Mrs. Eckman Wissler English 12 THE RENAISSANCE ERAeckman- Literature.pdf · Mrs. Eckman Wissler English…

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  • THE RENAISSANCE ERA

    Mrs. Eckman Wissler

    English 12

    Holt McDougal Literature: British Literature Grade 12. Orlando: Houghton

    Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2012.

  • MIDDLE ENGLISH: LANGUAGE

    Word endings changed b/c scribes became lazy

    This caused the change in pronunciations

    Language was no longer masculine or feminine but NEUTRAL

    The Norman Conquest introduced French into England

    French was used for law, govt, education & by the upper class

    England was now BILINGUAL (used both French & English

    1362 English became the official language of England

    Some borrowed French words are:

    *Baron * Duke

    *Castle *Noble

    *County *Government

  • RENAISSANCE LITERATURE:

    Pastoral Poems: a poem that portrays shepherds

    and rustic life, usually in an idealized manner (Holt

    McDougal 299).

    The poems were not written in the voice of a common

    shepherd- they used courtly language, formal poetic

    meter and rhymes.

    The English Sonnet during this era surrounded Nature;

    became known as the Shakespearan Sonnet

    John Miltons Paradise Lost and Sir Thomas Mores

    Utopia- famous works

  • THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD:

    1485 - 1660

    Definitions:

    1. Renaissance- rebirth

    2. Renaissance Man- someone who is interested in science, art, literature, history and other subjects. Example: Henry VIII or Thomas Jefferson

    3. Utopian- a perfect society

    4. Humanism- Renaissance writers who were part of an intellectual movt which combined traditional Christian thought with Latin & Greek classics to teach people how to live; to study themselves

    5. Reformation- The rejection of the Pope & church; to change the church & its politics

  • THE RENAISSANCE ERA..

    ..during the previous era, life surrounded religion and

    the afterlife.

    ..people became more curious about the world around

    them and life itself rather than the afterlife.

    .....literally meant the rebirth or revival of the nation

    with the changes in peoples values, beliefs and

    behaviors.

    ..began in Italy in the 14th Century; moved to England

    under Henry VIII and blossomed under Elizabeth.

  • THE HUMANISTS

    People moved away from church literature to

    Humanist literature to study themselves.

    Humanists studied human nature; the importance of

    the individual.

    They studied Art, Literature, History and Philosophy-

    studied the Greek and Latin classics including the

    Bible

  • FAMOUS HUMANISTS

    Erasmus was the most famous Renaissance humanist. He was a Dutch monk who studied Greek

    and Hebrew; religion and philosophy

    Sir Thomas More was another famous humanist who wrote Utopia- a perfect or ideal society on an

    imaginary island

    Both Erasmus and More helped shape European

    thought and history.

  • The Gutenberg Press helped spread Humanist

    writing.

    Before the press, all books were hand written and

    hand copied.

    The press (with movable type) was invented by a

    German named Johannes Gutenberg around

    1455.

    The first book he printed was the bible (in Latin).

    By 1530, over HALF of Englands population could

    read thanks to the Gutenberg Press

    WHAT NEW TECHNOLOGY HELPED BRING

    ABOUT THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD?

  • THE REFORMATION..

    .was a movement to REFORM the corrupt

    church & Pope.

    .forced people to question the Catholic Churchs

    authority.

    ....made people object to the financial burdens

    placed upon them by the church.

  • THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

    The Roman Catholic Churchs corruption

    spread throughout Europe

    In 1517, a German monk, Martin Luther, wrote

    a 95 argument edict demanding a reform to the

    church and posted it on a church door.

    Word of this spread and his edict was copied

    and circulated throughout Europe.

    This eventually split the Catholic Church and

    led to the formation of the Protestant Church.

  • THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND (ANGLICAN

    CHURCH)

    Formed due to Henry VIIIs dispute with the

    Catholic Church over his want of a divorce or

    annulment since divorce was non-existent

    during this time.

    Formed in 1534 so Henry could marry his 2nd

    wife- Anne Boleyn.

  • THE TUDORS

    In 1485, Henry Tudor took the throne as Henry VII

    He was known as a shrewd leader, negotiated

    contracts, built up the merchant fleet and financed

    expeditions to America

    Arranged for his son Arthur to marry Catherine of

    Aragon (Spain)- created a treaty with Englands

    biggest rival, Spain

    When Arthur died suddenly, the church (Pope) allowed

    his younger brother Henry to marry her.

    Henry later became the king.Henry VIII

  • HENRY VIII

    started the Reformation movement

    because he wanted a divorce from

    Catherine of Aragon because he wanted a

    male heir.

    was a true Renaissance Man.

    created the Royal Navy which led to the

    spread of Englands rule.

