Latin American RevolutionsRevolution in Haiti
It was the first Latin American territory to free itself from European control.It was basically a slave revolt Toussaint L Ouverture led the revoltJanuary 1, 1804-it was declared an independent countryJean-Jacques Dessalines took up the fight for Toussaint LOuverture
HispaniolaHispaniola is made up of Haiti and the Dominican Republic..
Latin American Colonial SocietyPeninsulares-Men who were born in Spain, and held high political offices. In this way, Spain was able to keep the loyalty of its colonial leaders.Creoles-Spaniards born in Latin America, and they had limited political power, but they did have military power.Mestizos-Persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry.Mulattos-Persons of mixed European and African ancestryAfricansIndians or NativesIndians were of very little value to the Spaniards, and were severely oppressed.
Simon BolivarThe LiberatorVenezuelan CreoleBrilliant GeneralVenezuela and ColombiaWrote Bolivias ConstitutionI will not rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to the will of Spain
Jose de San MartinLatin American Revolutionary1816-Argentina declared its independence from SpainSan Martin and Bolivar will join forces in Latin AmericaSan Martin is considered to be the liberator of Argentina, Chile, and PeruSan Martin dies in Europe
Mexico Ends Spanish Rule In Mexico, Indians and Mestizos played the leading role.
Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos were key revolutionaries .
In 1821, Mexico declares its independence from Spain.
Independence in BrazilAfter Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.Brazil served as the capital of the Portuguese empire for 14 years.1822-creoles demanded independence from Portugal.After 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition, Dom Pedro agreed to rule, and he officially declared Brazils independence.Brazil is independentbloodless revolution!
Revolutions Disrupt EuropeRadicals, Liberals, and Conservatives contribute to a new movement-NationalismLanguage, Religion, Culture, History, Territory.Nationalism is the belief that one should be loyal to a nation of people who share a common history and culture.Nation-state-a nation has its own independent government.1848 Revolutions-considered failures..increased nationalistic tensions.
Unification of ItalyGiuseppe Mazzini organized Young Italy-he wanted to free Italy from foreign rulers.Count Cavour unified northern ItalyGiuseppe Garibaldi unified southern ItalyThe Red ShirtsThe area around Rome was the last to join the unified Italy.Italy faced political instability and economic problems
Unification in GermanyOtto von BismarckRealpolitik-the politics of realityFranco-Prussian War was the final stage in German unification.1871-German Unification is achieved.King Wilhelm is crowned Kaiser.Germans called this the Second Reich.Bismarck had achieved Prussian dominance over Germany and Europe by blood and iron
Revolution in the ArtsRomanticism-feelings, thoughts, and emotionsRomantics rejected the rigid, orderly worldFocus on the imagination and the supernaturalCherished Folk TraditionsBeethoven-Romantic ComposerThe Brothers GrimmEmily Bronte-Wuthering HeightsMary Shelleys Frankenstein
Shift to RealismIndustrialization.huge impact on everyday life in Europe-show life the way it really isPaintings showed images of real working people.Charles Dickens-see p. 243The first practical photographs were called .......daguerreotypesWilliam Talbot-invented a type of light sensitive paper that could be used to produce many prints from one negative.Photography was the art of the new industrial age.
Impressionists React Against Realism
Characteristics of ImpressionismArtists wanted to give their impression of a subject or a moment of time.The used bright, shimmering colors to capture a moment seen at a glance.Impressionists showed a more positive view of the new urban society in Europe.Edouard ManetClaude MonetPierre-Auguste Renoir