(Non-) Driving-Related Activities inthe Car: Defining Driver Activitiesfor Manual and Automated Driving
Bastian PflegingInstitute for Visualization andInteractive SystemsUniversity of StuttgartPfaffenwaldring 5a70569 Stuttgart, Germanybastian.firstname.lastname@example.org
Albrecht SchmidtInstitute for Visualization andInteractive SystemsUniversity of StuttgartPfaffenwaldring 5a70569 Stuttgart, Germanyalbrecht.email@example.com
Copyright is held by the author/owner(s). Workshop on ExperiencingAutonomous Vehicles: Crossing the Boundaries between a Drive and a Ride atCHI15 , April 1823, 2015, Seoul, Korea.
AbstractThe multitude of communication and infotainmentfeatures of modern cars enable drivers to perform manytasks on the go. If these tasks are not directly related tomaneuvering the vehicle (i.e., the primary driving task),literature usually refers to such tasks as secondary ortertiary driving tasks. For automated driving thetraditional separation into different driving tasks needs tobe adapted since the old primary driving task willbecome obsolete. In order to prevent the necessity ofdifferent driving task definitions for automated andmanual driving, we foster the use of alternative terms andprovide a definition therefore: Driving-related activitiescomprise all tasks to safely control the vehicle whilenon-driving-related activities comprise all activities beyondmaneuvering the vehicle. These terms can be usedconsistently for both automated and manual drivingsituations.
Author KeywordsAutomotive user interfaces; automated driving; drivingtask; driving-related activities; manual driving;non-driving-related activities
ACM Classification KeywordsH.5.2 [Information interfaces and presentation (e.g.,HCI)]: User Interfaces.
The Driving ScenarioWhen the first cars were invented and built at the end ofthe 19th century, their only utility was to bring passengersfrom one location to another. As a successor ofhorse-drawn carriages, early cars mainly consisted ofmechanical parts that were needed to offer seats to thepassengers, control the engine, and maneuver the vehicle.Gradually, auto makers increased the driving comfort(e.g., by adding comfortable seats, roof, and windows) aswell as the utility and safety of the vehicles . Also,technical components found their way into the car such asturn signals, windshield wipers, and headlights. More andmore such components were electric and electronic partsand often replaced their mechanical ancestors.
Today, driving a modern car is much more than justsitting in a vehicle to get to the destination. Besides thecar radio as the first entertainment source, today contentsuch as music or videos (for passengers) can be playedfrom multiple sources, including USB sticks, hard drives,and streamed content from the Internet.
Similarly, mobile communication found its way into thecar. With smart phones becoming the ubiquitouscompanion for the majority of people today, we see agrowing need for communication while driving a car (e.g.,phone calls, text messages, or e-mails) . Drivers andpassengers either use their nomadic devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets) or they use the functions integratedinto the in-vehicle infotainment system (IVIS).
Many of the advanced IVIS offer features that arespecially designed for the automotive use case. Forinstance, sharing information to Twitter or Facebook withsuch IVIS makes use of available context information liketime to destination or outside temperature. By alsorestricting the choice of options (e.g., to send only
pre-defined messages instead of free text entry), thecomplexity and driving distraction  of such interactionshall be kept low to allow the driver to focus on theprimary driving task, i.e., maneuvering the vehicle.
Considering the latest generation of cars and those thatare currently under development, more and moreadvanced driving assistance systems are integrated intothe car. We see a clear transition from manual drivingover assisted driving towards highly or fully automateddriving modes  where the driver needs to pay less or noattention to the road situation anymore. With theseassisted and automated driving modes, we expect anincreased desire of the driver for non-driving-relatedactivities in the car such as (visual) entertainment troughreading news, watching a movie, or preparing for orreflecting the (business) day. For the near future, weexpect a typical car ride to still consist of different levelsof automation. In order to not compromise driving safetyor limit the drivers capabilities, interaction with in-cartechnology needs to be designed and modeled  so thatit supports the right activities for each level of automation.
From Driving Tasks to(Non-) Driving-Related ActivitiesUp to now in literature the tasks and activities a driverneeds or wants to perform on the go are mainly referredto as driving tasks. To distinguish different tasks, it iscommon to split the driving task (in traditional,non-automated cars) into two  or three [3, 5] classes:
Primary Driving Task The primary driving taskcomprises all activities that are required to maneuver thevehicle. This includes all activities regarding lateral andlongitudinal control of the vehicle as well as maintainingalertness to traffic and other potential hazards .The primary task itself is a hierarchically cascaded
task : On the highest level, the goal of the navigationtask is the overall transportation task, i.e., getting to theintended location. From this task, details such as routeand speed details can be derived, which are then part ofthe guidance task. This includes choosing the exact pathas well as adapting to appropriate driving speeds. On thelowest level the stabilization task is the actual lateral andlongitudinal control of the car, i.e., the continuousadjustment of the pedals to control the speed, shiftgears, and steer the car.
