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iii Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara. Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin. Cetakan Jun 2010 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

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Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.

Cetakan Jun 2010 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

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Cetakan Jun 2010 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

MODUL INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN BAHAGIAN PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (PGSR) IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN. MODUL INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.

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Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru iii

Kata-Alu-aluan Rektor iv

Learner’s Guide vi

Introduction viii

Distribution of Topics (Interaction and Module)

Learning Topic: Topic 3 - Technology in Mathematics 1

Synopsis 1

Learning outcomes 1

Topic Framework 2

Unit 1: Hardware

1.0 Synopsis 3

1.1 Learning outcomes 3

1.2 Unit Framework 4

1.3 Introduction 4

1.4 Hardware 5

1.4.1 Input devices 7

1.4.2 Output devices 10

1.4.3 Storage devices 12

1.5 Other Useful Hardware

1.5.1 Interactive whiteboard 13

1.5.2 Visualiser 14

1.5.3 Graphing calculator 16

CONTENTS PAGE

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Unit 2: Software

2.0 Synopsis 17

2.1 Learning outcomes 17

2.2 Unit Framework 18

2.3 Introduction 18

2.4 Teaching Packages 20

2.4.1 Types of instructional software 21

2.5 Teaching Software 23

2.5.1 Microsoft Office software 23

2.5.2 Geometer’s Sketchpad 26

2.5.3 Other mathematics software 27

Unit 3: Internet and Online Instructions

3.0 Synopsis 30

3.1 Learning outcomes 30

3.2 Unit Framework 31

3.3 Introduction 31

3.4 Internet Search Engines 33

3.5 Online Instructions 35

3.5.1 E-mail 36

3.5.2 Video conferencing 37

3.5.3 Internet forums 38

3.5.4 Online learning 39

Bibliography 45

Panel of Module Writers 46

Panel of Module Reviewers 47

Module Icons 48

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Modul ini disediakan untuk membantu anda menguruskan pembelajaran anda agar anda boleh belajar dengan lebih berkesan. Anda mungkin kembali semula untuk belajar secara formal selepas beberapa tahun meninggalkannya. Anda juga mungkin tidak biasa dengan mod pembelajaran arah kendiri ini. Modul ini memberi peluang kepada anda untuk menguruskan corak pembelajaran, sumber-sumber pembelajaran, dan masa anda. Pembelajaran arah kendiri memerlukan anda membuat keputusan tentang pembelajaran anda. Anda perlu memahami corak dan gaya pembelajaran anda. Adalah lebih berkesan jika anda menentukan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri dan aras pencapaian anda. Dengan cara begini anda akan dapat melalui kursus ini dengan mudah. Memohon bantuan apabila diperlukan hendaklah dipertimbangkan sebagai peluang baru untuk pembelajaran dan ia bukannya tanda kelemahan diri. Modul ini ditulis dalam susunan tajuk. Jangka masa untuk melalui sesuatu tajuk bergantung kepada gaya pembelajaran dan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri anda. Latihan-latihan disediakan dalam setiap tajuk untuk membantu anda mengingat semula apa yang anda telah pelajari atau membuatkan anda memikirkan tentang apa yang anda telah baca. Ada di antara latihan ini mempunyai cadangan jawapan. Bagi latihan-latihan yang tiada mempunyai cadangan jawapan adalah lebih membantu jika anda berbincang dengan orang lain seperti rakan anda atau menyediakan sesuatu nota untuk dibincangkan semasa sesi tutorial. Modul ini akan menggantikan satu kredit bersamaan dengan lima belas jam interaksi bersemuka dalam bilik kuliah. Tiada kuliah atau tutorial diadakan untuk tajuk-tajuk dalam modul ini. Walau bagaimanapun, anda boleh berbincang dengan pensyarah, tutor atau rakan anda melalui email jika terdapat masalah berhubung dengan modul ini. Anda akan mendapati bahawa ikon digunakan untuk menarik perhatian anda agar pada sekali imbas anda akan tahu apa yang harus dibuat. Lampiran A menerangkan kepada anda makna-makna ikon tersebut. Anda juga diperlukan untuk menduduki peperiksaan bertulis pada akhir kursus. Tarikh dan masa peperiksaan akan diberitahu apabila anda mendaftar. Peperiksaan bertulis ini akan dilaksanakan di tempat yang akan dikenal pasti. Tip untuk membantu anda melalui kursus ini.

1. Cari sudut pembelajaran yang sunyi agar anda boleh meletakkan buku dan diri anda untuk belajar. Buat perkara yang sama apabila anda pergi ke perpustakaan.

2. Peruntukkan satu masa setiap hari untuk memulakan dan mengakhiri

pembelajaran anda. Patuhi waktu yang diperuntukkan itu. Setelah membaca modul ini teruskan membaca buku-buku dan bahan-bahan rujukan lain yang dicadangkan.

PANDUAN PELAJAR

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3. Luangkan sebanyak masa yang mungkin untuk tugasan tanpa mengira sasaran pembelajaran anda.

4. Semak dan ulangkaji pembacaan anda. Ambil masa untuk memahami

pembacaan anda.

5. Rujuk sumber-sumber lain daripada apa yang telah diberikan kepada anda. Teliti maklumat yang diterima.

6. Mulakan dengan sistem fail agar anda tahu di mana anda menyimpan bahan-

bahan yang bermakna.

7. Cari kawan yang boleh membantu pembelanjaran anda.

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INTRODUCTION

The MTE3106 Course (Resources in Mathematics) provides an

opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in

teaching and learning Mathematics (refer to Allocation of Topics). In this course,

you will be introduced to printed materials, manipulative teaching and learning

aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of

resources. This module focuses on Topic 3 of the Course Proforma which covers

aspects of Technology in Mathematics. The module is divided into three sub-

topics or units, that is, Unit 1 – Hardware, Unit 2 – Software, and Unit 3 – Internet

and Online Instructions.

