Upload
aisya-hayati-muhd
View
72
Download
3
Embed Size (px)
Citation preview
iii
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan
Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.
Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.
Cetakan Jun 2010 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.
ii
Cetakan Jun 2010 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
MODUL INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN BAHAGIAN PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (PGSR) IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN. MODUL INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan
Falsafah Pendidikan Guru iii
Kata-Alu-aluan Rektor iv
Learner’s Guide vi
Introduction viii
Distribution of Topics (Interaction and Module)
Learning Topic: Topic 3 - Technology in Mathematics 1
Synopsis 1
Learning outcomes 1
Topic Framework 2
Unit 1: Hardware
1.0 Synopsis 3
1.1 Learning outcomes 3
1.2 Unit Framework 4
1.3 Introduction 4
1.4 Hardware 5
1.4.1 Input devices 7
1.4.2 Output devices 10
1.4.3 Storage devices 12
1.5 Other Useful Hardware
1.5.1 Interactive whiteboard 13
1.5.2 Visualiser 14
1.5.3 Graphing calculator 16
CONTENTS PAGE
ii
Unit 2: Software
2.0 Synopsis 17
2.1 Learning outcomes 17
2.2 Unit Framework 18
2.3 Introduction 18
2.4 Teaching Packages 20
2.4.1 Types of instructional software 21
2.5 Teaching Software 23
2.5.1 Microsoft Office software 23
2.5.2 Geometer’s Sketchpad 26
2.5.3 Other mathematics software 27
Unit 3: Internet and Online Instructions
3.0 Synopsis 30
3.1 Learning outcomes 30
3.2 Unit Framework 31
3.3 Introduction 31
3.4 Internet Search Engines 33
3.5 Online Instructions 35
3.5.1 E-mail 36
3.5.2 Video conferencing 37
3.5.3 Internet forums 38
3.5.4 Online learning 39
Bibliography 45
Panel of Module Writers 46
Panel of Module Reviewers 47
Module Icons 48
vi
Modul ini disediakan untuk membantu anda menguruskan pembelajaran anda agar anda boleh belajar dengan lebih berkesan. Anda mungkin kembali semula untuk belajar secara formal selepas beberapa tahun meninggalkannya. Anda juga mungkin tidak biasa dengan mod pembelajaran arah kendiri ini. Modul ini memberi peluang kepada anda untuk menguruskan corak pembelajaran, sumber-sumber pembelajaran, dan masa anda. Pembelajaran arah kendiri memerlukan anda membuat keputusan tentang pembelajaran anda. Anda perlu memahami corak dan gaya pembelajaran anda. Adalah lebih berkesan jika anda menentukan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri dan aras pencapaian anda. Dengan cara begini anda akan dapat melalui kursus ini dengan mudah. Memohon bantuan apabila diperlukan hendaklah dipertimbangkan sebagai peluang baru untuk pembelajaran dan ia bukannya tanda kelemahan diri. Modul ini ditulis dalam susunan tajuk. Jangka masa untuk melalui sesuatu tajuk bergantung kepada gaya pembelajaran dan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri anda. Latihan-latihan disediakan dalam setiap tajuk untuk membantu anda mengingat semula apa yang anda telah pelajari atau membuatkan anda memikirkan tentang apa yang anda telah baca. Ada di antara latihan ini mempunyai cadangan jawapan. Bagi latihan-latihan yang tiada mempunyai cadangan jawapan adalah lebih membantu jika anda berbincang dengan orang lain seperti rakan anda atau menyediakan sesuatu nota untuk dibincangkan semasa sesi tutorial. Modul ini akan menggantikan satu kredit bersamaan dengan lima belas jam interaksi bersemuka dalam bilik kuliah. Tiada kuliah atau tutorial diadakan untuk tajuk-tajuk dalam modul ini. Walau bagaimanapun, anda boleh berbincang dengan pensyarah, tutor atau rakan anda melalui email jika terdapat masalah berhubung dengan modul ini. Anda akan mendapati bahawa ikon digunakan untuk menarik perhatian anda agar pada sekali imbas anda akan tahu apa yang harus dibuat. Lampiran A menerangkan kepada anda makna-makna ikon tersebut. Anda juga diperlukan untuk menduduki peperiksaan bertulis pada akhir kursus. Tarikh dan masa peperiksaan akan diberitahu apabila anda mendaftar. Peperiksaan bertulis ini akan dilaksanakan di tempat yang akan dikenal pasti. Tip untuk membantu anda melalui kursus ini.
1. Cari sudut pembelajaran yang sunyi agar anda boleh meletakkan buku dan diri anda untuk belajar. Buat perkara yang sama apabila anda pergi ke perpustakaan.
2. Peruntukkan satu masa setiap hari untuk memulakan dan mengakhiri
pembelajaran anda. Patuhi waktu yang diperuntukkan itu. Setelah membaca modul ini teruskan membaca buku-buku dan bahan-bahan rujukan lain yang dicadangkan.
PANDUAN PELAJAR
vii
3. Luangkan sebanyak masa yang mungkin untuk tugasan tanpa mengira sasaran pembelajaran anda.
4. Semak dan ulangkaji pembacaan anda. Ambil masa untuk memahami
pembacaan anda.
5. Rujuk sumber-sumber lain daripada apa yang telah diberikan kepada anda. Teliti maklumat yang diterima.
6. Mulakan dengan sistem fail agar anda tahu di mana anda menyimpan bahan-
bahan yang bermakna.
7. Cari kawan yang boleh membantu pembelanjaran anda.
viii
INTRODUCTION
The MTE3106 Course (Resources in Mathematics) provides an
opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in
teaching and learning Mathematics (refer to Allocation of Topics). In this course,
you will be introduced to printed materials, manipulative teaching and learning
aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of
resources. This module focuses on Topic 3 of the Course Proforma which covers
aspects of Technology in Mathematics. The module is divided into three sub-
topics or units, that is, Unit 1 – Hardware, Unit 2 – Software, and Unit 3 – Internet
and Online Instructions.
