Nepalese Sanskrit Inscription

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  • yksdfiz;lkfgR;xzUFkekyk & 11

    IMPORTANCE OF NEPALESESANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS

    (English-Hindi Translation)

    Author

    Krishan Dev Agrawal "Arvind"

    RASHTRIYARASHTRIYARASHTRIYARASHTRIYARASHTRIYA SANSKRISANSKRISANSKRISANSKRISANSKRIT T T T T SANSTHANSANSTHANSANSTHANSANSTHANSANSTHAN

    DEEMED UNIVERSITY

    NEW DELHI

  • Publisher:RegistrarRashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan(Deemed University)56-57, Institutional Area,Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058e-mail : rsks@nda.vsnl.net.inwebsite : www.sanskrit.nic.inTel. : 28520976Tel. fax : 28524532

    Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan

    First Edition : 2010

    ISBN : 978-81-86111-37-6

    Price : Rs. 290/-

    Printed at :Amar Printing PressDelhi-110009amarprintingpress@gmail.com

  • PrefaceEpigraphy especially the inscriptional literature - has re-

    mained as one of the most authentic sources for unraveling the pastand providing glimpses into unknown facets of the history of anycountry with ancient civilization. Asian countries offer a vast heritageof inscriptional records. For more than a millennium, Sanskrit func-tioned a potential medium for official documents, records of royaldynasties and above all, the inscriptions; in many of the countries inAsia and South East Asia. Sanskrit Inscriptions have remained invari-able sources for updating and re-writing of History, as well as forunderstanding Culture, not only in case of India, but in case of many ofthe countries in Asia as well.

    Thousands of Sanskrit Inscriptions are available from SouthEast Asian countries like Cambodia, Jawa and Bali (Indonesia) , Champa(Vietnam), Burma and Thailand. It is true that Sanskrit has led to theformulation of the cultural mosaic of these countries, at the sametime; it is also true that these countries have made valuable contribu-tion to Sanskrit literature through these inscriptions. Sheldon Pollockhas rightly pointed out the process of rise of Sanskrit cosmopolitanculture in these countries through which a primordial globalizationcould be accomplished. It was the aesthetics and a perfect grammati-cal structure of Sanskrit language that led to cross cultural relation-ships.

    Brilliant studies by scholars like H.B. Sarkar, R.C.Majumdar,D.C. Sarkar, F.D.K. Bosch, George Coedes, Chirapat Prapanfavidyaand others have been made on Sanskrit inscriptions of South EastAsian countries. However, Sanskrit inscriptions from Nepal have notreceived adequate attention. R. Gnoli, a well known Italian scholar ofIndology and Oriental Studies had done pioneer work by collectingand publishing as many as 89 Sanskrit inscriptions from Nepal in Ro-man script. Unfortunately, Gnolis work has not been easily accessible

  • ( iv )

    for scholars and researchers. In the present volume, Shri Krishan DevAgrawal has not only produced Devnagari transcriptions of all the 89inscriptions collected by Gnoli, he has given a faithful and authentictranslations in Hindi and English also of all these inscriptions.

    These inscriptions bring out the common cultural heritagethat India and Nepal have shared during the course of History that hasrun through the past three millenniums. They also provide missinglinks of the chain of relations between India and Nepal. Rhetoricalcelebrations and panegyric exaggerations generally go hand in handwith historicity in all inscriptional literature. The inscriptions from Nepalare no exceptions. We find specimen of ornate Sanskrit prose in someof these inscriptions, while some others exhibit rare accomplishmentsin poetic excellence. Above all, these inscriptions provide glimpses ofideology, culture and concern for values that sustain a nation. Whilemany of them commemorate some event connected with religiousactivity, such as establishment of a pillar, a temple or donation etc.,there are inscriptions here recording prohibitions and injunctions fromKings for social order. Some of the inscription provide valuable infor-mation about trade, commerce, taxation and even tax exemptions(see 30th to 32nd; 37th ; 54th and 55th ). Some of the prohibitions orderedby the royalty through these inscriptions evince the concern for ecol-ogy and preservation of flora and fauna of Nepal (for example no. 28th

    here). Social welfare is also highlighted through these by recordingactivities like digging of wells, construction of canals and ponds (see48th, 63rd and 89th here). Rich topology of rural and urban life in Nepalduring the first millennium is also evinced through these inscriptions.

    Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan is thankful to Shri Krishan DevAgrawal for having given us an opportunity to bring out this importanttreatise. This volume will hopefully revive interest into the transconti-nental aspects of Sanskrit studies.

    Radhavallabh TripathiVice Chancellor

    Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan

  • 1- xq.kSghZuksfi ;L; izlknsuojngLra ujks xkfr 'kh?kze~A

    djksfr ;su fufoZ?ua dk;Ze~]x.kkf/ifr&x.ks'ka ra uekE;ge~_

    2- ofZra usiky&xkSjoa ;S%]mnkkS% dk;SZ% Lo.kZ;qxdre~A

    iwT;ekuk lqHkwekS f=kewfrZ%vga fyPNoh'kku~ iz.kekfe fuR;e~_

    3- j?kqoa'ks HkwRok j?kqoa'k&eku%]R;kxsu 'kkS;sZ.k jf{krks ;S%A

    jkT;a dra /eZfujis{kr;k rr~]rku~ Hkwirhu~ iz.kekE;ge~_

    4- j?kqoa'k&dqykEcjs 'kkS;Z&e;w[kS%]re~ 'k=kq&frfeja j?kqoa'ktkrS%A

    Lodkyks O;rhrks ;S% iztkfgrs"kq]nkukEcqo"khZu~ iz.kekfe rkuge~_

    Mk d`".knso vxzoky ^vjfoUn*

    eykpj.ke~

  • ( vi )

  • IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction

    This book is based on a book named NepaleseInscriptions in Gupta Character- I in Roman script writ-ten by R. Gnoli. I have translated these 89 Nepalese SKTInscriptions ( with plates) full of grandeur-celebrity ofSuperb Kings of Lichhavi Dynasty of Nepal, in Englishand Hindi which are presented to the readers. Becauseof being fragmented inscriptions, grammatical errorshither and thither, inclusion of some words from dia-lects of Tibetan and hilly regions beyond the Sanskrit,the English translation can never be said as accurateand exact literally and absolutely, but keeping all thesethings in mind, I have endeavoured to my best to trans-late into English and Hindi appropriately. I hope thatthe students of Epigraphical and historical subjects shallbe gained and helped by this translation to assimilateand imbibe the knowledge about the subject and mu-tual relations of Bharat and Nepal between the periodof 463 AD and 747

    AD. At last, I am very proud of Professor Dr.Radhavallabh Tripathi, the V.C. and Dr. G.R.Mishra,the D.R. of Rastriya Sanskrit Sansthan, Delhi who real-ized the importance of this book and consented it to bepublished.

    Dr. Krishan Dev Agrawal Dr. Krishan Dev Agrawal Dr. Krishan Dev Agrawal Dr. Krishan Dev Agrawal Dr. Krishan Dev Agrawal ArvindArvindArvindArvindArvind

  • ( viii )

  • AbbreviationsAbbreviationsAbbreviationsAbbreviationsAbbreviations

    1. Gnoli, R. - Gnoli Reniero2. N.I.G.C. - Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta

    character3. S'No. - S'lok No.4. L. No. - Line No.5. English-Hindi T&I of N.S.I.

    English-Hindi Translation & Importanceof

    Nepalese Sanskt Inscriptions

    6. t - r

    - V

    h - B

    d - n

    - M

    h - pedrs gq, fnO; dey esa lw;Z vFkok fnu vFkok ljksojus gh dksbZ fo'ks"k ifjorZu ;k fodkj mRiUu ugha fd;k gS vFkkZr~ lw;Z]fnu ,oa ljksoj ds fcuk Hkh eSa lnSo nsnhI;eku (fodflr) jgrk gwA