In this module you will learn about some hardware in technology that are

useful for teaching and learning mathematics. In addition, you will learn about

suitable teaching software packages and courseware that can help learning of

mathematics. Finally, you will learn about the use of the Internet and online

technology to facilitate mathematics teaching and learning

This module provides information as well as activities that require you do

exercises, make notes, think about ideas or search information to facilitate the

learning of the contents specified. For each sub-topic or unit, you are required to

go through the information provided and do the activities suggested, and answer

any questions given. Outcomes of the activities carried out must be filed up in

your folio. If you have doubts about answers to questions, solutions to tasks or

have any queries, note them down and clarify them with your lecturers via e-mail,

OLL or during your face-to-face interactions. You are expected to plan and work

independently, to pace and direct your own learning effectively, and most of all,

go through this module thoroughly to optimise your learning. To consolidate your

learning, you are advised to refer to resources available in your school such as

software packages (e.g. ETeMS courseware) and software in your computer

laboratories. You are also advised to use other readings and references from

books or from the Internet. For this course, it is imperative that you have access

to the Internet to help you understand and master the contents in this module.

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The contents of this module will cover learning material equivalent to one credit of

15 hours face-to-face interaction. The table below describes the allocation of

topics for both face-to-face interaction and module for this course.

(Allocation of Topics for Face-to-face Interaction and Learning through Module in

accordance to the Course Pro forma)

Course Title Resources in Mathematics

(Resos dalam Matematik)

Course Code MTE3106

Credit 3(3+0)

Contact Hours

45 hours

Language Of Delivery

English

Prerequisite To Entry

Nil

Semester Four (PGSR)

Learning Outcomes

1. Choose appropriate and relevant mathematics resources

2. Demonstrate their understanding in using the resources

3. Produce creative manipulative materials to support teaching and learning in mathematics

4. Display effective management skills in planning and handling mathematics resources

Synopsis This course provides an opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in teaching and learning Mathematics. Students will be introduced to printed materials, teaching and learning aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of resources. Kursus ini memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menerokai aplikasi pelbagai resos dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik. Pelajar akan diperkenalkan dengan bahan bercetak, alat bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran, teknologi dalam Matematik, kemudahan-kemudahan Matematik dan pengurusan resos.

ALLOCATION OF TOPICS

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Topic Content Face-to-

face (Hours)

Module (Hours)

Total (Hours)

1 Printed materials Books

o text, reference o Literature books

Integrating literature in teaching and learning Mathematics

Journals and articles

6

6

2 Teaching and learning aids o Manipulative kits: geoboard,

Dienes blocks, Cuisenaire rods, Base ten blocks

o Nets and solids o Measuring instrument :

weighing scale o Computing tools: calculators,

abacus, rods & sticks

12

12

3 Technology in Mathematics Hardware

o Computers, LCD Software packages

o Teaching packages o Teaching software and

courseware Internet and online instructions

15 15

4 Mathematics Facilities Mathematics Laboratory Mathematics garden Mathematics corners

6

6

5 Management of resources Inventory and records Monitoring and maintenance Planning and budgeting

6

6

Total 30 15 45

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TOPIC 3 TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS

SYNOPSIS Apart from printed materials and hands-on manipulatives, computers

and the associated technology of the Internet are also useful

resources for mathematics teaching and learning. This module

introduces you to current technological resources that can facilitate

the teaching and learning of mathematics. These resources include

the computer hardware, software packages, coursewares and the

communicative and interactive technology of the Internet that affords

online instructions.

LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of this module, you are expected to be able to (1) differentiate between hardware and software

(2) identify some applications of hardware and software for teaching

and learning mathematics

(3) suggest some applications of the communication tools of Internet

for learning

(4) search the internet for resources for teaching and learning

mathematics

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TOPIC FRAMEWORK

TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS

INTERNET AND ONLINE

INSTRUCTIONS

HARDWARE

SOFTWARE

Input devices

Output devices

Storage devices

Other hardware

Internet Search Engines

Online Instructions

Online learning

E-mail Video conferencing

Internet forum

History of the Internet

Teaching Packages

Teaching Software

Types of Instructional

Software

Microsoft Office

Geometer’s Sketchpad

Other software

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UNIT 1 Hardware

1.0 Synopsis

This unit covers aspects of the computer hardware, which is an

integral component of new technology. The term `hardware’ will be

explained and basic hardware components in a computer will also be

introduced. This module also presents examples of the three main

categories of hardware – input, output and storage devices. In

addition, it also highlights some useful hardware that are helpful for

teaching and learning mathematics.

1.1 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to

(a) explain the meaning of hardware

(b) name the basic components of a desktop computer

(c) give examples of input, output and storage devices

(d) suggest some uses of hardware devices for teaching and

learning

(e) suggest some applications of the interactive whiteboard,

visualiser and graphing calculator for teaching and learning

mathematics

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1.2 Unit Framework

1.3 Introduction

New technology in teaching and learning mathematics is grounded

very much in the use of computer and its technology. Nowadays almost

everyone has seen or used a computer for work or leisure. In fact, many of

our everyday services like banking, purchasing books, paying bills,

checking summons etc. can be done using the computers. In education,

computers can facilitate teachers’ work, enhance students’ learning and

help adminitrators in their work. For example, a teacher can use the

computer to type her examination questions, a student can use the

computer to learn about a particular topic, and the school principal can

use the computer to organise students’ data. Thus, computers can make a

teacher’s work better, a student’s learning more enriching, and a

principal’s work more efficient. There are many applications of computer

technology in teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. We will be

looking into some of it in the next unit, but first let’s take a look at the

hardware that makes up a computer system.

HARDWARE

Input devices

Output devices

Storage devices

Other hardware

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1.4 Hardware

The term computer hardware refers to the various external

electronic components that are required for you to use a computer along

with the hardware components inside the computer case. A desktop

computer usually has the basic components made up of a system unit

containing the central processing unit (CPU), a screen monitor, a

keyboard, a mouse, speakers, and a microphone as shown in Figure 1.1.

Do you know the function for each of the components shown in

Figure 1.1? Let’s find out.

Figure 1.1: Main components of a computer system

Activity 1.1 Use your local library or the Internet, find out the function of these computer components: CPU unit, screen monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers and microphone. File your answers in your folio.

(With CPU inside)

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The system unit is the main component that contains the processor

(CPU) which is like the brain of the computer. The CPU does all the work

for the computer. Specifically, it calculates the mathematics algorithms to

direct data flow and control the operations of the other parts of the

computer. Today all CPUs are microchip processors which can process

information and data at very high speed. Nowadays we have

microprocessors that are in excess of 3 GigaHertz! (3,000,000,000 GHz)

You may have heard of Pentium, Intel Dual Core, Phenom, Opteron and

others which are names of microprocessors developed by companies like

Intel and AMD. You can take a look at the chronology of microprocessors

development at this web site

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor_chronology

Apart from the CPU, there are many other parts inside the casing of

the system unit that are put together to make the computer work well for a

user to type texts, listen to songs, store videos, or connect to the Internet.

