Background Government took a new approach to the Indian problem Eliminated reservations as legitimate political entities People wanted to seize their land Government terminated tribes such as the Klamaths the Menominees and the Coushattas Caused increase in Indian activism
Tom Bold, Phil Foerster, Cara Jeffrey, Nicole Schollmeyer, Kristen Tynan
Government took a new approach to the Indian problemEliminated reservations as legitimate political entitiesPeople wanted to seize their landGovernment terminated tribes such as the Klamaths the Menominees and the CoushattasCaused increase in Indian activism
Native American Goals
Right to participate in decision-making processes regarding tribesProtect tribal landsPrevent sale to outsidersPrevent outside invasion (i.e.: highways, dams, etc)Uphold treaty rights (i.e.: water and fishing rights)Promote Indian cultureProvide education and legal skillsAIM: help Indians neglected in cities
Tribal Land Maps
Seneca Nations Allegany reservation in New York StateContinued using legal process in other areasRecognized that they could use legal process in other areas and brought a wave of lawsuits charging violations of treaty rightsVigorously protested water rightsFederal court ruling in 1973, water rights of Paiute on Nevada-California border, government must protect Indian propertyReassertion of fishing rightsCourt cases ruling 19th century treaties allowing Indians fishing rights in common with whites meant they could take up fifty percent of allowable limitsAIM American Indian MovementSeize of Alcatraz Indian CenterWounded Knee, South Dakota Dramatize poor conditions and draw attention to broken treaties
Wounded Knee Memorial
Achievements or Failures
Considering the past conditions of the Native Americans, their movement in this time period was successful.
During this time:
Their cause caused Kennedy and Johnson to pay more attention and attempted to improve their economics and living conditions by getting private companies to locate on Native American land and having the land leased.Both the Area Redevelopment administration and Office of Economic Opportunity allowed Native Americans to create programs and budgets themselves.In 1975, the Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Acts were passed.
After Cause Was Won
The Native American Scholarship Program, started at the New Mexico Law School, has graduated 35 to 40 Indians per year since 1971.With the cause of the group being a success, the laws laid out a framework to guide federal policy for decades.