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MEANING OF MOTIVATION Motivation refers to way in which urges,

desires, aspirations, needs of individuals direct, control or explain his behaviour. Motivation tries to find to something inside or outside a person which propels him to do or not to something. Motivation is getting people do what you want them to do because they want to do it.

Definition of MotivationMotivation - the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior

NATURE OF MOTIVATION Motivation The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. The goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors. The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace Determinants of Individual Performance

Motivationthe desire to do the job. Abilitythe capability to do the job. Work environmentthe resources needed to do the job.

TYPES OF MOTIVATION Positive Motivation: It is based on rewards.

The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. The incentives can be in the shape of more pay, promotion, recognition of work etc. Negative Motivation: It is based on force or fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. In case, they do not act accordingly they may be punished with demotions or layoffs.

TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE MOTIVATION Financial Motivators:Financial motivators may be in the form of: More wages and salaries Bonuses Profit sharing Leave with pay Medical reimbursements Company paid insurance or Any of the other thing that may be given to employees for performance.

Non Financial Motivators:Non financial motivators may be in the form of: Recognition Participation Status Competition Job Enrichment


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

McGregors Assumptions About People Based on Theory X Naturally indolent (lazy) Lack ambition, dislike

responsibility, and prefer to be led Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs Naturally resistant to change Gullible, not bright, ready dupes

McGregors Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y Experiences in organizations result in passive

and resistant behaviors; they are not inherent Motivation, development potential, capacity for assuming responsibility, readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are present in people Managements taskarrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goals

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases.

McClellands Need Theory: Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individuals need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people

McClellands Need Theory: Need for PowerNeed for Power - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individuals need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Achievement Need for Achievement

- a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties

Herzbergs Two-Factor TheoryHygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain

maintenance factor contributes to employees feeling not dissatisfied contributes to absence of complaints

Motivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth

job enrichment leads to superior performance & effort

Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security

Motivation factors increase job satisfaction

Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction

Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth


Equity Theory People are motivated to seek social equity in the

rewards they receive for performance. Equity is an individuals belief that the treatment he or she receives is fair relative to the treatment received by others. Individuals view the value of rewards (outcomes) and inputs of effort as ratios and make subjective comparisons of themselves to other people:Outcomes (self) Inputs (self) = Outcomes (other) Inputs (other)

Motivational Theory of Social ExchangeComparison other Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Outcomes < Inputs Outcomes > Inputs Outcomes Inputs Outcomes Inputs Person

Equity Negative Inequity Positive Inequity

Strategies for Resolution of Inequity Alter the persons outcomes Alter the persons inputs Alter the comparison others outputs Alter the comparison others inputs Change who is used as a comparison other Rationalize the inequity Leave the organizational situation

Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key ConstructsValence - value or importance placed on a particular reward Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards

Expectancy Model of Motivation




Perceived effort performance probability

Perceived performance reward probability

Perceived value of reward

If I work hard, will I get the job done?

What rewards will I get when the job is well done?

What rewards do I value?

Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory Assumptions:

If performance in an organization results in equitable and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied. High performance can lead to rewards and high satisfaction. Types of rewards: Extrinsic rewardsoutcomes set and awarded by external parties (e.g., pay and promotions). Intrinsic rewardsoutcomes that are internal to the individual (e.g., self-esteem and feelings of accomplishment).

Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory

Goal-Setting Theory Assumptions Behavior is a result of conscious goals and intentions. Setting goals influences the behavior of people in organizations. Characteristics of Goals Goal difficulty Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. People work harder to achieve more difficult goals. Goals should be difficult but attainable.

Characteristics of Goals (contd) Goal specificity Clarity and precision of the goal. Goals vary in their ability to be stated specifically. Acceptance The extent to which persons accept a goal as their own. Commitment The extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.

Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory

The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Assumes that:

Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated.