THE RENAISSANCE ERA
Mrs. Eckman Wissler
Holt McDougal Literature: British Literature Grade 12. Orlando: Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2012.
MIDDLE ENGLISH: LANGUAGE
Word endings changed b/c scribes became lazy
This caused the change in pronunciations
Language was no longer masculine or feminine but NEUTRAL
The Norman Conquest introduced French into England
French was used for law, govt, education & by the upper class
England was now BILINGUAL (used both French & English
1362 English became the official language of England
Some borrowed French words are:
*Baron * Duke
Pastoral Poems: a poem that portrays shepherds
and rustic life, usually in an idealized manner (Holt
The poems were not written in the voice of a common
shepherd- they used courtly language, formal poetic
meter and rhymes.
The English Sonnet during this era surrounded Nature;
became known as the Shakespearan Sonnet
John Miltons Paradise Lost and Sir Thomas Mores
Utopia- famous works
THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD:
1485 - 1660
1. Renaissance- rebirth
2. Renaissance Man- someone who is interested in science, art, literature, history and other subjects. Example: Henry VIII or Thomas Jefferson
3. Utopian- a perfect society
4. Humanism- Renaissance writers who were part of an intellectual movt which combined traditional Christian thought with Latin & Greek classics to teach people how to live; to study themselves
5. Reformation- The rejection of the Pope & church; to change the church & its politics
THE RENAISSANCE ERA..
..during the previous era, life surrounded religion and
..people became more curious about the world around
them and life itself rather than the afterlife.
.....literally meant the rebirth or revival of the nation
with the changes in peoples values, beliefs and
..began in Italy in the 14th Century; moved to England
under Henry VIII and blossomed under Elizabeth.
People moved away from church literature to
Humanist literature to study themselves.
Humanists studied human nature; the importance of
They studied Art, Literature, History and Philosophy-
studied the Greek and Latin classics including the
Erasmus was the most famous Renaissance humanist. He was a Dutch monk who studied Greek
and Hebrew; religion and philosophy
Sir Thomas More was another famous humanist who wrote Utopia- a perfect or ideal society on an
Both Erasmus and More helped shape European
thought and history.
The Gutenberg Press helped spread Humanist
Before the press, all books were hand written and
The press (with movable type) was invented by a
German named Johannes Gutenberg around
The first book he printed was the bible (in Latin).
By 1530, over HALF of Englands population could
read thanks to the Gutenberg Press
WHAT NEW TECHNOLOGY HELPED BRING
ABOUT THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD?
.was a movement to REFORM the corrupt
church & Pope.
.forced people to question the Catholic Churchs
....made people object to the financial burdens
placed upon them by the church.
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
The Roman Catholic Churchs corruption
spread throughout Europe
In 1517, a German monk, Martin Luther, wrote
a 95 argument edict demanding a reform to the
church and posted it on a church door.
Word of this spread and his edict was copied
and circulated throughout Europe.
This eventually split the Catholic Church and
led to the formation of the Protestant Church.
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND (ANGLICAN
Formed due to Henry VIIIs dispute with the
Catholic Church over his want of a divorce or
annulment since divorce was non-existent
during this time.
Formed in 1534 so Henry could marry his 2nd
wife- Anne Boleyn.
In 1485, Henry Tudor took the throne as Henry VII
He was known as a shrewd leader, negotiated
contracts, built up the merchant fleet and financed
expeditions to America
Arranged for his son Arthur to marry Catherine of
Aragon (Spain)- created a treaty with Englands
biggest rival, Spain
When Arthur died suddenly, the church (Pope) allowed
his younger brother Henry to marry her.
Henry later became the king.Henry VIII
started the Reformation movement
because he wanted a divorce from
Catherine of Aragon because he wanted a
was a true Renaissance Man.
created the Royal Navy which led to the
spread of Englands rule.
THE WIVES & CHILDREN OF HENRY VIII
Henry had 6 wives:
1. Catherine of Aragon divorced; mother of Mary
2. Anne Boleyn
-beheaded; mother of Elizabeth
3. Jane Seymour
-died naturally; mother to Edward VI
4. Anne of Cleves
5. Catherine Howard
6. Catherine Parr
AFTER HENRY VIII.
1st Edward VI or the Boy King:
-only male son of Henry (& Jane Seymour-she died
12 days after his birth).
-became king at the age of 9 but his relatives ruled
-died at age 15 from TB.
-under Edward, the Puritans formed, believing that
the Protestants needed further reformation or
-He was followed by
-1/2 sister to Edward; daughter of Catherine of Aragon.
-devout Catholic, returned power back to Pope & Catholic church.
-earned her name b/c she hunted down and killed Protestants (Henrys followers) including burning over 300 people at the stake.
-Married the King of Spain (Englands biggest enemy at the time).
- ruled England for 5 years.
-died of a fever in 1558.
LAST OF THE TUDORS
The Virgin Queen.
-Elizabeth I followed Mary.
- was the last living heir of Henry VIII.
-1/2 sister to Mary and Edward VI; daughter of Anne Boleyn.
- ruled from 1558 1603.
-never married; had no children or heirs.
A RETURN TO REFORMATION.
Returned to her fathers policies, restored the Church of England.
Was intelligent & independent
Supported the exploration of new worlds with Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh
The Renaissance Era flourished under her rule
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A ROYAL
executed Mary, Queen of Scots, for attempting to have her killed. Mary was married to King Phillip II of Spain and wanted to gain Englands throne. (Remember that she was a cousin to Elizabeth).
Under Elizabeth, the Royal Navy defeated the Spanish Armada which secured Englands independence from ALL Catholic nations in the Mediterranean (The Spanish Armada was sent by Phillip II in response to Elizabeth executing Mary, Queen of Scots).
The defeat of the Spanish Armada established Elizabeth and England as a true military power.
THE RISE OF THE STUARTS
Elizabeth I died in 1603.
James VI- son of Mary Stuart or Mary, Queen of Scots
Became known as James I
Followed the Church of England even though his mother was a devout Catholic
Guy Fawkes plotted to kill him this became known as the Gunpowder Act of 1605.
The struggles between the Catholic Church, Church of England, Protestant Church and Puritans grew.
NEXT IN LINE.
Charles I (son of James) took over in 1625
1629 he dismissed the Parliament which was Puritan dominated so he could have more power
Began to persecute his enemies- the Puritans began to flee and many emigrated to America
Scotland rebelled when he began to persecute the Presbyterian Church (Church of Scotland)
Charles was forced to reinstate Parliament to help fight the Scots
They stripped him of his power
By 1640, England was thrown into a civil war
THE DEFEAT OF THE MONARCHY
The Civil War was between
*The Royalists: Catholics, Anglicans &
supporters of Charles
*The Parliament: Puritans, Middle Class &
small land owners
Lasted until 1645.
Charles surrendered his monarchy 1 year later
and was eventually beheaded for treason. His
son, Charles II fled to France.
General Oliver Cromwell led the Parliament
supporters and took control upon the defeat of
He titled himself Lord Protector and
established England as a Commonwealth.
The Puritan dominated government closed
down theaters & many other forms of
entertainment- declared Sunday as a day of
3 YEARS LATER AND THE RETURN OF A KING.
Cromwell died in 1648, his son inherited his
title of Lord Protector but could not control the
country or its people like his father did
1649 1660 Parliament ruled w/o a monarch
In 1660, Parliament conceded and asked
Charles II to return and take over the throne-
again establishing the monarchy
His return led to a new eraThe Restoration
THE 5 MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
1. People expanded their worlds by reading classical Greek & Roman writers rather than Christian doctrine.
2. Spread of Humanism- focus on the here & now rather than the eternal life.
3. The Gutenberg Press.
4. A growing Merchant class (Middle Class).
5. The spread of scholarly Latin made the sharing of ideas possible.