In this module you will learn about some hardware in technology that are
useful for teaching and learning mathematics. In addition, you will learn about
suitable teaching software packages and courseware that can help learning of
mathematics. Finally, you will learn about the use of the Internet and online
technology to facilitate mathematics teaching and learning
This module provides information as well as activities that require you do
exercises, make notes, think about ideas or search information to facilitate the
learning of the contents specified. For each sub-topic or unit, you are required to
go through the information provided and do the activities suggested, and answer
any questions given. Outcomes of the activities carried out must be filed up in
your folio. If you have doubts about answers to questions, solutions to tasks or
have any queries, note them down and clarify them with your lecturers via e-mail,
OLL or during your face-to-face interactions. You are expected to plan and work
independently, to pace and direct your own learning effectively, and most of all,
go through this module thoroughly to optimise your learning. To consolidate your
learning, you are advised to refer to resources available in your school such as
software packages (e.g. ETeMS courseware) and software in your computer
laboratories. You are also advised to use other readings and references from
books or from the Internet. For this course, it is imperative that you have access
to the Internet to help you understand and master the contents in this module.
The contents of this module will cover learning material equivalent to one credit of
15 hours face-to-face interaction. The table below describes the allocation of
topics for both face-to-face interaction and module for this course.
(Allocation of Topics for Face-to-face Interaction and Learning through Module in
accordance to the Course Pro forma)
Course Title Resources in Mathematics
(Resos dalam Matematik)
Course Code MTE3106
Credit 3(3+0)
Contact Hours
45 hours
Language Of Delivery
English
Prerequisite To Entry
Nil
Semester Four (PGSR)
Learning Outcomes
1. Choose appropriate and relevant mathematics resources
2. Demonstrate their understanding in using the resources
3. Produce creative manipulative materials to support teaching and learning in mathematics
4. Display effective management skills in planning and handling mathematics resources
Synopsis This course provides an opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in teaching and learning Mathematics. Students will be introduced to printed materials, teaching and learning aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of resources. Kursus ini memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menerokai aplikasi pelbagai resos dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik. Pelajar akan diperkenalkan dengan bahan bercetak, alat bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran, teknologi dalam Matematik, kemudahan-kemudahan Matematik dan pengurusan resos.
ALLOCATION OF TOPICS
Topic Content Face-to-
face (Hours)
Module (Hours)
Total (Hours)
1 Printed materials Books
o text, reference o Literature books
Integrating literature in teaching and learning Mathematics
Journals and articles
6
6
2 Teaching and learning aids o Manipulative kits: geoboard,
Dienes blocks, Cuisenaire rods, Base ten blocks
o Nets and solids o Measuring instrument :
weighing scale o Computing tools: calculators,
abacus, rods & sticks
12
12
3 Technology in Mathematics Hardware
o Computers, LCD Software packages
o Teaching packages o Teaching software and
courseware Internet and online instructions
15 15
4 Mathematics Facilities Mathematics Laboratory Mathematics garden Mathematics corners
6
6
5 Management of resources Inventory and records Monitoring and maintenance Planning and budgeting
6
6
Total 30 15 45
1
TOPIC 3 TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS
SYNOPSIS Apart from printed materials and hands-on manipulatives, computers
and the associated technology of the Internet are also useful
resources for mathematics teaching and learning. This module
introduces you to current technological resources that can facilitate
the teaching and learning of mathematics. These resources include
the computer hardware, software packages, coursewares and the
communicative and interactive technology of the Internet that affords
online instructions.
LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this module, you are expected to be able to (1) differentiate between hardware and software
(2) identify some applications of hardware and software for teaching
and learning mathematics
(3) suggest some applications of the communication tools of Internet
for learning
(4) search the internet for resources for teaching and learning
mathematics
2
TOPIC FRAMEWORK
TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS
INTERNET AND ONLINE
INSTRUCTIONS
HARDWARE
SOFTWARE
Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Other hardware
Internet Search Engines
Online Instructions
Online learning
E-mail Video conferencing
Internet forum
History of the Internet
Teaching Packages
Teaching Software
Types of Instructional
Software
Microsoft Office
Geometer’s Sketchpad
Other software
3
UNIT 1 Hardware
1.0 Synopsis
This unit covers aspects of the computer hardware, which is an
integral component of new technology. The term `hardware’ will be
explained and basic hardware components in a computer will also be
introduced. This module also presents examples of the three main
categories of hardware – input, output and storage devices. In
addition, it also highlights some useful hardware that are helpful for
teaching and learning mathematics.
1.1 Learning Outcomes
At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to
(a) explain the meaning of hardware
(b) name the basic components of a desktop computer
(c) give examples of input, output and storage devices
(d) suggest some uses of hardware devices for teaching and
learning
(e) suggest some applications of the interactive whiteboard,
visualiser and graphing calculator for teaching and learning
mathematics
4
1.2 Unit Framework
1.3 Introduction
New technology in teaching and learning mathematics is grounded
very much in the use of computer and its technology. Nowadays almost
everyone has seen or used a computer for work or leisure. In fact, many of
our everyday services like banking, purchasing books, paying bills,
checking summons etc. can be done using the computers. In education,
computers can facilitate teachers’ work, enhance students’ learning and
help adminitrators in their work. For example, a teacher can use the
computer to type her examination questions, a student can use the
computer to learn about a particular topic, and the school principal can
use the computer to organise students’ data. Thus, computers can make a
teacher’s work better, a student’s learning more enriching, and a
principal’s work more efficient. There are many applications of computer
technology in teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. We will be
looking into some of it in the next unit, but first let’s take a look at the
hardware that makes up a computer system.
HARDWARE
Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Other hardware
5
1.4 Hardware
The term computer hardware refers to the various external
electronic components that are required for you to use a computer along
with the hardware components inside the computer case. A desktop
computer usually has the basic components made up of a system unit
containing the central processing unit (CPU), a screen monitor, a
keyboard, a mouse, speakers, and a microphone as shown in Figure 1.1.
Do you know the function for each of the components shown in
Figure 1.1? Let’s find out.
Figure 1.1: Main components of a computer system
Activity 1.1 Use your local library or the Internet, find out the function of these computer components: CPU unit, screen monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers and microphone. File your answers in your folio.
(With CPU inside)
6
The system unit is the main component that contains the processor
(CPU) which is like the brain of the computer. The CPU does all the work
for the computer. Specifically, it calculates the mathematics algorithms to
direct data flow and control the operations of the other parts of the
computer. Today all CPUs are microchip processors which can process
information and data at very high speed. Nowadays we have
microprocessors that are in excess of 3 GigaHertz! (3,000,000,000 GHz)
You may have heard of Pentium, Intel Dual Core, Phenom, Opteron and
others which are names of microprocessors developed by companies like
Intel and AMD. You can take a look at the chronology of microprocessors
development at this web site
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor_chronology
Apart from the CPU, there are many other parts inside the casing of
the system unit that are put together to make the computer work well for a
user to type texts, listen to songs, store videos, or connect to the Internet.
