MOTIVATING RELUCTANT LEARNERS
Todays Essential Question:How do we motivate reluctant learners?What are the reasons behind some students reluctance to learn?What are the special challenges of motivating socially and economically disadvantaged students?How does race and ethnicity affect how students respond to instruction and opportunities to learn?What really works with reluctant learners?Please DO NOW:Please list and/or explain all the factors that impact a childs achievement in school.List 5 factors
CLOSING ACHIVEMENT GAPSWe focus on what schools can do, recognizing that many of the reasons for a young persons disengagement from school lie far beyond school.Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students Motivation to Learn , The National Research Council, 2003.
Source: Emetric, Oct 2011
GROUPGrade 11-2010Grade 11-2011Overall73.378.3Asian36.457Black37.544.4Hispanic4057.1IEP24.314.3Title 137.345.9
SCHOOL BASED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ACHIEVEMENT
Curriculum rigor, teacher experience & attendance, teacher preparation, class size, technology-assisted instruction, and school safety (Barton)
Teacher expectations (Landsman, Kuykendall, Tatum, McMillan, Aronson, Fordham & Ogbu, Hale)
Comprehensive Literacy Focus (Darwin, Fleischman, Gallagher, Allington, Tatum, Ivey, Fisher)
Teaching strategies & curriculum choices (Kunjufu, Hale, Kuykendall, Ladson-Billings, Tatum)
School Connectedness (Landsman, Morre, Simmons, Blum)
What are the reasons behind some students reluctance to learn?
Self-efficacy, a persons belief about his or her capability to accomplish meaningful tasks, directly affects his or her motivation to learn.Lack of relevance-Lack of challengeFear of failure-Desire for attentionPeer concern-Emotional distressLearning problems-Expression of anger
Think/Ink/ Pair- Write 4 lines: How do the decisions a teacher makes in the classroom influence the factors that influence self-efficacy?
Classroom Practices that Influence Motivation (Dolezal, Welsh, Vincent, 2003)Teacher comments tie success to effort, not ability. Effort creates ability.Environment in which working together and improving is stressed over winningDisplays of student work and accomplishmentsScaffolding for struggling studentsPositive and specific feedbackActivation of prior knowledge before new materialMonitoring students behavior and attentivenessEstablished routines and proceduresCorrect level of difficulty- not too low or highPositive classroom and approachesWell planned and paced lessonsLearning to learn is emphasized over simply completing a taskInspiring, energetic instructional practices
A large and growing body of literature is available on the determinants of motivation....in classroom situations, achievement motivation is a product between student characteristics and instructional practices.-Okolo, Bahr, and Gardner, 1995
Source: Motivating Reluctant Learners, from the ERS, 2004.
What are the special challenges of motivating socially and economically disadvantaged students?
Engaging adolescents cognitively and emotionally in school and academic work is a challenge regardless of the social or economic status of the student or the location of the schools. Adolescents are too old and too independent to follow teachers demands mindlessly, and many are too young, inexperienced, or uninformed to fully appreciate the value of succeeding in school. Academic motivation decreases steadily from the early grades of elementary school into high school, and disengagement from coursework is common at the high school level.
Students living in low-income communities are not alone in being less than enthusiastic about schoolwork. But when students from advantaged backgrounds become disengaged, even though they learn less than they could, they usually get by or they get second chances; most eventually graduate and move on to other opportunities. In contrast, students from disadvantaged backgrounds..are less likely to graduate and face severely limited opportunities. In addition to having greater burdens and distractions, the consequences of being unengaged or dropping out of school are more serious for youth who do not have the social and other resources to cushion the effects of academic failure. Their failure to acquire the basic skills needed to function in adult society, whether or not they complete high school, dramatically increases their risks of unemployment, poverty, poor health, and involvement in the criminal justice system.-Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students Motivation to Learn, 2003.
