NARRATIVE WRITING. Examples of narration Short stories Novels Biographies Fairy-tales Fantasy Detective stories

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Examples of narrationShort storiesNovelsBiographiesFairy-talesFantasyDetective stories

Purpose: The purpose of a narrative text is to tell a story. Provide details in the sequence the events occur.There has to be a complication to increase the interest of the reader The story must have a definite ending.

A good narrative:

Involves readers in the storyTells events in sequenceIncludes detailed observations of people, places, and eventsPresents important changes, contrasts, or conflicts and creates tensionFocuses on connection between past events, people, or places and the present

The text of a narrative is organized into: An orientation (introduction)that tells us about the who?, where? and when? of the story. This is also known as the setting. A sequence of events (main body) that leads to a complication where some problem confronting the characters arises. A resolution (conclusion) where the crisis caused by the complication is solved. In short stories this is often at the very end of the story.


Always decide on your plot before you start writing!Sequence of events is very important. Use time words such as: at first, before, until, while, during, then, after, finally, etc.Use various adjectives (disgusting, terrified) and adverbs (desperately, surprisingly, etc) to describe feelings and actionsUse linking words or phrases to join the ideas and make your story flow.

TIPSUse direct speech. Variety of verbs will make your story more fascinating to read.Be careful with the tenses you choose. Descriptions of people, places, objects or events and descriptive techniques can be used in a narrative when you want to emphasize specific parts of your narration.

TECHNIQUES TO BEGIN A STORYA good beginning is as important as a good ending. A good beginning should make your reader want to go on with your story. A good ending will make your reader feel satisfied.

You can start your story by:Describing weather, surroundings, people, etc.Using direct speechCreating mystery.

EXAMPLESORDINARY BEGINNINGMORE INTERESTING BEGINNINGI woke up and got out of bed. I had a shower, ate breakfast and left

Bright morning sunlight was shining through my bedroom window when I woke. I lay there lazily for a few minutes, then jumped out of bed


You can end you story by

Referring to your feelings or moods.Describing peoples reactions to the events developed in the main body.Creating mystery.Asking a rhetorical question.

EXAMPLESSIMPLE ENDINGMORE INTERESTING ENDINGAt last I was home again, and soon went to bed. It had been a tiring day.

Exhausted and soaked to the skin, I slammed the front door behind me. I threw myself onto my bed, stared into the darkness and thought bitterly, why me?

EXPRESSIONS /PHRASESI was left speechlessI was out of reliefAll of a sudden / suddenlyMy heart was beating furiouslyThe next thing I knewIt made me jumpTo my surpriseI burst out laughing / into tearsWithout a doubt / Beyond any doubtIt was too good to be trueIt was a real shockI couldnt believe my eyes/luckIt was getting on my nervesI was in luck / out of luckIt was the best/worst everUnluckily / luckilyI was in good/ bad moodI breathed a sigh of relief