Figure 1.2 shows a diagram of the main parts inside the system unit. You
can read more at the following website
http://www.howstuffworks.com/pc.htm
Figure 1.2: Main parts of the system unit
7
Computer hardware can be physically handled, that is, can be
assembled, substituted or removed from the computer by any person well-
versed with the parts. Apart from the internal components that are
assembled inside the CPU, the computer hardware also include
peripherals, that is, devices that are attached to a computer to expand its
capabilities. Generally, the computer hardware peripherals can be
categorised into three main components based on its function, namely:
Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Figure 1.3 shows how these devices are related to the CPU in a computer.
1.4.1 Input devices
Input devices are external devices, that is, outside the system unit
of the computer that send information and instructions to the computer to
perform some tasks. In other words, an input device lets you communicate
with a computer to do something. The computer keyboard is one example
of an input device. A keyboard is a typewriter-like device that allows the
Information into the computer
Information processed by the
computer
Information in a form you can use or store
Input devices
CPU
Output & Storage devices
Figure 1.3: Relationship between input, processing and output or storage devices.
8
user to type in text and commands to the computer. Some keyboards
have special function keys or integrated pointing devices, such as a
trackball or touch-sensitive regions that let the user's finger motions move
an on-screen cursor, which is basically incorporating what we called a
mouse.
The computer mouse is another input device which is used to point
and select items and commands on the screen. The mouse is a detection
device that enables the user to control the motion of an on-screen pointer,
or cursor, by moving the mouse on a flat surface. In doing so, the user can
perform various functions such as opening a program or file. The mouse
facilitates work by not requiring the user to memorise complicated
commands. Do you know that the mouse was invented way back in 1963
by a researcher from Stanford University in USA? Since then, many types
of computer mouse have been invented such as trackball mouse,
touchpad mouse, optical mouse, cordless mouse and more. Figure 1.4
shows the functions of the parts of a typical mouse. The mouse can input
information to the computer via a serial port, USB port, infrared or
Bluetooth technology. You can find out more on how a mouse work in this
web site
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/mouse2.htm
Figure 1.4: Functions of the parts of a mouse
9
There are many other input devices such as joystick, digital
camera, scanner, modem, Webcam, microphone, and voice recognition
device.
Activity 1.2 Access the internet and find out the function of each of this input device as shown in Table 1.1 below. Copy the table and file it in your folio when you are done.
Table 1.1: Common Input Devices and Their Functions
Input device
Function(s)
Joystick
Digital camera
Scanner
Modem
Webcam
Microphone
Voice recognition device
Activity 1.3 The digital camera can be put to good use for teaching and learning mathematics. Think of an activity to illustrate how a mathematics student can use the digital camera for learning or how a mathematics teacher can use the digital camera for teaching primary school mathematics. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them online in the OLL.
10
1.4.2 Output devices
Output devices are external devices that transfer information from
the computer’s CPU to the computer user. For example, the computer
screen monitor is a display unit to convert information generated by the
computer into visual information. A monitor relies on a video card that is
located inside the computer to process the computer data into image
details that the monitor can display. The older monitors use cathode ray
tube (CRT) similar to the TV screen for displays. Nowadays there are
high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma monitors that give
very sharp and clear images. Watching a movie or playing computer
games would be more enjoyable with these high-resolution computer
screens! Figure 1.5 shows the difference in thickness between a CRT and
an LCD monitor.
Another common output device is the printer. A printer is a
peripheral which produces a copy of readable text and/or graphics of
documents. In other words, printers receive information from the computer
and print them out in text and/or image form, usually on paper or
transparencies. There are many types of printers – dot-matrix printers,
A CRT monitor An LCD monitor
Figure 1.5: Comparison between a CRT and an LCD monitor
11
laser printers and inkjet printers. Dot-matrix printers use tiny wires to
impact upon an inked ribbon to form characters. Laser printers employ
beams of light to draw images on a drum that then picks up fine black
particles called toner. The toner is fused to a page to produce an image.
Inkjet printers fire droplets of ink onto a page to form characters and
pictures. Whichever printer you use, it is good advice to use paper
sparingly to save our environment! The printer is a useful tool for teachers
who can use them to print out worksheets, quizzes, pictorial diagrams, or
photographs for their students to use. For example, a mathematics
teacher who has created a file with diagrams of fraction charts could print
out these diagrams for students to learn about fractions. Alternatively, if a
mathematics teacher has scanned an interesting picture or photographed
one using the digital camera, the images can be viewed directly in the
display monitor or printed out using an ordinary printer or photo printer as
shown in Figure 1.6.
Figure 1.6: Relationship between input and output images
12
If you are presenting a multimedia video about a topic of
mathematics to your students, it would not be engaging if there is no
sound. Can you imagine watching someone talk or sing but cannot hear a
single word he is saying or singing? It would not be effective in getting the
message across to the audience. This brings us to another useful output
device for teaching and learning mathematics, that is, the speakers.
Speakers take digital information from a computer file or from external
audio devices like CDs or DVDs and transform it into actual sounds that
we can hear. For example, if you have a recorded video clip of a teacher
teaching about decimals, the speakers converts the digital information in
the video clip into audio sounds which allow you to listen to the words said
by the teacher.
Facsimiles or fax machines, photocopiers, plotters, projectors and
headphones are some other output devices. In fact, improved output
devices such as some multi-purpose printers can perform various
functions like printing, photocopying and scanning all in a single machine.
You can find out more about these devices in the Internet.
1.4.3 Storage devices
Storage devices are designed to store digital information. Storage
devices provide permanent storage of information for retrieval by
computer until that information is deleted or changed. While computers
have internal storage equipment such as the Random Access Memory
(RAM), we will focus only on the external storage devices. These include
Activity 1.4 Speakers are useful devices in a mathematics classroom. As a mathematics teacher, can you think of two uses of the speakers in a mathematics class? Record your ideas and file them in your folio.
13
the floppy discs, compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs), the USB
Flash Drive, and the removable hard drives. Figure 1.7 shows some
common storage devices.