  • THE WIVES & CHILDREN OF HENRY VIII

    Henry had 6 wives:

    1. Catherine of Aragon divorced; mother of Mary

    2. Anne Boleyn

    -beheaded; mother of Elizabeth

    3. Jane Seymour

    -died naturally; mother to Edward VI

    4. Anne of Cleves

    -divorced

    5. Catherine Howard

    -beheaded

    6. Catherine Parr

    -only survivor

  • AFTER HENRY VIII.

    1st Edward VI or the Boy King:

    -only male son of Henry (& Jane Seymour-she died

    12 days after his birth).

    -became king at the age of 9 but his relatives ruled

    for him.

    -died at age 15 from TB.

    -under Edward, the Puritans formed, believing that

    the Protestants needed further reformation or

    purifying.

    -He was followed by

  • AND THEN.

    Bloody Mary!

    -1/2 sister to Edward; daughter of Catherine of Aragon.

    -devout Catholic, returned power back to Pope & Catholic church.

    -earned her name b/c she hunted down and killed Protestants (Henrys followers) including burning over 300 people at the stake.

    -Married the King of Spain (Englands biggest enemy at the time).

    - ruled England for 5 years.

    -died of a fever in 1558.

  • LAST OF THE TUDORS

    The Virgin Queen.

    -Elizabeth I followed Mary.

    - was the last living heir of Henry VIII.

    -1/2 sister to Mary and Edward VI; daughter of Anne Boleyn.

    - ruled from 1558 1603.

    -never married; had no children or heirs.

    .

  • UNDER ELIZABETH:

    A RETURN TO REFORMATION.

    Returned to her fathers policies, restored the Church of England.

    Was intelligent & independent

    Supported the exploration of new worlds with Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh

    The Renaissance Era flourished under her rule

  • THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A ROYAL

    POWERHOUSE:

    executed Mary, Queen of Scots, for attempting to have her killed. Mary was married to King Phillip II of Spain and wanted to gain Englands throne. (Remember that she was a cousin to Elizabeth).

    Under Elizabeth, the Royal Navy defeated the Spanish Armada which secured Englands independence from ALL Catholic nations in the Mediterranean (The Spanish Armada was sent by Phillip II in response to Elizabeth executing Mary, Queen of Scots).

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada established Elizabeth and England as a true military power.

  • THE RISE OF THE STUARTS

    Elizabeth I died in 1603.

    James VI- son of Mary Stuart or Mary, Queen of Scots

    Became known as James I

    Followed the Church of England even though his mother was a devout Catholic

    Guy Fawkes plotted to kill him this became known as the Gunpowder Act of 1605.

    The struggles between the Catholic Church, Church of England, Protestant Church and Puritans grew.

  • NEXT IN LINE.

    Charles I (son of James) took over in 1625

    1629 he dismissed the Parliament which was Puritan dominated so he could have more power

    Began to persecute his enemies- the Puritans began to flee and many emigrated to America

    Scotland rebelled when he began to persecute the Presbyterian Church (Church of Scotland)

    Charles was forced to reinstate Parliament to help fight the Scots

    They stripped him of his power

    By 1640, England was thrown into a civil war

  • THE DEFEAT OF THE MONARCHY

    The Civil War was between

    *The Royalists: Catholics, Anglicans &

    supporters of Charles

    *The Parliament: Puritans, Middle Class &

    small land owners

    Lasted until 1645.

    Charles surrendered his monarchy 1 year later

    and was eventually beheaded for treason. His

    son, Charles II fled to France.

  • NEW RULE

    General Oliver Cromwell led the Parliament

    supporters and took control upon the defeat of

    the Royalists.

    He titled himself Lord Protector and

    established England as a Commonwealth.

    The Puritan dominated government closed

    down theaters & many other forms of

    entertainment- declared Sunday as a day of

    prayer

  • 3 YEARS LATER AND THE RETURN OF A KING.

    Cromwell died in 1648, his son inherited his

    title of Lord Protector but could not control the

    country or its people like his father did

    1649 1660 Parliament ruled w/o a monarch

    In 1660, Parliament conceded and asked

    Charles II to return and take over the throne-

    again establishing the monarchy

    His return led to a new eraThe Restoration

  • THE 5 MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

    RENAISSANCE PERIOD.

    1. People expanded their worlds by reading classical Greek & Roman writers rather than Christian doctrine.

    2. Spread of Humanism- focus on the here & now rather than the eternal life.

    3. The Gutenberg Press.

    4. A growing Merchant class (Middle Class).

    5. The spread of scholarly Latin made the sharing of ideas possible.

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