Nationally Appropriate Mitigation ActionsA Technical Assistance Source Book for Practitioners
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AuthorsCourtney Blodgett, Julia Rohe, Sibylle Kabisch, Dennis Tnzler
Photo creditsPhotographs provided by Asian GIZ environment and climate projects
Design and LayoutKlaus Neumann
Jakarta, Berlin, Hamburg, August 2012
This source book brings together GIZ experiences on building capacity for climate change mitigation policies and measures in several countries. The source book development team would like to thank GIZ advisors for their contribution and review.
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation ActionsA Technical Assistance Source book for Practitioners
DisclaimerThe views expressed in this document represent do not necessarily reflect the position of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).
Copyright GIZ 2012
1. Approach 3
2. What are NAMAs? 5
3. Political process 93.1 How can NAMAs be linked with the political framework of the partner country? 103.2 How are NAMAs selected? 153.3 What is required to start the political process on NAMA development? 223.4 What needs to be considered regarding co-benefits? 27
4. Stakeholders and cooperation 314.1 Who are key governmental actors in NAMA development? 324.2 How do I involve and manage NAMA stakeholders? 37
5. Technical factor 415.1 How is the baseline established
and how can the emission reduction potential be evaluated? 425.2 What needs to be considered when designing the MRV plan? 575.3 What are key components of data management systems? 645.4 What needs to be considered at an international level when planning NAMAs? 67
6. Financing 716.1 What should be prepared in order to approach financiers? 716.2 What information is useful to know about NAMA funding? 75
7. Implementation and best practices 79
8. References 85
AbbreviationsADB Asian Development BankBAPPENAS Ministry of National Development Planning, IndonesiaBAU Business-as-usualBMU Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear SafetyBMZ Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentBUR Biennial update reportCCAP Center for Clean Air PolicyCCBS Climate, Community and Biodiversity StandardsCCF Climate Change FundCDM Clean Development MechanismCEF Clean Energy FundCFU Carbon Finance UnitCTF Clean Technology FundCH4 MethaneCMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto ProtocolCO2 Carbon dioxideCO2e Carbon dioxide equivalentCOP Conference of the PartiesDECC United Kingdoms Department for Energy and Climate ChangeDKTI German Climate Technology InitiativeDNA Designated National AuthorityDOE Designated Operational EntityEB Executive BoardEC European CommissionECN Energy Research Center of the NetherlandsEnDev GIZ Energising Development ProgrammeER Emission ReductionsERS Emission Reduction ScenarioEU European UnionFICAM Financial and Cost Assessment ModelFOVISSSTE Housing Fund of the Institute of Social Security and Services for Government WorkersGCCA Global Climate Change AllianceGCF Green Climate FundGEF Global Environment FacilityGHGs Greenhouse GasesGIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale ZusammenarbeitGJ GigajoulesGRI Global Reporting InitiativeGWP Global Warming PotentialICA International Consultation and AnalysisICI German International Climate InitiativeICLEI International Council for Local Environmental InitiativesIEA International Energy AgencyIFEU Institut fr Energie- und UmweltforschungInfraFund Inter-American Banks Infrastructure FundIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeISO International Organization for StandardizationKfW Kreditanstalt fr WiederaufbauLAO PDR Lao Peoples Democratic Republic
LCDS Low Carbon Development StrategyLDCs Least Developed CountriesLEDS Low Emission Development StrategyLGU Landfill gas utilisationLGUs Local Government UnitsLTMS Long Term Mitigation Scenariosm2 Square metreMAC Marginal Abatement CostMAPS Mitigation Action Plans and ScenariosMCDA Multi Criteria Decision AnalysisMEMR Ministry of Energy and Mineral ResourcesMoA Ministry of AgricultureMoF Ministry of FinanceMoFor Ministry of ForestryMoI Ministry of InteriorMOP Meeting of PartiesMRV Measuring, Reporting and VerificationMW megawattMWh megawatt per hourN2O Nitrous OxideNAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation ActionNAMAC Non-Annex I Marginal Abatement CostNFSCC National Framework Strategy on Climate ChangeNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationNPVs Net Present ValuesOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentPFC PerfluorocarbonsPoA CDM Programme of ActivitiesPPIAF Public Private Infrastructure Advisory FacilityPU Ministry of Public WorkRAN Indonesian National Action Plan for GHG reductionRAN-GRK Indonesian Mitigation Action Plan on greenhouse gas emission reductionRECs Regional Ecology CentersSECCI Sustainable Energy and Climate Change InitiativeSHF Federal Mortgage CompanySWM Solid Waste ManagementSWM4LGU Solid Waste Management for local government unitst TonneUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNEP United Nations Environment ProgrammeUNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUSD United States DollarWACC Weighted Average Cost of CapitalWB World Bankyrs Years
At present, GIZ advisory services support a range of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies and instruments in Asia and the rest of the world, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) and its programme of activities (PoA) in Pakistan and Thai-land, unilateral and internationally supported nation-ally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in Indonesia, and GHG inventories in China. Given the ever more pressing need for mitigation actions and support in developing countries, efforts in climate change mitigation policy and measures, especially NAMAs, are likely to increase over the next years. A number of countries have already established Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) or similar policy instruments  to identify the sources of GHG emissions and prioritise options for their mitigation in accordance with cost-benefit analyses and politi-cal and socio-economic criteria. LEDS can help to ensure that NAMAs create synergies and support each another.
The TUEWAS Working Group on NAMAs and Market Mechanisms (TUEWAS WG) acts as a knowledge platform for GIZ advisors in Asia by facilitating the exchange of expertise and experience in supporting the development and implementa-tion of LEDS and NAMAs. In October 2011, the working group agreed to develop a source book on NAMA development compiling and reviewing GIZs experience in building capacity for mitigation action in Asia and the rest of the world.
In order to write a robust, GIZ-specific guidebook, twelve interviews were held with GIZ and KfW
 There are a number of other similar policy instruments,
such as Low Carbon Development Strategies, Climate-
Compatible Development Plans and National Climate
employees who work around the world on NAMAs, the CDM or other approaches to emission reduc-tions. The interview results were then combined with general NAMA information as well as with the GIZ Capacity WORKS tool and the GIZ NAMA tool. GIZ documents were the main source of informa-tion, but information from elsewhere was added where appropriate.
This input culminated in a holistic source book that offers guidance to GIZ employees and non-Annex I countries responsible for implementing NAMAs.
A Technical Assistance Source Book for Practitioners
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions
Interviews with representatives from NAMA-related GIZ projects showed that there are five key themes for a successful NAMA. The source book will be structured according to these themes:1. Political process;2. Stakeholders and cooperation;3. Technical factors;4. Support; and5. Implementation.
This source book also includes a second element, which highlights the relevant success factors and Capacity WORKS tools. Capacity WORKS is GIZs management model for sustainable development. It was introduced to GIZ projects worldwide in 20092010 and contains a toolbox of management meth-ods and instruments that can be applied by various stakeholders in different sociocultural contexts and sectors. Capacity WORKS is suitable for complex projects and programmes at all stages; it aims to steer these project and programmes towards :
The concept of sustainable development;
Objectives and results; and
The application of five success factors.
Capacity WORKS is structured around five success factors which are similar to