These storage devices store information in bytes – a byte is a
character, which is a letter, number or symbol. There are 256 standard
characters used by almost all computers. A typical high-density floppy disc
has 1.44 MB, which is equivalent to 1,000,000 bytes. Nowadays the floppy
discs are of limited use with more devices with higher storage capacity
being invented to store multimedia content. For example, a standard CD
can hold up to 800 MB of data while a single-sided, double-layer DVD can
store up to 8.5 GB of data, a USB Flash Drive can hold up to 200 GB, and
a high-capacity external hard drive can store up to 500 GB of data!
1.5 Other Useful Hardware
1.5.1 Interactive Whiteboard
An integrated system that makes use of both input and output
devices is the interactive whiteboard. The interactive whiteboard (input
device) has a large interactive display that connects to a computer and a
projector (output device) and typically mounted on a floor stand or to a
wall. The projector beams the image of computer onto a whiteboard and
by writing or touching the interactive whiteboard screen, messages are
input back to the computer. Thus, the computer sends out information
Figure 1.7: Common storage devices
14
through the projector onto the whiteboard which then can capture new
information to be sent back to the computer to change the original
information. Figure 1.8 shows a simplified diagram on how the interactive
whiteboard works.
1.5.2 Visualiser
In essence, a visualiser is a digital camera mounted on an arm that
can capture image of objects placed on a base and the image can then be
projected on a screen or an interactive whiteboard. Figure 1.9 shows
some examples of visualisers. Visualisers are useful when a teacher
needs to show some objects or demonstrate some manipulation of objects
that can be projected to the whole class. With most visualisers, you can
zoom in and out, freeze and capture an image and then review the image
captured. Software that accompanies the visualiser allows for further
manipulation of the image or artefact such as time-lapse capture to track
Figure 1.8: Simplified diagram on how the interactive whiteboard work
Computer: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard
Projector: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard
Whiteboard: Every touch on the board is like a mouse-click on a computer screen. The whiteboard sends messages back to the computer – changes occur and the image on the board changes in response
15
changes over a period of time. Using the visualiser, teachers can display
real world examples or student work for evaluation by the class as well as
use the interactive whiteboard features, if connected to one, to highlight,
underline and write on documents that are displayed. Students in the back
of the room are able to see what the teacher is trying to show them. For
example, in learning about shapes a teacher can use a visualiser to show
how a cube is folded from a net and students can then follow the folding
process. In this way, the students can be more engaged and involved in
the learning process
Figure 1.9: Examples of visualisers
Activity 1.5 Visualisers can be used to show or demonstrate a number of things in a mathematics class. Think two uses of the visualiser in a mathematics class. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them in OLL.
16
1.5.3 Graphing calculator
A graphing calculator is a handheld calculator that is able to plot
graphs, solve simultaneous equations and perform complicated
mathematical operations. Newer versions have programming capability
where users can create customised programmes. These new models can
also display graphics in colour and permit 3D graphing. Figure 1.10 shows
a graphing calculator from Texas Instruments. Graphing calculator is an
especially useful tool for secondary or tertiary mathematics while its use in
primary mathematics may be limited. Nevertheless, some models are
installed with interactive geometry software like Cabri 3D which can be
used to teach about shapes in primary school mathematics.
Figure 1.10: An example of a graphing calculator
TAKE A BREAK ! Take a short break before you continue with the next unit. A computer joke: Hardware, that part of a computer which can be kicked. If you can only swear at it, it is software!!
17
UNIT 2 Software
2.0 Synopsis
This unit covers aspects of the computer software, without
which the computer hardware cannot function. The term `software’ will
be explained. This module also distinguishes the various types of
instructional software. Examples of teaching software using Microsoft
Office programmes, Geometer’s Sketchpad and other mathematics
software will be used to illustrate how they can be utilised in teaching
and learning mathematics.
2.1 Learning Outcomes
At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to
(a) explain the meaning of software
(b) identify the types of instructional software
(c) give examples of using Microsoft Office programmes for
teaching and learning mathematics
(d) suggest some ideas of using the Geometer’s Sketchpad and
other mathematics software for teaching and learning
mathematics
18
2.2 Unit Framework
2.3 Introduction
The computer cannot run with only the physical hardware
assembled. It needs programmes or written instructions to tell the
computer hardware what to do. These programmes are the computer
software. In other words, a computer software is a programme or a
sequence of intructions written to perform a specific task for a computer.
This software is written in the language of computer programming where
logic of the instructions can be read and carried out by the microprocessor
in the computer. Computer software allows information to be processed
by the microprocessor that together acts as the brain of the computer,
telling the computer hardware what to do and when and how to do it.
Without the software, the hardware is just a piece of device without
function. Computer software translates an action such as clicking a mouse
into a language that the computer hardware can follow and perform a task,
like saving information into a floppy disc. On the other hand, without the
hardware all written instructions in a piece of software cannot be executed
and performed. It is like having the thoughts but without the brain and
body to carry the thoughts! In short, both hardware and software are
complementary and interdependent to make a computer work.
SOFTWARE
Teaching Packages
Teaching Software
Types of Instructional Software
Microsoft Office
Geometer’s Sketchpad
Other software
19
Software are created by computer programmers and software
engineers. There are many types of computer software – mainly
categorised as system software or application software. System software
helps run the computer hardware and the computer system. The Windows
operating system is an example of a system software. Application
software is software designed to help users perform a particular task that
benefits them. For example, the Microsoft Word is an application software
that helps you type out your text, SPSS ia a statistical application software
that allows you to analyse data statistically, and Geometer’s Sketchpad is
an application software to help students learn about geometry. While
system software is important for computer to function, we will be focusing
on application software in this unit.
Activity 2.1 There are many application software that you have come across and used either in your work or leisure. List down an example of each in Table 2.1 below. Copy the table and file it up in your folio.
Table 2.1: Example of application software
Function Example
Typing text Microsoft Word
Making Presentations
Watching movies
Browsing the internet
Sending an e-mail
Playing an audio file
Burn a CD/DVD
20
2.4 Teaching packages A teaching package can be defined as consisting of one or more
related programmes packaged together for an educational purpose. While
the Microsoft Office suite packages a word processing programme, a
presentation programme, a spreadsheet programme or an internet
browsing programme which can be used to enhance instructional
activities, this package of software may not always be used for teaching or
instruction. We will see how this software package can be used for
teaching later, but first let us look at some specific instructional or teaching
package. Teaching package contains programme(s) that delivers all or
part of a student’s instruction on a given topic or in some way assist the
learning of the topic. Teaching package can be a courseware package
that bundles together various lessons, tests, or other learning activities
and materials.
When our Ministry of Education (MOE) implemented the teaching of
Mathematics and Science in English (ETeMS), interactive teaching
packages were produced in collaboration with Telekom and Educational
Technology Division of MOE to help teachers and students learn
mathematics in that medium. These instructional packages are self-
contained stand-alone multimedia learning resources where teachers can
use them in the classroom or students can use them on their own. These
instructional packages present interactive tutorials to explain or facilitate
some important mathematical concepts or procedures. They also contain
drill and practice interactions that students can practice their mathematical
skills as well as revision questions that allow students to test their skills.
Figure 2.1 shows some screen shots of the Year 1 Courseware covering
the learning outcome of finding the difference between two numbers
through one-to-one matching. In this activity, students can listen to audio
explanations, see pictorial representations, and use the mouse to select
options and click and drag pictures. Feedback to their actions is given in
the form of audio and visual cues.
21
2.4.1 Types of instructional software
There are a number of instructional software that can be
incorporated into teaching-learning package or courseware. Robbyler,
Edwards and Havriluk (1997) identified five main types of instructional
software:
Drill ( or drill and practice software)
Programmes that allow learners to work problems or answer
questions and get feedback on correctness.
Tutorial software
Programmes that act like tutors by providing all the information and
instructional activities that a learner needs to master a given topic
(e.g., information summaries, explanation, practice routines,
feedback, and assessment)
Figure 2.1: Screen shots of the MOE Year 1 Teaching-learning Courseware for Mathematics
22
Simulation software
Programmes that model real or imagine systems to show how
those systems or similar ones work
Instructional games
Programmes designed to increase motivation by adding game rules
to learning activities
Problem solving software
Programmes that (a) teach directly (through explanation and/or
practice) the steps in solving problems, or (b) help learners acquire
problem-solving skills by given them opportunities to solve
problems.
Activity 2.2 Your school should have the teaching-learning coursware for ETeMS for mathematics. Pick a set of coursware for a particular year, for example, Year 2. Study the courseware carefully and try out some of the learning activities. State to what extent the different types of instructional software are incorporated in the package. Tick (√) or (x) for each type of software if it is present or not present in the courseware. For each software that is present describe how the activity is conducted int the courseware. Use Table 2.2 to help you organise your finding. Share your answers in the OLL and file them in your folio. Table 2.2: Types of software present in the Courseware
Type of software Present Description of activity
Drill and practice
Tutorial
Simulation
Instructional game
Problem solving
23
2.5 Teaching software
Various software are available that can be used to enhance the
teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. Some of these software
are not specific to mathematics but can be applied by teachers to facilitate
teaching of mathematics, while others are designed specifically for
learning mathematics. Let’s take a look at some of the software.
2.5.1 Microsoft Office software
The Microsoft Office package of programmes are interrelated
desktop applications and services that can be used by mathematics
teacher to enrich their teaching. An MS Office package may include the
word processing software Microsoft Word, the presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint, the spreadsheet programme Microsoft Excel, and
the publishing software Microsoft Publisher. The Table 2.3 shows the
basic function of these programmes.
Table 2.3: Microsoft Office software and function
Type of software What it does
Microsoft Word® Allows you to type up a document, such as a worksheet.
Microsoft Excel® Allows you to type in figures, use formulas and create charts.
Microsoft PowerPoint®
Allows you to create presentations composed of texts, graphics, movies and other objects for teaching, etc.
Microsoft Publisher®
Allows you to create brochures, greeting cards, newsletters, etc.
Microsoft Word itself is not designed specifically for teaching and
learning of mathematics. However, it has some features in the application
that can be used by mathematics teacher. For example, in the insert
function there are 2D and 3D shapes which can be selected and drawn by
teachers or students for learning purposes. Students can use drawn 2D
24
shape such as squares and triangles and describe their properties and
then type them out using MS Word. The programme also has an Equation
Editor in the Insert Object function menu. This feature is very useful for
teachers to type out their questions involving mathematical symbols for
worksheets and test papers. Figure 2.2 shows a composite diagram on
how to select the Microsoft Equation in MS Word 2003.
Now let’s try out the Equation Editor.
Activity 2.3 Use the Microsoft Equation object to perform these tasks: (a) Type out three questions involving addition of fractions,
subtraction involving mixed numbers, and multiplication involving whole numbers and fractions
(b) Type out the solution in the standard written algorithm (long division form) for the following division problems (i) 344 ÷ 8 (ii) 1055 ÷ 6
1. Click Insert
2. Click Object
3. Select Microsoft Equation 3.0
4. Click OK
Figure 2.2: How to select the Microsoft Equation editor object
25
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, Microsoft PowerPoint presentations
and Microsoft Publisher brochures can all be designed for the context of
learning mathematics. It depends on the creative effort of teachers to
explore how these tools can be used for enhancing mathematics teaching
and learning. For example you can go this web site
http://www.microsoft.com/Education/DisplayFractions.aspx to view an
example of how a spreadsheet can be used to display fraction
computations. The following site at
http://presentationsoft.about.com/od/powerpointlessonplans/ig/PowerPoint
-Math-Lessons/Subtraction-Using-PowerPoint.htm shows a simple
illustration on how a teacher can create a PowerPoint presentation to
teach subtraction involving missing addend problems. There are many
more ideas that you can get from the Internet. Let’s see how resourceful
you are in searching ideas for teaching mathematics using Microsoft
programmes.
Other than Microsoft Office software, packages like Adobe
Illustrator and CorelDraw contain graphic tools that can help mathematics
teachers create diagrams for teaching purposes.
Activity 2.4 Search the Internet for ideas on how to use the following Microsoft programmes to enhance your teaching of primary school mathematics. Take notes of the teaching ideas and file them up in your folio. Share your ideas with your coursemates during face-to-face interactions or in the OLL. 1. Microsoft Word 2. Microsoft Powerpoint 3. Microsoft Excel [Suggestion: see this site
http://www.fi.edu/qa98/me5/me5.html]
4. Microsoft Publisher
26
2.5.2 Geometer’s Sketchpad
Apart from non-mathematical software like Microsoft Office
programmes which can be utilised to facilitate mathematics teaching,
there are also software that are designed specifically for teaching and
learning mathematical concepts and skills. The Geometer’s Sketchpad is
an example. This software is a dynamic interactive programme that helps
students learn mathematical concepts in geometry, algebra and calculus
by visualisation and interaction. It has the capability of allowing students to
construct and explore geometrical shapes and properties in a dynamic
interactive environment. Consequently, students can use the Geometer’s
Sketchpad to build and investigate properties of mathematical models,
objects, figures, diagrams and graphs. Figure 2.3 shows a screen shot of
a Geometer’s Sketchpad activity that demonstrates the grouping concept
to lead students to the place value concept.