Figure 1.2 shows a diagram of the main parts inside the system unit. You

can read more at the following website

http://www.howstuffworks.com/pc.htm

Figure 1.2: Main parts of the system unit

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Computer hardware can be physically handled, that is, can be

assembled, substituted or removed from the computer by any person well-

versed with the parts. Apart from the internal components that are

assembled inside the CPU, the computer hardware also include

peripherals, that is, devices that are attached to a computer to expand its

capabilities. Generally, the computer hardware peripherals can be

categorised into three main components based on its function, namely:

Input devices

Output devices

Storage devices

Figure 1.3 shows how these devices are related to the CPU in a computer.

1.4.1 Input devices

Input devices are external devices, that is, outside the system unit

of the computer that send information and instructions to the computer to

perform some tasks. In other words, an input device lets you communicate

with a computer to do something. The computer keyboard is one example

of an input device. A keyboard is a typewriter-like device that allows the

Information into the computer

Information processed by the

computer

Information in a form you can use or store

Input devices

CPU

Output & Storage devices

Figure 1.3: Relationship between input, processing and output or storage devices.

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user to type in text and commands to the computer. Some keyboards

have special function keys or integrated pointing devices, such as a

trackball or touch-sensitive regions that let the user's finger motions move

an on-screen cursor, which is basically incorporating what we called a

mouse.

The computer mouse is another input device which is used to point

and select items and commands on the screen. The mouse is a detection

device that enables the user to control the motion of an on-screen pointer,

or cursor, by moving the mouse on a flat surface. In doing so, the user can

perform various functions such as opening a program or file. The mouse

facilitates work by not requiring the user to memorise complicated

commands. Do you know that the mouse was invented way back in 1963

by a researcher from Stanford University in USA? Since then, many types

of computer mouse have been invented such as trackball mouse,

touchpad mouse, optical mouse, cordless mouse and more. Figure 1.4

shows the functions of the parts of a typical mouse. The mouse can input

information to the computer via a serial port, USB port, infrared or

Bluetooth technology. You can find out more on how a mouse work in this

web site

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/mouse2.htm

Figure 1.4: Functions of the parts of a mouse

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There are many other input devices such as joystick, digital

camera, scanner, modem, Webcam, microphone, and voice recognition

device.

Activity 1.2 Access the internet and find out the function of each of this input device as shown in Table 1.1 below. Copy the table and file it in your folio when you are done.

Table 1.1: Common Input Devices and Their Functions

Input device

Function(s)

Joystick

Digital camera

Scanner

Modem

Webcam

Microphone

Voice recognition device

Activity 1.3 The digital camera can be put to good use for teaching and learning mathematics. Think of an activity to illustrate how a mathematics student can use the digital camera for learning or how a mathematics teacher can use the digital camera for teaching primary school mathematics. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them online in the OLL.

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1.4.2 Output devices

Output devices are external devices that transfer information from

the computer’s CPU to the computer user. For example, the computer

screen monitor is a display unit to convert information generated by the

computer into visual information. A monitor relies on a video card that is

located inside the computer to process the computer data into image

details that the monitor can display. The older monitors use cathode ray

tube (CRT) similar to the TV screen for displays. Nowadays there are

high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma monitors that give

very sharp and clear images. Watching a movie or playing computer

games would be more enjoyable with these high-resolution computer

screens! Figure 1.5 shows the difference in thickness between a CRT and

an LCD monitor.

Another common output device is the printer. A printer is a

peripheral which produces a copy of readable text and/or graphics of

documents. In other words, printers receive information from the computer

and print them out in text and/or image form, usually on paper or

transparencies. There are many types of printers – dot-matrix printers,

A CRT monitor An LCD monitor

Figure 1.5: Comparison between a CRT and an LCD monitor

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laser printers and inkjet printers. Dot-matrix printers use tiny wires to

impact upon an inked ribbon to form characters. Laser printers employ

beams of light to draw images on a drum that then picks up fine black

particles called toner. The toner is fused to a page to produce an image.

Inkjet printers fire droplets of ink onto a page to form characters and

pictures. Whichever printer you use, it is good advice to use paper

sparingly to save our environment! The printer is a useful tool for teachers

who can use them to print out worksheets, quizzes, pictorial diagrams, or

photographs for their students to use. For example, a mathematics

teacher who has created a file with diagrams of fraction charts could print

out these diagrams for students to learn about fractions. Alternatively, if a

mathematics teacher has scanned an interesting picture or photographed

one using the digital camera, the images can be viewed directly in the

display monitor or printed out using an ordinary printer or photo printer as

shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6: Relationship between input and output images

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If you are presenting a multimedia video about a topic of

mathematics to your students, it would not be engaging if there is no

sound. Can you imagine watching someone talk or sing but cannot hear a

single word he is saying or singing? It would not be effective in getting the

message across to the audience. This brings us to another useful output

device for teaching and learning mathematics, that is, the speakers.

Speakers take digital information from a computer file or from external

audio devices like CDs or DVDs and transform it into actual sounds that

we can hear. For example, if you have a recorded video clip of a teacher

teaching about decimals, the speakers converts the digital information in

the video clip into audio sounds which allow you to listen to the words said

by the teacher.

Facsimiles or fax machines, photocopiers, plotters, projectors and

headphones are some other output devices. In fact, improved output

devices such as some multi-purpose printers can perform various

functions like printing, photocopying and scanning all in a single machine.

You can find out more about these devices in the Internet.

1.4.3 Storage devices

Storage devices are designed to store digital information. Storage

devices provide permanent storage of information for retrieval by

computer until that information is deleted or changed. While computers

have internal storage equipment such as the Random Access Memory

(RAM), we will focus only on the external storage devices. These include

Activity 1.4 Speakers are useful devices in a mathematics classroom. As a mathematics teacher, can you think of two uses of the speakers in a mathematics class? Record your ideas and file them in your folio.

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the floppy discs, compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs), the USB

Flash Drive, and the removable hard drives. Figure 1.7 shows some

common storage devices.

