative stimuli Stimulus discrimination and escape e.g. hailing a taxi out in the cold: Must have no patrons in it. Stimulus discrimination and punishment e.g. Boiling pan: Do not touch or you get burned.
Stimulus Discrimination and Differential Reinforcement DR- 2 responses (right way and wrong way)and 1 stimulus e.g. Asking mom for money SD- Two stimuli (Right signal wrong Signal) and 1 response e.g. Asking mom OR dad for money?
Requirements for stimulus control Attention of the subject Sensory capabilities of the subject The stimulus must stand out relative to other stimuli.