LETS PLAY JEOPARDYHere is a simple fact: Wide, abundant reading is the surest route out of poverty and the limitations that impose themselves on the less literate. Reading changes everything.-Mike Schmoker
Based on the research of Dr. Ruby K. Payne
Hidden rules of poverty for 100.
True An education is the key to getting out, and staying out, of povertyIf you are born into poverty, you better start readingA- TrueB- False
Hidden rules of poverty for 200
B - matriarchalThe family structure in poverty tends to be A. patriarchal (headed by the father)B. matriarchal (headed by the mother)C. depends on who has the money
Hidden rules of poverty for 300.
CWhen a child has not had access to appropriate role models, which of these is NOT a way to provide emotional support for that child: A Establishing long-term relationships by mentoring through a charismatic adultB- Teaching goal settingC- The Do as I say, not as I do approachD. Role modeling provided by teachers, administrators, and staff
Hidden rules of poverty for 400What is the driving force for people living in poverty?
A- financial, political, and social connectionsB- survival, relationships, and entertainmentC- work and achievementB
Hidden rules of poverty for 500Which socio-economic class believes that destiny is controlled by good choices we make now?
A- povertyB- middle classC- wealthy BPeople in poverty believe in fate. There is not much that can be done to mitigate chance. The wealthy believe they have an obligation to share with those less fortunate (Noblesse oblige)
Hidden rules of poverty for 600All of the behaviors listed below can be considered behaviors related to poverty except for one. Which one?Laughing while disciplinedMaking inappropriate or vulgar commentsPhysical fightingFollowing directions D A saves face B shows reliance on the casual register of language C shows a real man behavior
Registers of language for 100All standardized tests are written in the formal register of language (includes: complete sentences and standard word choice acceptable at work and school ). People living in poverty use an incomplete sentence syntax along with a more general word choice that is not as specific The register of language that people living in poverty use is called:FrozenCasualC. IntimateB- CasualFrozen- Prayers, vows, etc INTIMATE- Between lovers or twins
Registers of language for 200B- it needs to be directly taught The formal register of language can be acquired through random exposure to it TrueFalse
Registers of language for 300
A-This is why writing can be so difficult for students living in poverty. A speaker using the casual-register discourse pattern A. Beats around the bush before making a pointGets straight to the pointCannot ever make a point
Registers of language for 400A- fighting is the way to resolve problems for people living in poverty. People living in middle class are taught to use wordsSupport systems for students living in poverty can include all of these EXCEPT:Teaching students to take their fights off-campus so that they dont get in trouble at schoolTeaching students how to use positive self-talkTeaching students how to plan and set goalsTeaching students how to access information that their parents should really be teaching them
The cycle of poverty for 100In generational poverty (when the family has lived in poverty for at least two generations), which of these is NOT one of the primary roles of a real man:Be a providerPhysically work hardBe a fighterBe a loverA Being a provider is a middle class value
The cycle of poverty for 200
Which of these is NOT a characteristic of generational poverty?A job is about making enough money to survive and is rarely about finding the ultimate career No matter what else is happening, the TV set is ONDiscipline involves punishment. The purpose of this punishment is to help children CHANGE their behaviorsD. Most of what occurs in their lives is reactive and in the moment. Little thought is given to planning ahead.
C- the purpose is about penance and forgiveness, not change
The cycle of poverty for 300Most people who live in poverty do not believe they are poor, even when they are on welfare.
A- TrueB- False
A- Although this is a generalization, often they do not believe they are poor and can be offended if they are referred to as such. There is a similar mindset among the most wealthy.
Literacy andClosing Gaps
Here is a simple fact: Wide, abundant reading is the surest route out of poverty and the limitations that impose themselves on the less literate.- Mike Schmoker
Caring teachers with high expectations helped me read my way out. They helped me push against the currents of the environment in which I lived. They did not limit their aspirations for me because my pants were too short. They did not lower expectations for me because my lunch application told them I lived below the poverty line. Instead,