These storage devices store information in bytes – a byte is a

character, which is a letter, number or symbol. There are 256 standard

characters used by almost all computers. A typical high-density floppy disc

has 1.44 MB, which is equivalent to 1,000,000 bytes. Nowadays the floppy

discs are of limited use with more devices with higher storage capacity

being invented to store multimedia content. For example, a standard CD

can hold up to 800 MB of data while a single-sided, double-layer DVD can

store up to 8.5 GB of data, a USB Flash Drive can hold up to 200 GB, and

a high-capacity external hard drive can store up to 500 GB of data!

1.5 Other Useful Hardware

1.5.1 Interactive Whiteboard

An integrated system that makes use of both input and output

devices is the interactive whiteboard. The interactive whiteboard (input

device) has a large interactive display that connects to a computer and a

projector (output device) and typically mounted on a floor stand or to a

wall. The projector beams the image of computer onto a whiteboard and

by writing or touching the interactive whiteboard screen, messages are

input back to the computer. Thus, the computer sends out information

Figure 1.7: Common storage devices

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through the projector onto the whiteboard which then can capture new

information to be sent back to the computer to change the original

information. Figure 1.8 shows a simplified diagram on how the interactive

whiteboard works.

1.5.2 Visualiser

In essence, a visualiser is a digital camera mounted on an arm that

can capture image of objects placed on a base and the image can then be

projected on a screen or an interactive whiteboard. Figure 1.9 shows

some examples of visualisers. Visualisers are useful when a teacher

needs to show some objects or demonstrate some manipulation of objects

that can be projected to the whole class. With most visualisers, you can

zoom in and out, freeze and capture an image and then review the image

captured. Software that accompanies the visualiser allows for further

manipulation of the image or artefact such as time-lapse capture to track

Figure 1.8: Simplified diagram on how the interactive whiteboard work

Computer: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard

Projector: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard

Whiteboard: Every touch on the board is like a mouse-click on a computer screen. The whiteboard sends messages back to the computer – changes occur and the image on the board changes in response

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changes over a period of time. Using the visualiser, teachers can display

real world examples or student work for evaluation by the class as well as

use the interactive whiteboard features, if connected to one, to highlight,

underline and write on documents that are displayed. Students in the back

of the room are able to see what the teacher is trying to show them. For

example, in learning about shapes a teacher can use a visualiser to show

how a cube is folded from a net and students can then follow the folding

process. In this way, the students can be more engaged and involved in

the learning process

Figure 1.9: Examples of visualisers

Activity 1.5 Visualisers can be used to show or demonstrate a number of things in a mathematics class. Think two uses of the visualiser in a mathematics class. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them in OLL.

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1.5.3 Graphing calculator

A graphing calculator is a handheld calculator that is able to plot

graphs, solve simultaneous equations and perform complicated

mathematical operations. Newer versions have programming capability

where users can create customised programmes. These new models can

also display graphics in colour and permit 3D graphing. Figure 1.10 shows

a graphing calculator from Texas Instruments. Graphing calculator is an

especially useful tool for secondary or tertiary mathematics while its use in

primary mathematics may be limited. Nevertheless, some models are

installed with interactive geometry software like Cabri 3D which can be

used to teach about shapes in primary school mathematics.

Figure 1.10: An example of a graphing calculator

TAKE A BREAK ! Take a short break before you continue with the next unit. A computer joke: Hardware, that part of a computer which can be kicked. If you can only swear at it, it is software!!

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UNIT 2 Software

2.0 Synopsis

This unit covers aspects of the computer software, without

which the computer hardware cannot function. The term `software’ will

be explained. This module also distinguishes the various types of

instructional software. Examples of teaching software using Microsoft

Office programmes, Geometer’s Sketchpad and other mathematics

software will be used to illustrate how they can be utilised in teaching

and learning mathematics.

2.1 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to

(a) explain the meaning of software

(b) identify the types of instructional software

(c) give examples of using Microsoft Office programmes for

teaching and learning mathematics

(d) suggest some ideas of using the Geometer’s Sketchpad and

other mathematics software for teaching and learning

mathematics

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2.2 Unit Framework

2.3 Introduction

The computer cannot run with only the physical hardware

assembled. It needs programmes or written instructions to tell the

computer hardware what to do. These programmes are the computer

software. In other words, a computer software is a programme or a

sequence of intructions written to perform a specific task for a computer.

This software is written in the language of computer programming where

logic of the instructions can be read and carried out by the microprocessor

in the computer. Computer software allows information to be processed

by the microprocessor that together acts as the brain of the computer,

telling the computer hardware what to do and when and how to do it.

Without the software, the hardware is just a piece of device without

function. Computer software translates an action such as clicking a mouse

into a language that the computer hardware can follow and perform a task,

like saving information into a floppy disc. On the other hand, without the

hardware all written instructions in a piece of software cannot be executed

and performed. It is like having the thoughts but without the brain and

body to carry the thoughts! In short, both hardware and software are

complementary and interdependent to make a computer work.

SOFTWARE

Teaching Packages

Teaching Software

Types of Instructional Software

Microsoft Office

Geometer’s Sketchpad

Other software

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Software are created by computer programmers and software

engineers. There are many types of computer software – mainly

categorised as system software or application software. System software

helps run the computer hardware and the computer system. The Windows

operating system is an example of a system software. Application

software is software designed to help users perform a particular task that

benefits them. For example, the Microsoft Word is an application software

that helps you type out your text, SPSS ia a statistical application software

that allows you to analyse data statistically, and Geometer’s Sketchpad is

an application software to help students learn about geometry. While

system software is important for computer to function, we will be focusing

on application software in this unit.

Activity 2.1 There are many application software that you have come across and used either in your work or leisure. List down an example of each in Table 2.1 below. Copy the table and file it up in your folio.

Table 2.1: Example of application software

Function Example

Typing text Microsoft Word

Making Presentations

Watching movies

Browsing the internet

Sending an e-mail

Playing an audio file

Burn a CD/DVD

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2.4 Teaching packages A teaching package can be defined as consisting of one or more

related programmes packaged together for an educational purpose. While

the Microsoft Office suite packages a word processing programme, a

presentation programme, a spreadsheet programme or an internet

browsing programme which can be used to enhance instructional

activities, this package of software may not always be used for teaching or

instruction. We will see how this software package can be used for

teaching later, but first let us look at some specific instructional or teaching

package. Teaching package contains programme(s) that delivers all or

part of a student’s instruction on a given topic or in some way assist the

learning of the topic. Teaching package can be a courseware package

that bundles together various lessons, tests, or other learning activities

and materials.