    1. Gnoli, R., NIGC No. LXXXI, . No. 23

  • x|dkO;

    x|&dkO; dh n`f"V ls usikyh vfHkys[kksa dk laLr&x|lkfgR; esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku gSA jktk f'konso izFke ds vfHkys[kksa esavfkdrj mRdfydkizk; x|'kSyh miyCk gksrh gSA tcfd jktkujsUnznso rFkk jktk t;nso f}rh; ds vfHkys[kksa esa mRdfydizk; rFkkpw.kZd nksuksa x|&'kSfy;ksa dk feJ.k izkIr gksrk gSA lhek fukkZj.k vFkokjktkKk&izlkj.k] Hkou&th.kksZkj vkfn o.;Z&fo"k; dks usikyh vfHkys[kksaesa vleLrk x|'kSyh esa of.kZr fd;k tkuk eqDrd x| 'kSyh dkifjpk;d gSA jktk t;nso f}rh; ds ^uDly ujk;.k vkthfodkf'kykys[k* esa vkthfodk fukkZj.k lEcUkh fo"k; dh eqDrd x|'kSyhesa vfHkO;fDr vR;Ur iz'klauh; gS

    ^O;ogkjifjfuf"Brtkra nzO;L; tixzikppkfydsu nkrO;e~A ;LrqnzO;a u iz;PNsr~ LoLFkkuokLrO;L;kU;LFkkuh;L; p kkj.kdL;k=kSo jkskksijkskksHkosr~A1

    mRdfydkizk;x|'kSyh

    usikyh vfHkys[kksa esa de ls de 10 vfHkys[k ,sls gSa ftuesamnkk pfj=k vFkok nk'kZfud fopkjksa dks nh?kZ leklkRed dkseydkUrinkoyh esa fpf=kr fd;k gSA jktk ujsUnznso ds dqekjkekRE; fiz;thor;SaxkfgfV ykxuVksys =;xzgkj f'kykys[k*2 esa jktk ds mnkk pfj=k dko.kZu mRdfydk izk; 'kSyh esa gSA ftl izdkj egkdfo gfj"ks.k r^bykgkckn leqnzxqIr iz'kfLr LraHkys[k* esa vkjEHk esa vkB rFkk vUr esa,d 'yksd gS buds e; esa ,d gh okD; esa lekIr gksus okyk ,dnh?kZ x|ka'k gSA mlh izdkj jktk HkhektqZunso ds ykxuVksysdj n.MeqfDrf'kykys[k3 ds vkjEHk esa ,d 'yksd gSA rRi'pkr~ ,d nh?kZdk; x|ka'k

    1. Gnoli, R., NIGC No. LXXXIII, L. No. 30-372. Gnoli, R., NIGC No. LXVI, L. No. 1-23. Ibid., No. LXI, L. 3-26

    Poetry in Nepalese Sanskrit Inscription 25

  • 26 English-Hindi T. & Imp. of Nepalese SKT Inscriptions

    gS tks ,d gh okD; esa lekIr gksrk gSA bl f'kykys[k dh x|'kSyh esay; ,oa vkuqizkfld laxhrkRedrk gSA ck.kHkV~V ds x| dh gh Hkkfrnh?kZ leklksa ds chp&chp esa NksVs&NksVs okD;ka'k iz;qDr fd, x, gSaftlds dkj.k ikBd #dd dj vFkZ dks n;e djus esa leFkZgksrk gSA jktkvksa ds mnkk pfj=k dk n;Li'khZ o.kZu vYileLrkpw.kZd x|'kSyh esa miyCk gksrk gSA

    'kkS;Z ,oa ohjrkiw.kZ Hkkoksa dh vfHkO;fDr i#"k ,oa ljl Hkkoksadh vfHkO;atuk esa y?kqleLrk dkseydkUr inkoyh dk iz;ksx fd;k gSjktk f'konso izFke ds ^[kksiklh djkKk f'k* dh fuEufyfkr iafDr;ksa esajktk esa 'kkS;Ziw.kZ pfj=k ds o.kZu esa fo"k;kuqdwyHkkokuqdwy i#"ko.kZcgqykoU;kRed vYilelrk pw.kZd x|'kSyh dk iz;ksx nz"VO; gS

    oks ;Fkkusu Loxq.kef.ke;w[kkyksdoLrkKkufrfejs.k Hkxon~Hkoikn&itiz.kkeku