NATIONALISM: REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA Why were nationalist revolutions occurring in Latin America? Spanish South America Mexico

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  • NATIONALISM:REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICAWhy were nationalist revolutions occurring in Latin America?

    Spanish South AmericaMexico

  • Latin American Class SystemThe success of the Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions inspires colonies controlled by France, Spain & PortugalStrong class system (racial) in place in Latin AmericaYour rights depended where you were in this system

    PeninsularesCreoles (Criollo) MestizosSlavesIndiansEuropeans born in Spain/Portugal, top Govt jobsMixed Indian & European, merchants & low gov jobs/armyMixed African & European, low wage labor jobsIndigenous People, few jobs availableEuropeans born in Latin America, landowners & govt jobs/top army jobsMulattosAfrican, labor jobs

  • Saint Domingue (HAITI)1791: First Latin American revolution happens in the Caribbean100K of the 500K enslaved Africans rose up against their masters in the French Colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti)Slaves were led by Toussaint LOuverture

    French send troops to retake the island Toussaint agrees to stop the revolution if France ends slavery on Saint Domingue (Haiti) French capture Toussaint & take him to a prison in the French Alps More slaves join the fight, slave army now led by Jean-Jacques Dessailines 1804: Dessailines defeats French Army & creates nation of Haiti Napoleon leaves the Americas

  • SPANISH SOUTH AMERICADue to Napoleonic Wars, Spain losing their grip on Lat. Am colonies1811: Influenced by Am. Rev a Creole General named Simon Bolvar fights for independence in Venezuela

    Simon BolvarJose de San Martn Bolvar has little success until 1819, leads an army over Andes Mountains into New Granada (Colombia/Ecuador), surprising Spain1821: Venezuela & New Granada are independent (become Gran Colombia), 1822: Bolvar heads to Peru1816: Creole General Jose de San Martn begins independence movement in Rio De La Plata (Argentina/Paraguay)1817: Heads into Andes to fight Spanish army in nearby Chile

  • In the Andes, San Martn meets an Irish-Peruvian Bernardo OHiggins, they decide to combine armies

    Bernardo OHiggins 1821:Combined armies beat Spanish in Chile 1822: San Martn heads to Peru, OHiggins stays 1823: San Martn and Bolvar discuss combining armies to defeat Spain in Peru 12/9/1824: Bolvar (El Libertador) leads combined armies, final battle was won in Ayacucho, PeruPeru independent, Southern Peru becomes Bolivia

  • New Spain (MEXICO/CENTRAL AMERICA)1810: Padre Miguel Hidalgo calls for a revolution against Spain

    Sept 16: to symbolize start of the war of independence, Hidalgo rang the bells of his church Speech is El Grito de Dolores, the Cry of Dolores Hidalgos Indian & Mestizo army began to march towards Mexico City. 80,000 people would join 1811: Spanish Army led by Creoles defeat Hidalgos army Hidalgo is executed by Spanish AuthoritiesMiguel Hidalgo Padre Jose Morelos continues war but his army defeated 4 years later

  • 1816: King of Spain returns to power, Creoles lose their privileges Creoles unite with Mestizos and Indians, General Agustin Iturbide declares Mexican Independence 1821: Fed up w/ wars, Spain grants independence to Mexico which includes Central America 1823: Central American leaders win independence when Emp. Iturbide is overthrownBRAZIL 1808: Royal family of Portugal flees to Brazil when Napoleon invades King Joo gives Brazil co-kingdom statusAgustin Iturbide 1821: Joo returns to Portugal leaves son Dom Pedro in charge of Brazil 1822:Joo takes away co-Kingdom statusDom Pedro I Creoles threaten war, Joo gives Brazil independence, his son Dom Pedro is Emperor(Happy Creoles)