When our Ministry of Education (MOE) implemented the teaching of

Mathematics and Science in English (ETeMS), interactive teaching

packages were produced in collaboration with Telekom and Educational

Technology Division of MOE to help teachers and students learn

mathematics in that medium. These instructional packages are self-

contained stand-alone multimedia learning resources where teachers can

use them in the classroom or students can use them on their own. These

instructional packages present interactive tutorials to explain or facilitate

some important mathematical concepts or procedures. They also contain

drill and practice interactions that students can practice their mathematical

skills as well as revision questions that allow students to test their skills.

Figure 2.1 shows some screen shots of the Year 1 Courseware covering

the learning outcome of finding the difference between two numbers

through one-to-one matching. In this activity, students can listen to audio

explanations, see pictorial representations, and use the mouse to select

options and click and drag pictures. Feedback to their actions is given in

the form of audio and visual cues.

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2.4.1 Types of instructional software

There are a number of instructional software that can be

incorporated into teaching-learning package or courseware. Robbyler,

Edwards and Havriluk (1997) identified five main types of instructional

software:

Drill ( or drill and practice software)

Programmes that allow learners to work problems or answer

questions and get feedback on correctness.

Tutorial software

Programmes that act like tutors by providing all the information and

instructional activities that a learner needs to master a given topic

(e.g., information summaries, explanation, practice routines,

feedback, and assessment)

Figure 2.1: Screen shots of the MOE Year 1 Teaching-learning Courseware for Mathematics

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Simulation software

Programmes that model real or imagine systems to show how

those systems or similar ones work

Instructional games

Programmes designed to increase motivation by adding game rules

to learning activities

Problem solving software

Programmes that (a) teach directly (through explanation and/or

practice) the steps in solving problems, or (b) help learners acquire

problem-solving skills by given them opportunities to solve

problems.

Activity 2.2 Your school should have the teaching-learning coursware for ETeMS for mathematics. Pick a set of coursware for a particular year, for example, Year 2. Study the courseware carefully and try out some of the learning activities. State to what extent the different types of instructional software are incorporated in the package. Tick (√) or (x) for each type of software if it is present or not present in the courseware. For each software that is present describe how the activity is conducted int the courseware. Use Table 2.2 to help you organise your finding. Share your answers in the OLL and file them in your folio. Table 2.2: Types of software present in the Courseware

Type of software Present Description of activity

Drill and practice

Tutorial

Simulation

Instructional game

Problem solving

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2.5 Teaching software

Various software are available that can be used to enhance the

teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. Some of these software

are not specific to mathematics but can be applied by teachers to facilitate

teaching of mathematics, while others are designed specifically for

learning mathematics. Let’s take a look at some of the software.

2.5.1 Microsoft Office software

The Microsoft Office package of programmes are interrelated

desktop applications and services that can be used by mathematics

teacher to enrich their teaching. An MS Office package may include the

word processing software Microsoft Word, the presentation software

Microsoft PowerPoint, the spreadsheet programme Microsoft Excel, and

the publishing software Microsoft Publisher. The Table 2.3 shows the

basic function of these programmes.

Table 2.3: Microsoft Office software and function

Type of software What it does

Microsoft Word® Allows you to type up a document, such as a worksheet.

Microsoft Excel® Allows you to type in figures, use formulas and create charts.

Microsoft PowerPoint®

Allows you to create presentations composed of texts, graphics, movies and other objects for teaching, etc.

Microsoft Publisher®

Allows you to create brochures, greeting cards, newsletters, etc.

Microsoft Word itself is not designed specifically for teaching and

learning of mathematics. However, it has some features in the application

that can be used by mathematics teacher. For example, in the insert

function there are 2D and 3D shapes which can be selected and drawn by

teachers or students for learning purposes. Students can use drawn 2D

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shape such as squares and triangles and describe their properties and

then type them out using MS Word. The programme also has an Equation

Editor in the Insert Object function menu. This feature is very useful for

teachers to type out their questions involving mathematical symbols for

worksheets and test papers. Figure 2.2 shows a composite diagram on

how to select the Microsoft Equation in MS Word 2003.

Now let’s try out the Equation Editor.

Activity 2.3 Use the Microsoft Equation object to perform these tasks: (a) Type out three questions involving addition of fractions,

subtraction involving mixed numbers, and multiplication involving whole numbers and fractions

(b) Type out the solution in the standard written algorithm (long division form) for the following division problems (i) 344 ÷ 8 (ii) 1055 ÷ 6

1. Click Insert

2. Click Object

3. Select Microsoft Equation 3.0

4. Click OK

Figure 2.2: How to select the Microsoft Equation editor object

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Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, Microsoft PowerPoint presentations

and Microsoft Publisher brochures can all be designed for the context of

learning mathematics. It depends on the creative effort of teachers to

explore how these tools can be used for enhancing mathematics teaching

and learning. For example you can go this web site

http://www.microsoft.com/Education/DisplayFractions.aspx to view an

example of how a spreadsheet can be used to display fraction

computations. The following site at

http://presentationsoft.about.com/od/powerpointlessonplans/ig/PowerPoint

-Math-Lessons/Subtraction-Using-PowerPoint.htm shows a simple

illustration on how a teacher can create a PowerPoint presentation to

teach subtraction involving missing addend problems. There are many

more ideas that you can get from the Internet. Let’s see how resourceful

you are in searching ideas for teaching mathematics using Microsoft

programmes.

Other than Microsoft Office software, packages like Adobe

Illustrator and CorelDraw contain graphic tools that can help mathematics

teachers create diagrams for teaching purposes.

Activity 2.4 Search the Internet for ideas on how to use the following Microsoft programmes to enhance your teaching of primary school mathematics. Take notes of the teaching ideas and file them up in your folio. Share your ideas with your coursemates during face-to-face interactions or in the OLL. 1. Microsoft Word 2. Microsoft Powerpoint 3. Microsoft Excel [Suggestion: see this site

http://www.fi.edu/qa98/me5/me5.html]

4. Microsoft Publisher

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2.5.2 Geometer’s Sketchpad

Apart from non-mathematical software like Microsoft Office

programmes which can be utilised to facilitate mathematics teaching,

there are also software that are designed specifically for teaching and

learning mathematical concepts and skills. The Geometer’s Sketchpad is

an example. This software is a dynamic interactive programme that helps

students learn mathematical concepts in geometry, algebra and calculus

by visualisation and interaction. It has the capability of allowing students to

construct and explore geometrical shapes and properties in a dynamic

interactive environment. Consequently, students can use the Geometer’s

Sketchpad to build and investigate properties of mathematical models,

objects, figures, diagrams and graphs. Figure 2.3 shows a screen shot of

a Geometer’s Sketchpad activity that demonstrates the grouping concept

to lead students to the place value concept.