You can get more teaching ideas from the Key Curriculum Press
website, which is the developer of Geometer’s Sketchpad, at this address
http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/General_Resources/Classroom_Activiti
es.html
Figure 2.3: Example of a Geometer’s Sketchpad activity
27
2.5.3 Other mathematics software
There are a number of programmes available on the Internet that
are suitable for teaching and learning mathematics. Some of these
programmes are free while others require you to purchase them. Many of
these are drill and practice software which allow students to have (a)
control over the level or pace of the practice, and (b) appropriate feedback
for correct answers. For example, you can download a trial copy of a drill
and practice mathematics quiz in this web site
http://www.qmsoftware.com.au/SpellingGames.htm called the ABC
Spelling and Math Games. This software allows students to practice
mathematics questions at primary level with appropriate feedback; and
correct responses are tracked to indicate performance. In addition, a
teacher can design his/her own quizzes for specific learning outcome
involving the basic operations for numbers, fractions, decimals and
percentage. Figure 2.4 shows a screen shot of a sample mathematics quiz
involving addition of fractions. You should download the software and take
a look at the example.
Although drill and practice software are good for rehearsal and
revision of mathematical skills involving basic operations, they lack the
capability to develop higher-order mathematical skills such as problem
solving. Hence, developers have created more complex and integrated
courseware that enables students to build problem solving skills. One
Activity 2.5 Go to this web site http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt669/Student.Folders/Lewis.Millard/unit/DayOne.html You can download a Geometer’s Sketchpad file that can show the multiplication of fractions. Of course to open this file you need to install the programme in your computer.
28
example is the Adventures of Jasper Woodburry Series developed by
Vanderbilt University, USA. This series consists of 12 video-disc based
adventures that focus on mathematical problem finding and problem
solving. Each adventure provides multiple opportunities for problem
solving, reasoning, communication and making connections to other areas
such as science, social studies, literature and history. You can read more
about this interesting series from this address
http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html
Figure 2.4: Example of a mathematics teaching software
Activity 2.6 Surf the Internet and look for one example each of the following type of software or courseware that can help you in teaching and learning mathematics for primary school. (a) Drill and practice software (b) Problem solving software
For each software or courseware comment on the usefulness for your teaching in your school. File your comments in the folio and share them in the OLL.
29
TAKE A BREAK ! Take a break before you continue with the next unit. Here is a funny poem for you to relax your mind!
A Poem about Computers
A computer was something on TV From a science fiction show of note.
A window was something you hated to clean... And ram was the cousin of a goat.....
Meg was the name of my girlfriend
And gig was a job for the nights Now they all mean different things
And that really mega bytes
An application was for employment A program was a TV show A cursor used profanity A keyboard was a piano
Memory was something that you lost with age
A CD was a bank account And if you had a 3 1/2" floppy You hoped nobody found out
Compress was something you did to the garbage
Not something you did to a file And if you unzipped anything in public
You'd be in jail for a while
Log on was adding wood to the fire Hard drive was a long trip on the road A mouse pad was where a mouse lived
And a backup happened to your commode
Cut you did with a pocket knife Paste you did with glue
A web was a spider's home And a virus was the flu
I guess I'll stick to my pad and paper
And the memory in my head I hear nobody's been killed in a computer crash But when it happens they wish they were dead!
(Source: Easy Desk Software at http://www.easydesksoftware.com/compoem.htm)
30
UNIT 3 Internet and Online Instructions
3.0 Synopsis
This unit covers development of the Internet and its
applications. Specifically, the function of search engines will be
explained. This module also discusses some uses of the
communication technology including e-mail, video conferencing, and
Internet forum discussion. In addition, some aspects of online learning
involving distance learning, e-learning and web-based learning will be
discussed. Examples of mathematics resources site are also provided.
3.1 Learning Outcomes
At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to
(a) state briefly the history of the Internet
(b) use suitable search engine to search for resources
(c) identify some uses of communication technology for teaching
and learning
(d) suggest some web-based resources for e-learning and web-
based learning
(e) identify suitable professional sites as resources for teaching and
learning mathematics
31
3.2 Unit Framework
3.3 Introduction – A Brief History of the Internet
Nowadays almost everyone is familiar with the Internet. In fact,
some people cannot go a day without using the Internet! Many students
and teachers are using the internet for various purposes – connecting with
friends, accessing information and news, viewing multimedia content and
many more. While the Internet serves many purposes, it is the role of the
Internet in facilitating learning both inside and outside the classroom that
we are interested in. Before we look at how Internet facilitates teaching
and learning of mathematics, do you know what the Internet is?
Here is one summarised explanation from Wikipedia, an online
encyclopedia. The Internet ia ”a global system of interconnected computer
networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve
billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of
millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks
of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and
optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array
of information resources and services, most notably the inter-
linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the
infrastructure to support electronic mail” (Wikipedia, retrieved May 2010).
INTERNET AND ONLINE INTRUCTIONS
Internet Search Engines
Online Instructions
Online learning
E-mail Video conferencing
Internet forum
History of the Internet
32
To understand more about how the network of networks is
developed, let’s take a brief look at how the Internet began.
Activity 3.1 Access the internet through this URL http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml and you will see a timeline of the history of the Internet. Fill up Table 3.1 below with the important events that shape the development of the Internet. Copy the table and file it in your folio.
Table 3.1: A brief history of the Internet
Year Event(s)
1962
1968
1972
1973
1974
1976
1983
1988
1990
1992
1996
1999
33
3.4 Internet Search Engines The Internet is a massive connection of networks with millions of
addresses that provide various sources of data and information. To look
up the relevant data or information requires search engines to “search the
World-Wide Web” for related web pages, images, information and other
types of files efficiently. Otherwise, it is quite impossible to look for what
you need in a sea of information – it’s like looking for a pin in an ocean!
Search engines are special sites on the Web that are designed to help
internet users find relevant information stored on other sites. There are
differences in the ways various search engines work, but they all perform
three basic tasks:
They search the Internet (i.e. the World Wide Web) -- or select
pieces of the Internet -- based on important words.
