Nodules and infiltrates. Pulmonary TB, main radiological aspects and differential diagnoses Pulmonary TB, main radiological aspects and differential diagnoses

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Nodules and infiltrates Slide 2 Pulmonary TB, main radiological aspects and differential diagnoses Pulmonary TB, main radiological aspects and differential diagnoses Common TB in adults Miliary Serous membrane TB Node TB Pleural TB Sequela Tuberculosis and AIDS: Tuberculosis and AIDS: AIDS modifies the clinical and radiological course of TB. Differential diagnoses are many. It is important to know them, in order to chose the adapted treatment Slide 3 Common adult TB Basic radiological images: Nodule Infiltrate Cavity Tuberculous pneumonia Slide 4 - These images can follow in time : nodule macronodule excavated nodule caverna -These elements are very often associated in the same patient -The association of several images of different ages and different aspects is very indicative for TB -Round picture with a diameter > 3 cm, non- excavated, is very rarely TB Slide 5 Nodule: isolated or grouped in the superior lobes or in the apical segment of the inferior lobes. Infiltrate: group of various-sized nodules with unequal dimensions. The excavation is not always visible on the chest x-ray. If the excavation exists, the bacterial analysis of the sputum is generally positive: TPM+. (The TDM could show the excavation even if it is not visible on the chest x-ray) Slide 6 . For the supra clavicles area analysis, the chest x-ray with antero posterior incidence is usefull. Slide 7 Tuberculine skin test 5U = 15mm Good performance status, FS = 0, Physical signs = 0 Inflammatory S = 0 Expectoration: AFB - Cultures - Probable TB infiltrate Slide 8 TB infiltrate TPM- Slide 9 Non productive cough Good performance status, FS = 0, Physical signs = 0 Inflammatory S = 0 Expectoration: AFB - Cultures - Probable TB infiltrate Slide 10 Cough, chronic fever. Hemoptoc sputum. AFB neg. in sputum Slide 11 Slide 12 Man, 55 years old Antecedent of pleural effusion Fever, cough, weight loss Hemoptoic sputum Chest x-ray: left pleural sequela, retractile Right nodular infiltrate. AFB+ in sputum Slide 13 cavited nodules >>> AFB+ Slide 14 Woman 48years old. Close contact with patient AFB+ in sputum. PCR positive in sputum for mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum Slide 15 San view of the previous case : microcavity in the nodule Slide 16 Man,heavy smoker, cough, dyspnea and worsening condition AFB + in sputum Slide 17 cavited nodule Tubercular pneumonia Slide 18 cavity. AFB positive in sputums Bronchoscopic view: tubercular endobronchic lesion With tubercular granulomas In the biopsy samplings Slide 19 Small TB infiltrate TPM- Slide 20 Bilateral nodules. AFB- in sputum. BK Cultures negative Slide 21 Slide 22 nodule macronodule cavited nodule cavity In this case, association of an infiltrate in the right superior lobe and cavity in the left inferior lobe is highly indicative of TB Slide 23 -TB nodules and infiltrates are most often isolated or grouped in the superior lobes or in the apical segment of the inferior lobes. - They are difficult to see in the retro-clavicle area - These lesions are often AFB- because non- excavated, no communication with bronchi and pauci-bacillar - The association of lesions with different seniority (nodules, cavity, sequelas) or with extra pulmonary localisations is very indicative of TB. Slide 24 Nodules and infiltrates are often AFB- in sputum. So the risk of contamination is low (but not zero). AFB is negative in sputum, but sometimes cultures are positive. Even if the risk of contamination is low, it is important to detect these patients and treat them because these patients can develop severe and contaminent TB Slide 25 Male, 30 years old Cough, fever, weight loss, asthenia Amoxicillin treatment T left upper lobe infiltrate not noticed by the physician (not good quality of CXR) Slide 26 4 months later: left superior excavation with important infiltrate, AFB +++ Slide 27 Sometimes difficult to see (small, retroclavicular areas) Sometimes AFB+ if cavity (not always visible on CXR) Most often no cavitation and AFB- They are true TB on the beginning and must be treated by anti TB They are true TB on the beginning and must be treated by anti TB They are true TPM - They are true TPM - Physicians of national TB program hesitate to treat these patients but they treat a lot of TPM who are not real TB (bronchial cancer, inactive sequella bronchectasis, aspergilloma) It is absolutely necessary to improve quality of CXR interpretation Especially for physicians in charge of TB program. Nodules and Infiltrate -Summary