You can get more teaching ideas from the Key Curriculum Press

website, which is the developer of Geometer’s Sketchpad, at this address

http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/General_Resources/Classroom_Activiti

es.html

Figure 2.3: Example of a Geometer’s Sketchpad activity

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2.5.3 Other mathematics software

There are a number of programmes available on the Internet that

are suitable for teaching and learning mathematics. Some of these

programmes are free while others require you to purchase them. Many of

these are drill and practice software which allow students to have (a)

control over the level or pace of the practice, and (b) appropriate feedback

for correct answers. For example, you can download a trial copy of a drill

and practice mathematics quiz in this web site

http://www.qmsoftware.com.au/SpellingGames.htm called the ABC

Spelling and Math Games. This software allows students to practice

mathematics questions at primary level with appropriate feedback; and

correct responses are tracked to indicate performance. In addition, a

teacher can design his/her own quizzes for specific learning outcome

involving the basic operations for numbers, fractions, decimals and

percentage. Figure 2.4 shows a screen shot of a sample mathematics quiz

involving addition of fractions. You should download the software and take

a look at the example.

Although drill and practice software are good for rehearsal and

revision of mathematical skills involving basic operations, they lack the

capability to develop higher-order mathematical skills such as problem

solving. Hence, developers have created more complex and integrated

courseware that enables students to build problem solving skills. One

Activity 2.5 Go to this web site http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt669/Student.Folders/Lewis.Millard/unit/DayOne.html You can download a Geometer’s Sketchpad file that can show the multiplication of fractions. Of course to open this file you need to install the programme in your computer.

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example is the Adventures of Jasper Woodburry Series developed by

Vanderbilt University, USA. This series consists of 12 video-disc based

adventures that focus on mathematical problem finding and problem

solving. Each adventure provides multiple opportunities for problem

solving, reasoning, communication and making connections to other areas

such as science, social studies, literature and history. You can read more

about this interesting series from this address

http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html

Figure 2.4: Example of a mathematics teaching software

Activity 2.6 Surf the Internet and look for one example each of the following type of software or courseware that can help you in teaching and learning mathematics for primary school. (a) Drill and practice software (b) Problem solving software

For each software or courseware comment on the usefulness for your teaching in your school. File your comments in the folio and share them in the OLL.

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TAKE A BREAK ! Take a break before you continue with the next unit. Here is a funny poem for you to relax your mind!

A Poem about Computers

A computer was something on TV From a science fiction show of note.

A window was something you hated to clean... And ram was the cousin of a goat.....

Meg was the name of my girlfriend

And gig was a job for the nights Now they all mean different things

And that really mega bytes

An application was for employment A program was a TV show A cursor used profanity A keyboard was a piano

Memory was something that you lost with age

A CD was a bank account And if you had a 3 1/2" floppy You hoped nobody found out

Compress was something you did to the garbage

Not something you did to a file And if you unzipped anything in public

You'd be in jail for a while

Log on was adding wood to the fire Hard drive was a long trip on the road A mouse pad was where a mouse lived

And a backup happened to your commode

Cut you did with a pocket knife Paste you did with glue

A web was a spider's home And a virus was the flu

I guess I'll stick to my pad and paper

And the memory in my head I hear nobody's been killed in a computer crash But when it happens they wish they were dead!

(Source: Easy Desk Software at http://www.easydesksoftware.com/compoem.htm)

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UNIT 3 Internet and Online Instructions

3.0 Synopsis

This unit covers development of the Internet and its

applications. Specifically, the function of search engines will be

explained. This module also discusses some uses of the

communication technology including e-mail, video conferencing, and

Internet forum discussion. In addition, some aspects of online learning

involving distance learning, e-learning and web-based learning will be

discussed. Examples of mathematics resources site are also provided.

3.1 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to

(a) state briefly the history of the Internet

(b) use suitable search engine to search for resources

(c) identify some uses of communication technology for teaching

and learning

(d) suggest some web-based resources for e-learning and web-

based learning

(e) identify suitable professional sites as resources for teaching and

learning mathematics

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3.2 Unit Framework

3.3 Introduction – A Brief History of the Internet

Nowadays almost everyone is familiar with the Internet. In fact,

some people cannot go a day without using the Internet! Many students

and teachers are using the internet for various purposes – connecting with

friends, accessing information and news, viewing multimedia content and

many more. While the Internet serves many purposes, it is the role of the

Internet in facilitating learning both inside and outside the classroom that

we are interested in. Before we look at how Internet facilitates teaching

and learning of mathematics, do you know what the Internet is?

Here is one summarised explanation from Wikipedia, an online

encyclopedia. The Internet ia ”a global system of interconnected computer

networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve

billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of

millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks

of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and

optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array

of information resources and services, most notably the inter-

linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the

infrastructure to support electronic mail” (Wikipedia, retrieved May 2010).

INTERNET AND ONLINE INTRUCTIONS

Internet Search Engines

Online Instructions

Online learning

E-mail Video conferencing

Internet forum

History of the Internet

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To understand more about how the network of networks is

developed, let’s take a brief look at how the Internet began.

Activity 3.1 Access the internet through this URL http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml and you will see a timeline of the history of the Internet. Fill up Table 3.1 below with the important events that shape the development of the Internet. Copy the table and file it in your folio.

Table 3.1: A brief history of the Internet

Year Event(s)

1962

1968

1972

1973

1974

1976

1983

1988

1990

1992

1996

1999

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3.4 Internet Search Engines The Internet is a massive connection of networks with millions of

addresses that provide various sources of data and information. To look

up the relevant data or information requires search engines to “search the

World-Wide Web” for related web pages, images, information and other

types of files efficiently. Otherwise, it is quite impossible to look for what

you need in a sea of information – it’s like looking for a pin in an ocean!