They keep an index of the words they find, and where they find
them.
They allow users to look for words or combinations of words
found in that index.
You can read more about how search engines work in this web site with
the address http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-
engine.htm
There are various search engines available to help students and
teachers of mathematics to look for information and materials ranging from
textual articles to multimedia videos. Mozilla Firefox, Google, Altavista,
Yahoo! Search, Ask.com, Bing are some commonly used search engines.
Some search engines are specialised to look up information on specific
area. For example, YouTube is a search engine that help search for video
files, Technorati specialises in looking up blogs (short for Web Logs), and
Google Scholar search for academic materials. For a list of search
engines go to this site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines
34
Let’s practice some Internet search and surfing!
Activity 3.2 Select a search engine of your choice and look up some websites that are relevant to primary school mathematics. Describe briefly how you can use the information from three websites to teach primary mathematics. File up your search and share your information in the OLL. Site 1: URL _________________________________________ Description of use: Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:
Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:
35
3.5 Online Instructions
The Internet is becoming a useful mode of learning. Research has
indicated that technology like the Internet plays a critical role in changing
the classroom learning environments. Learning on the Internet or learning
online has the potential to enrich the learning experience of many
students. With its vast resources of information and capability to provide
information at a click of a button, learners can have access to learning
materials that are not confined to textbooks and libraries. And the ability to
connect between users means the Internet can deliver instruction which is
not limited by distance and time. There are many ways the technology
provided by the Internet can change and enrich learning experiences. For
example, a mathematics student from Malaysia can learn from another
mathematics student in America at any time of the day through sharing
ideas, comparing resources, and interacting with each other. Alternatively,
a mathematics student can access suitable web sites that provide drill and
practice exercises on a particular topic and learn at his own pace and
time.
Activity 3.3 Think of some other ways that a mathematics student can learn using the Internet. Record your thoughts and share them online in the OLL. Learning mathematics via the Internet:
36
For mathematics teachers, the Internet is an abundant resource
provider that can help them make their teaching more constructive,
engaging and rewarding for their students. The challenge lies in locating,
accessing and integrating these materials meaningfully into their schools’
mathematics curricula and using the materials appropriately for teaching
and learning of mathematics. The Internet is also a way of making
connection between mathematics teachers around the world where they
can network and share experiences, teaching resources and ideas.
How can students and teachers of mathematics connect,
communicate and collaborate using the Internet? Well, there are several
ways it can be done.
3.5.1 E-Mail
Every day all over the world, netizens or citizens of the Internet
send out billions of email messages. The e-mail has become an
indispensable communication tool for many people. The e-mail message
is basically a simple text message sent to a recipient. Nowadays you can
send an e-mail message with attachments which can be image, video and
other digital files. To send and receive e-mails you need to have an e-mail
client. You can use stand-alone e-mail clients like Microsoft Outlook,
Outlook Express, Eudora, Pegasus or you can register for free e-mail
services like Yahoo, Hotmail or Google Mail.
As a teacher, you can use the e-mail to send mathematics
assignment tasks, exercise questions, revision questions, information
about class schedules, video of recorded teaching and many other
learning materials to your students. In reply, the students can attach their
solutions, queries, and project papers for you to check and provide
feedback without having to use printed materials. Teachers can use the e-
mail to network with other mathematics teachers locally or globally in order
to share and learn from each other.
37
3.5.2 Video Conferencing
Video conferencing allows people from two or more locations to
communicate by seeing and hearing each other at the same time. They
can exchange visual information in the form of videos as well as audio
content. The simplest video conferencing is the point-to-point involving two
people where you need the following:
A computer
An Internet connection
A telephone, if audio content is not provided online
A PC with a microphone, a Webcam or digital video camera, and
a video capture card
Video input from the camera and audio input from the microphone are
converted to digital data that can be sent through the Internet or a wireless
network. When the data reaches the participant of the conference, the
video and audio are viewed and heard on a computer, television screen or
mobile phone. Figure 3.1 shows a simplified diagram of how the video
conference works.
Figure 3.1: A simple diagram of how video conferencing works
38
3.5.3 Internet Forums An internet forum or message board is an online discussion site
where users can post comments to discuss a wide range of topics. Many
distance learning programmes in universities incorporate this technology
as part of the learning mode for their students. The advantage of this
technology is the ability to allow groups of users to build online learning
communities where learning is communicated and collaborated. For
example, a mathematics teacher can set up an online discussion forum
where his/her students can post comments, answers and solutions about
a particular topic of mathematics. There are free software available where
you can set up a discussion forum for a group of students. bbPress,
phpBB, Vanilla, and Phorum are some free forum software. Apart from
these you can subscribe to professional sites to take part in forum
discussions. Figure 3.2 shows a screen capture of a forum discussion
about fractions at the Math Forum@Drexel web site.
Activity 3.4 Video conferencing may help students learn mathematics when they are absent from the school for some reasons. Think about how a mathematics teacher can use video conferences to help the students learn what the teacher is teaching. File up your ideas and share them during your face-to-face interactions.
Activity 3.5 Search the Internet for other discussion forum sites that are useful for mathematics teachers. Jot down the address and comments on the topics discussed. File up your search in your folio.
39
3.5.4 Online learning
The Internet has been used to deliver learning and instruction in
recent years. A number of universities all over the world are embracing the
technology to conduct distance learning. A common feature of distance
learning programmes is that there is a separation of teacher and learner in
time or place, or in both time and place. This process of extending
learning opportunity away from the classrooms or lecture rooms means
effective ways are needed to deliver instructional materials and resources
to learners over a distance at various times. The advent of the Internet
with its communicative feature plus the capability to send digital
information quickly allows distance learning to be conducted via e-
learning.
E-learning or electronic learning is any learning that uses the
Internet to deliver some form of instruction to a learner or learners
separated by time, distance or both (Reiser & Dempsey, 2002). Some
universities who provides e-learning do so by providing assistance to
learners through a Learning Management System (LMS). An LMS is a
software application that is used to organise and provide access to online
services for students and instructors. These services usually include
Figure 3.2: Example of mathematics discussion forum
40
access to course guides, notes, communication tools, as well as
discussion forum. For example, Open University of Malaysia provides
distance learning programmes via a blended mode of e-learning that
incorporates an LMS with online discussion, e-mail communication and
links to digital collection of resources.
