Nationalism in Latin AmericaChapter 18 Section 4
The Latin American EconomyEarly 1900s, economy was based on export of food and raw materials.DO NOT WRITEArgentina exported beef & wheatChile Nitrates & copperBrazil and Caribbean nations sugarCentral America - bananas
Role of the United States 1920s, U.S. replaced Britain as the foremost investor in L.A.U.S. put funds directly into production and ran companies themselves.U.S. owned the United Fruit Company and controlled copper mining in Chile & Peru and oil industries in Mexico, Peru, & Bolivia.
Good Neighbor PolicyPolicy rejected the use of U.S. military force in Latin AmericaFDR withdrew the last marines from Haiti in 1934.
Impact of the Great DepressionTerrible impact on the L.A. economy.Exports were no longer in demand.One positive: G.D. forced the development of new industries.Most industry was government run.
The Move to AuthorizationMost L.A. countries had republican forms of government.In reality, they were run by the church, military leaders, & large landowners.They used military force to maintain power.
ContinuedUnrest caused leaders to exercise stricter controls.Examples: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina
ArgentinaControlled by an oligarchy.Made up of the wealthy landowners. 1916, Hipolito Irigoyen, Radical Party, elected president.1930, military overthrew the government & reestablished the oligarchy.
ContinuedDuring World War II, military officers formed the Group of United Officers (GOU).GOU overthrew the government in 1943.Juan Peron elected president.
Brazil1889, formed a republican government.Controlled by landed elites who became wealthy by growing coffee.By 1900, of worlds coffee was grown in Brazil.Great Depression hurt coffee prices.
Continued1930, military coup made Getulio Vargas president of Brazil.1937, Vargas made himself dictator and established a Fascist dictatorship.1945, the army forced Vargas to resign.
MexicoThe post-revolution government was democratic in form.The PRI controlled politics.1934, Lazaro Cardenas became president.He wanted to follow through with the ideas of the revolution.He redistributed land to peasants and took a strong stand with the U.S., especially over oil.
ContinuedAfter a dispute, Cardenas seized control of the oil fields.U.S. oil companies asked FDR to intervene, but he refused. Mexico paid for the property and set up PEMEX.
Culture in Latin AmericaEarly 20th century, European artistic & literary movements influenced L.A. culture.Many artists expressed a national spirit.Diego Rivera was a Mexican artist who studied in Europe.Rivera wanted to create a national art that would include Mexicos past, its cultural heritage, and carry a social and political message.
Diego RiveraFrida Reparte Armas Carro de Flores
Diego RiveraNoche de Ricos
Frida Khalo y Diego Rivera
End of Chapter 18*****BRING YOUR NOTEBOOK TO CLASS TOMORROW*****