Search engines are special sites on the Web that are designed to help

internet users find relevant information stored on other sites. There are

differences in the ways various search engines work, but they all perform

three basic tasks:

They search the Internet (i.e. the World Wide Web) -- or select

pieces of the Internet -- based on important words.

They keep an index of the words they find, and where they find

them.

They allow users to look for words or combinations of words

found in that index.

You can read more about how search engines work in this web site with

the address http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-

engine.htm

There are various search engines available to help students and

teachers of mathematics to look for information and materials ranging from

textual articles to multimedia videos. Mozilla Firefox, Google, Altavista,

Yahoo! Search, Ask.com, Bing are some commonly used search engines.

Some search engines are specialised to look up information on specific

area. For example, YouTube is a search engine that help search for video

files, Technorati specialises in looking up blogs (short for Web Logs), and

Google Scholar search for academic materials. For a list of search

engines go to this site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines

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Let’s practice some Internet search and surfing!

Activity 3.2 Select a search engine of your choice and look up some websites that are relevant to primary school mathematics. Describe briefly how you can use the information from three websites to teach primary mathematics. File up your search and share your information in the OLL. Site 1: URL _________________________________________ Description of use: Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:

Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:

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3.5 Online Instructions

The Internet is becoming a useful mode of learning. Research has

indicated that technology like the Internet plays a critical role in changing

the classroom learning environments. Learning on the Internet or learning

online has the potential to enrich the learning experience of many

students. With its vast resources of information and capability to provide

information at a click of a button, learners can have access to learning

materials that are not confined to textbooks and libraries. And the ability to

connect between users means the Internet can deliver instruction which is

not limited by distance and time. There are many ways the technology

provided by the Internet can change and enrich learning experiences. For

example, a mathematics student from Malaysia can learn from another

mathematics student in America at any time of the day through sharing

ideas, comparing resources, and interacting with each other. Alternatively,

a mathematics student can access suitable web sites that provide drill and

practice exercises on a particular topic and learn at his own pace and

time.

Activity 3.3 Think of some other ways that a mathematics student can learn using the Internet. Record your thoughts and share them online in the OLL. Learning mathematics via the Internet:

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For mathematics teachers, the Internet is an abundant resource

provider that can help them make their teaching more constructive,

engaging and rewarding for their students. The challenge lies in locating,

accessing and integrating these materials meaningfully into their schools’

mathematics curricula and using the materials appropriately for teaching

and learning of mathematics. The Internet is also a way of making

connection between mathematics teachers around the world where they

can network and share experiences, teaching resources and ideas.

How can students and teachers of mathematics connect,

communicate and collaborate using the Internet? Well, there are several

ways it can be done.

3.5.1 E-Mail

Every day all over the world, netizens or citizens of the Internet

send out billions of email messages. The e-mail has become an

indispensable communication tool for many people. The e-mail message

is basically a simple text message sent to a recipient. Nowadays you can

send an e-mail message with attachments which can be image, video and

other digital files. To send and receive e-mails you need to have an e-mail

client. You can use stand-alone e-mail clients like Microsoft Outlook,

Outlook Express, Eudora, Pegasus or you can register for free e-mail

services like Yahoo, Hotmail or Google Mail.

As a teacher, you can use the e-mail to send mathematics

assignment tasks, exercise questions, revision questions, information

about class schedules, video of recorded teaching and many other

learning materials to your students. In reply, the students can attach their

solutions, queries, and project papers for you to check and provide

feedback without having to use printed materials. Teachers can use the e-

mail to network with other mathematics teachers locally or globally in order

to share and learn from each other.

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3.5.2 Video Conferencing

Video conferencing allows people from two or more locations to

communicate by seeing and hearing each other at the same time. They

can exchange visual information in the form of videos as well as audio

content. The simplest video conferencing is the point-to-point involving two

people where you need the following:

A computer

An Internet connection

A telephone, if audio content is not provided online

A PC with a microphone, a Webcam or digital video camera, and

a video capture card

Video input from the camera and audio input from the microphone are

converted to digital data that can be sent through the Internet or a wireless

network. When the data reaches the participant of the conference, the

video and audio are viewed and heard on a computer, television screen or

mobile phone. Figure 3.1 shows a simplified diagram of how the video

conference works.

Figure 3.1: A simple diagram of how video conferencing works

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3.5.3 Internet Forums An internet forum or message board is an online discussion site

where users can post comments to discuss a wide range of topics. Many

distance learning programmes in universities incorporate this technology

as part of the learning mode for their students. The advantage of this

technology is the ability to allow groups of users to build online learning

communities where learning is communicated and collaborated. For

example, a mathematics teacher can set up an online discussion forum

where his/her students can post comments, answers and solutions about

a particular topic of mathematics. There are free software available where

you can set up a discussion forum for a group of students. bbPress,

phpBB, Vanilla, and Phorum are some free forum software. Apart from

these you can subscribe to professional sites to take part in forum

discussions. Figure 3.2 shows a screen capture of a forum discussion

about fractions at the Math Forum@Drexel web site.

Activity 3.4 Video conferencing may help students learn mathematics when they are absent from the school for some reasons. Think about how a mathematics teacher can use video conferences to help the students learn what the teacher is teaching. File up your ideas and share them during your face-to-face interactions.

Activity 3.5 Search the Internet for other discussion forum sites that are useful for mathematics teachers. Jot down the address and comments on the topics discussed. File up your search in your folio.

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3.5.4 Online learning

The Internet has been used to deliver learning and instruction in

recent years. A number of universities all over the world are embracing the

technology to conduct distance learning. A common feature of distance

learning programmes is that there is a separation of teacher and learner in

time or place, or in both time and place. This process of extending

learning opportunity away from the classrooms or lecture rooms means

effective ways are needed to deliver instructional materials and resources

to learners over a distance at various times. The advent of the Internet

with its communicative feature plus the capability to send digital

information quickly allows distance learning to be conducted via e-

learning.

E-learning or electronic learning is any learning that uses the

Internet to deliver some form of instruction to a learner or learners

separated by time, distance or both (Reiser & Dempsey, 2002). Some

universities who provides e-learning do so by providing assistance to

learners through a Learning Management System (LMS). An LMS is a

software application that is used to organise and provide access to online

services for students and instructors. These services usually include

Figure 3.2: Example of mathematics discussion forum

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access to course guides, notes, communication tools, as well as

discussion forum. For example, Open University of Malaysia provides

distance learning programmes via a blended mode of e-learning that

incorporates an LMS with online discussion, e-mail communication and

links to digital collection of resources.