E-learning is not necessary only carried out by institutions of higher
learning. Organisations, professional institutions, commercial enterprises,
or individuals can design and deliver e-learning to any interested parties.
There are many web sites on the Internet that provide learning courses or
specific learning content given either free or charged a payment. This form
of learning where a learner can access a web site to learn
comprehensively about some topics is often called web-based learning.
Web-based learning materials may include content presentations,
tutorials, practice questions and solutions, quizzes, video demonstrations,
Activity 3.6 There are many benefits of enrolling a course through e-learning. Surf the Internet and jot down some benefits. File up your answers in the folio. Benefits of e-learning: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
41
educational games, virtual learning environments etc. and most of these
are often interactive. Figure 3.3 shows a mathematics resource site that
provides web-based learning materials with links to interactive
mathematics tools and activities for students and teachers.
A number of professional web sites are available online that provide
useful resource materials for mathematics teachers and students. One
such site is the NCTM Illuminations web site constructed by The National
Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in USA. This web site
[URL:http://illuminations.nctm.org/] supports mathematics teachers with
helpful and informative resources and links that help teachers develop
professionally. In this site mathematics teachers can access mathematics
teaching and learning activities, lesson plans, mathematics tools as well
as links to other mathematics teaching and learning web sites. Both
primary and secondary mathematics resources are available in this web
site. Figure 3.4 shows the main web page of the NCTM Illuminations site.
Another useful mathematics resource site for teaching and learning
mathematics for all levels is TheMathForum@Drexel [URL:
http://mathforum.org/teachers/] where teachers can contribute, share and
learn from each other too.
Figure 3.3: A web site with interactive links for web-based learning
42
In conclusion, there is a wealth of mathematics resources in the
Internet that a resourceful teacher can utilised, especially in conjunction
with the current hardware and software available. Embrace technology to
enhance pedagogy!
Figure 3.4: The NCTM Illuminations web site
Activity 3.7 Many more interesting and helpful web sites are available for mathematics teachers and students. Surf the net and identify (a) two web sites that are relevant to mathematics teachers to
obtain teaching resources, and (b) two web sites that have interactive learning materials for
primary school mathematics students. For each web site, do a screen capture of the page and provide a brief description on how it can be used by teachers or students. The results of this activity should be filed up in your folio and share your search results in the OLL or during your face-to-face interactions.
43
Review Exercise It is time to review what you have learned from this module. Answer the following questions and file up your answers in your folio. 1. State the meaning of hardware of a computer. 2. Name three major types of hardware. 3. Give three examples of input devices 4. Give three examples of output devices 5. Give three examples of storage devicee 6. State one feature of an interactive whiteboard 7. Give one advantage of using a visualiser in a mathematics
class
8. What is the difference between a system software and an application software?
9. Name the five main types of instructional software
10. Give one application of using MS Word in a mathematics
class.
11. State one benefit of using Geometer’s Sketchpad in a mathematics classroom.
12. What is the benefit of using a problem solving software?
13. Name two internet search engines.
14. Give one use of the e-mail in mathematics teaching.
15. Describe one way video conference can be used for
mathematics teaching and learning.
16. Give one example of web-based learning.
17. Give an example of a professional website that has good mathematics resources.
44
CONGRATULATIONS!
You have succeeded in completing this module.
“Learning is not achieved by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence.”
– Abigail Adams
Food for Thought Technology is increasingly used in education with huge amount spent in developing the infostructure for ICT in schools. Yet, some people question whether the financial investment is worth the returns from ICT in Education Discuss this issue with your coursemates in the OLL.
Food for Thought Technology is increasingly used in education with huge amount spent in developing the infostructure for ICT in schools. Yet, some people question whether the financial investment is worth the returns from ICT in Education Discuss this issue with your coursemates in the OLL.
45
BIBLIOGRAPHY Burns, M. (1992). About Teaching Mathematics. Maths Solution. Foresman, S. (2000). Interactive mathematics: Lessons and tools. NJ: Prentice
Hall. Haylock, D. (2003). Understanding mathematics in the lower primary years. UK:
Paul Chapman Publication. Jennings, S., & Dunne, R. (2003). I see maths books. vol 1-3. UK: Mashford
Colour Press. National Curriculum Council. (1991). Prime calculators: Children and
mathematics. UK: Simon and Schuster. Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.A. (Eds.) (2002). Trends and issues in instructional
design and technology. Upper Saddle River , New Jersey : Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Robbyler, M.D., Edwards, J., & Havriluk, M.A. (1997). Integrating educational
technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Trautman, A. P., & Lichenberg, B. K. (2003). Mathematics: A good beginning . 6th
ed. UK: Wadsworth/ Thompson Inc. Internet websites:
http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml http://mathforum.org/teachers/ http://illuminations.nctm.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-engine.htm http://www.coolmath.com/ http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html http://www.askdeb.com/blog/technology/what-is-computer-software/ http://www.rsc-london.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag_smartboards.pdf http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Interactivewhiteboards.pdf http://www.innovationslearning.co.uk/subjects/maths/activities/year3/number_deans/question.asp http://www.rsc-london.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag_smartboards.pdf
46
PANEL OF MODULE WRITERS
PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3016 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)
NAME QUALIFICATIONS
PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS
LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]
QUALIFICATIONS:
1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics)
WORK EXPERIENCE:
1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 – 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 –
now
PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]
QUALIFICATIONS:
1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE:
1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 – 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 – 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 -
now
PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHNSON A/L SAVARIMUTHU POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]
QUALIFICATIONS:
1. M.Ed (Mathematics) 2. B.Ed (Mathematics)
WORK EXPERIENCE:
1. Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 - now 2. School mathematics teacher: 1993 –
2007
47
PANEL OF MODULE REVIEWERS
PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3106 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)
NAMA KELAYAKAN
PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS
LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]
QUALIFICATIONS:
1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics)
WORK EXPERIENCE:
1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 – 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 –
now
PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: [email protected]
QUALIFICATIONS:
1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE:
1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 – 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 – 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 -
now
(NAMA) (JAWATAN) (EMEL)
(KELULUSAN) PHD/SARJANA/SARJANA MUDA/DIPLOMA/SIJIL (PENGALAMAN KERJA)
48
ICONS
Break
Discussion
Reading material
Reference book
Exercise
Make notes
Checklist
Surf Internet
User Guide
Gather Information
Tutorial
Think
End