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Chapter 4

Motivating Self and Others

Motivating Self and Others What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others? How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences? Are rewards always necessary?

Questions for Consideration

What Is Motivation? Motivation The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: where effort is channeled Persistence: how long effort is maintained

Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment if they are to perform.

Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction and self-control.

Motivators Intrinsic A persons internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.

Extrinsic Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.

Needs Theories of Motivation Basic idea: Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation Maslows hierarchy of needs Herzbergs two factor theory (motivationhygiene theory) Alderfers ERG theory McClellands theory of needs

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, and other bodily needs

Safety Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm

Social Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention

Self-actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving ones potential, and self-fulfillment

Exhibit 4-1

Selfactualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological

Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene factors are necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment Extrinsic factors; context of work Company policy and administration Unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor Poor interpersonal relations with one's peers Poor working conditions

Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivators - the sources of satisfaction Intrinsic factors; content of work Achievement Recognition Challenging, varied or interesting work Responsibility Advancement

Exhibit 4-3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and DissatisfactionTraditional viewSatisfaction Dissatisfaction

Herzberg's viewMotivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction No satisfaction

Criticisms of MotivationHygiene Theory The reliability of Herzbergs methodology is questioned No overall measure of satisfaction was used The theory is inconsistent with previous research

Alderfers ERG Theory Existence Concerned with providing basic material existence requirements

Relatedness Desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships

Growth Intrinsic desire for personal development

McClellands Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed

Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise

Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Exhibit 4-4 Summarizing the Various Needs Theories

MaslowSelf-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological

AlderferGrowth Relatedness


McClellandNeed for Achievement Need for Power

Hygiene Factors Existence

Need for Affiliation

Summary: Hierarchy of Needs Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction. Alderfer: More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. McClelland: People vary in the types of needs they have. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation, or power.

Summary: Impact of Theory Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. Most managers are familiar with it. Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings. Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time. Alderfer: Seen as a more valid version of the need hierarchy. Tells us that achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks. McClelland: Tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make good managers, since high achievers are more interested in how they do personally.

Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. In particular, there is little support for the hierarchical nature of needs. Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted. Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a link between satisfaction and productivity that was not measured or demonstrated. Alderfer: Ignores situational variables. McClelland: Mixed empirical support, but theory is consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. Good empirical support, particularly on needs achievement.

Process Theories of Motivation Looks at the actual process of motivation Expectancy theory Goal-setting theory

Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.

Expectancy Relationships The theory focuses on three relationships: Effort-performance relationship The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. Performance-reward relationship The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome. Rewards-personal goals relationship The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individuals personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual.

Exhibit 4-7 Steps to Increasing Motivation, Using Expectancy Theory

Improving ExpectancyImprove the ability of the individual to perform Make sure employees have skills for the task Provide training Assign reasonable tasks and goals

Improving InstrumentalityIncrease the individuals belief that performance will lead to reward Observe and recognize performance Deliver rewards as promised Indicate to employees how previous good performance led to greater rewards

Improving ValenceMake sure that the reward is meaningful to the individual Ask employees what rewards they value Give rewards that are valued

Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. Specific goals increase performance Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of do your best. The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.

Management by Objectives A program that encompasses Specific goals Participative decision-making Explicit time period Performance feedback

Responses to the Reward System Equity Theory Fair Process

Equity Theory Main points Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive.

Exhibit 4-8 Equity TheoryRatio of Output to InputPerson 1 Person 2

Person 1s Perception

Inequity, underrewarded

Person 1 Equity Person 2

Person 1 Person 2

Inequity, overrewarded

Responses to Inequity Change Inputs Change Outcomes Adjust Perceptions Choose a Different Referent Leave the Field

Fair Process and Treatment Historically, equity theory focused on: Distributive justice

However, equity should also consider Procedural justice

Fair Process Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals

Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards

Interactional Justice The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from another

Role of Money Money is most commonly used reward in organizations Money certainly helps some needs get met

But, money is not all employees top priority Many emphasize relationships in the workplace

Motivating for Specific Organizational Goals Employee Recognition: Motivating to Show People Matter Employee recognition plans

Variable-Pay Programs: Motivating for Improved Productivity Individual-based incentives: piece rate Group-based incentives: gainsharing Organizational-based incentives: profit sharing, ESOPs

Variable-Pay Programs A portion of an employees pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure(s)