E-learning is not necessary only carried out by institutions of higher

learning. Organisations, professional institutions, commercial enterprises,

or individuals can design and deliver e-learning to any interested parties.

There are many web sites on the Internet that provide learning courses or

specific learning content given either free or charged a payment. This form

of learning where a learner can access a web site to learn

comprehensively about some topics is often called web-based learning.

Web-based learning materials may include content presentations,

tutorials, practice questions and solutions, quizzes, video demonstrations,

Activity 3.6 There are many benefits of enrolling a course through e-learning. Surf the Internet and jot down some benefits. File up your answers in the folio. Benefits of e-learning: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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educational games, virtual learning environments etc. and most of these

are often interactive. Figure 3.3 shows a mathematics resource site that

provides web-based learning materials with links to interactive

mathematics tools and activities for students and teachers.

A number of professional web sites are available online that provide

useful resource materials for mathematics teachers and students. One

such site is the NCTM Illuminations web site constructed by The National

Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in USA. This web site

[URL:http://illuminations.nctm.org/] supports mathematics teachers with

helpful and informative resources and links that help teachers develop

professionally. In this site mathematics teachers can access mathematics

teaching and learning activities, lesson plans, mathematics tools as well

as links to other mathematics teaching and learning web sites. Both

primary and secondary mathematics resources are available in this web

site. Figure 3.4 shows the main web page of the NCTM Illuminations site.

Another useful mathematics resource site for teaching and learning

mathematics for all levels is TheMathForum@Drexel [URL:

http://mathforum.org/teachers/] where teachers can contribute, share and

learn from each other too.

Figure 3.3: A web site with interactive links for web-based learning

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In conclusion, there is a wealth of mathematics resources in the

Internet that a resourceful teacher can utilised, especially in conjunction

with the current hardware and software available. Embrace technology to

enhance pedagogy!

Figure 3.4: The NCTM Illuminations web site

Activity 3.7 Many more interesting and helpful web sites are available for mathematics teachers and students. Surf the net and identify (a) two web sites that are relevant to mathematics teachers to

obtain teaching resources, and (b) two web sites that have interactive learning materials for

primary school mathematics students. For each web site, do a screen capture of the page and provide a brief description on how it can be used by teachers or students. The results of this activity should be filed up in your folio and share your search results in the OLL or during your face-to-face interactions.

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Review Exercise It is time to review what you have learned from this module. Answer the following questions and file up your answers in your folio. 1. State the meaning of hardware of a computer. 2. Name three major types of hardware. 3. Give three examples of input devices 4. Give three examples of output devices 5. Give three examples of storage devicee 6. State one feature of an interactive whiteboard 7. Give one advantage of using a visualiser in a mathematics

class

8. What is the difference between a system software and an application software?

9. Name the five main types of instructional software

10. Give one application of using MS Word in a mathematics

class.

11. State one benefit of using Geometer’s Sketchpad in a mathematics classroom.

12. What is the benefit of using a problem solving software?

13. Name two internet search engines.

14. Give one use of the e-mail in mathematics teaching.

15. Describe one way video conference can be used for

mathematics teaching and learning.

16. Give one example of web-based learning.

17. Give an example of a professional website that has good mathematics resources.

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CONGRATULATIONS!

You have succeeded in completing this module.

“Learning is not achieved by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence.”

– Abigail Adams

Food for Thought Technology is increasingly used in education with huge amount spent in developing the infostructure for ICT in schools. Yet, some people question whether the financial investment is worth the returns from ICT in Education Discuss this issue with your coursemates in the OLL.

Food for Thought Technology is increasingly used in education with huge amount spent in developing the infostructure for ICT in schools. Yet, some people question whether the financial investment is worth the returns from ICT in Education Discuss this issue with your coursemates in the OLL.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Burns, M. (1992). About Teaching Mathematics. Maths Solution. Foresman, S. (2000). Interactive mathematics: Lessons and tools. NJ: Prentice

Hall. Haylock, D. (2003). Understanding mathematics in the lower primary years. UK:

Paul Chapman Publication. Jennings, S., & Dunne, R. (2003). I see maths books. vol 1-3. UK: Mashford

Colour Press. National Curriculum Council. (1991). Prime calculators: Children and

mathematics. UK: Simon and Schuster. Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.A. (Eds.) (2002). Trends and issues in instructional

design and technology. Upper Saddle River , New Jersey : Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Robbyler, M.D., Edwards, J., & Havriluk, M.A. (1997). Integrating educational

technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Trautman, A. P., & Lichenberg, B. K. (2003). Mathematics: A good beginning . 6th

ed. UK: Wadsworth/ Thompson Inc. Internet websites:

http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml http://mathforum.org/teachers/ http://illuminations.nctm.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-engine.htm http://www.coolmath.com/ http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html http://www.askdeb.com/blog/technology/what-is-computer-software/ http://www.rsc-london.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag_smartboards.pdf http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Interactivewhiteboards.pdf http://www.innovationslearning.co.uk/subjects/maths/activities/year3/number_deans/question.asp http://www.rsc-london.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag_smartboards.pdf

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PANEL OF MODULE WRITERS

PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3016 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)

NAME QUALIFICATIONS

PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS

LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]

QUALIFICATIONS:

1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics)

WORK EXPERIENCE:

1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 – 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 –

now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]

QUALIFICATIONS:

1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE:

1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 – 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 – 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 -

now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHNSON A/L SAVARIMUTHU POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]

QUALIFICATIONS:

1. M.Ed (Mathematics) 2. B.Ed (Mathematics)

WORK EXPERIENCE:

1. Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 - now 2. School mathematics teacher: 1993 –

2007

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PANEL OF MODULE REVIEWERS

PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3106 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)

NAMA KELAYAKAN

PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS

LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]

QUALIFICATIONS:

1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics)

WORK EXPERIENCE:

1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 – 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 –

now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]

QUALIFICATIONS:

1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE:

1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 – 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 – 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 -

now

(NAMA) (JAWATAN) (EMEL)

(KELULUSAN) PHD/SARJANA/SARJANA MUDA/DIPLOMA/SIJIL (PENGALAMAN KERJA)

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ICONS

Break

Discussion

Reading material

Reference book

Exercise

Make notes

Checklist

Surf Internet

User Guide

Gather Information

Tutorial

Think

End