Secondary Driving Task (A) When dividing the drivingtask into two classes (e.g., ) the term secondarydriving task is used collectively for all other tasks otherthan the primary driving task. This includes for instanceoperating wipers or turning indicators but also all tasksrelated to comfort (e.g., heating), infotainment,communication with the outside or passengers, ordrinking and eating.
Secondary Driving Task (B) Referring to the trisectedthe driving task , the secondary task only refers tofunctions that increase driving performance or safety likeactivating headlights, cruise control, or wipers.
Tertiary Driving Task Tertiary tasks refer to all othertasks such as operating comfort, infortainment, andcommunication systems, or eating and drinking .
Using the trisected definition, many of the tasks donewhile driving manually today are classified as tertiarytasks. With increasing driving assistance and automationhowever, at some point the car takes over some or all ofthe former primary and secondary tasks. Now, thetraditional definitions of these tasks become obsolete andwould require redefinition: When driving is fullyautomated, the driver can dedicate the time in the car toany activity beyond maneuvering and monitoring thevehicle. Thus, the former tertiary tasks from manual
driving will be the remaining tasks and could become the(automated) primary tasks.
Since we expect drivers to experience different drivingsituations even during one ride, it is beneficial to not haveto distinguish between different driving task definitions forvarious levels of automation. Thus, we propose to usealternative terms for the driving tasks that focus on atasks relation to maneuvering the vehicleindependent ofthe driving situation and automation:
Driving-Related Activities As driving-related activitieswe define all activities that are related to safely controlthe vehicle (i.e., the traditional primary driving task) orto increase driving safety or performance (i.e., the formersecondary task B). With assisted or partially automateddriving, these activities might be less time-consumingthan with manual driving, but would still comprise taskssuch as monitoring the vehicle operation. With fullyautomated driving, such activities would almost diminish,leaving simple tasks such as defining the destinationwhen entering the vehicle. (see also )
Non-Driving-Related Activities Tasks and activitiesthat are not related to driving, such as operating comfortor infotainment systems, communicating with passengersor remote people, eating and drinking (i.e., the formertertiary task) are examples for non-driving relatedactivities. This will also include new activities thatbecome possible with automated driving such as reading,watching motion pictures, or even sleeping. With anincreasing level of automation, the amount ofnon-driving-related activities will increase and make upthe most part of the activities in the car in a fullyautomated driving scenario.
Even though these terms have partly been used inliterature (e.g., [6, 7, 11]), they have not yet been widely
adopted and were so far often used without a cleardefinition. With the definition provided above, it should beeasier to clearly describe tasks and activities in the car formanual, assisted, and automated driving situations alike.
ConclusionWith a clear definition of (non-) driving-related activitiesand their relation to the terms of primary, secondary, andtertiary driving tasks, we hope to draft a commonterminology to be used to describe tasks and activities inthe car. The benefit of these terms and definitions is thatthey can be used across all levels of automateddrivingfrom manual to fully automated driving.
AcknowledgementsThe authors acknownledge the financial support of theGerman Research Foundation within the Cluster ofExcellence in Simulation Technology (EXC 310/2) at theUniversity of Stuttgart and the Future and EmergingTechnologies (FET) programme within the 7th FrameworkProgramme for Research of the European Commission,under FET grant number: 612933 (RECALL).
References Bishop, R. Intelligent vehicle technology and trends.
Artech House, 2005. Bubb, H. Systemergonomische gestaltung. In
Ergonomie, H. Schmidtke, Ed., 3rd renewed andextended ed. Carl Hanser Verlag, 1993, 390420.
 Bubb, H. Fahrerassistenz - primaer ein Beitrag zumKomfort oder fuer die Sicherheit? In Proc. DerFahrer im 21. Jahrhundert 03, VDI-Berichte; 1768,VDI-Verlag (Dusseldorf, Germany, 2003), 2544.
 Gasser, T. M., Arzt, C., Ayoubi, M., Bartels, A.,Eier, J., Flemisch, F., Hacker, D., Hesse, T., Huber,W., Lotz, C., Maurer, M., Ruth-Schumacher, S.,
Schwarz, J., and Vogt, W. Rechtsfolgenzunehmender Fahrzeugautomatisierung :gemeinsamer Schlussbericht der Projektgruppe.No. F 83 in Berichte der Bundesanstalt furStraenwesen, Unterreihe Fahrzeugsicherheit.Wirtschaftsverl. NW Verl. fur neue Wissenschaft,Bremerhaven, 2012.
 Kern, D., and Schmidt, A. Design space fordriver-based automotive user interfaces. In Proc.AutomotiveUI 09, AutomotiveUI 09, ACM (NewYork, NY, USA, 2009), 310.
 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, D.Visual-manual nhtsa driver distraction guidelines forin-vehicle electronic device. Federal Register 78, 81(2013), 2481724890.
 Radlmayr, J., Gold, C., Lorenz, L., Farid, M., andBengler, K. How traffic situations and non-drivingrelated tasks affect the take-over quality in highlyautomated driving. Proc. HFES Annual Meeting 58,1 (2014), 20632067.
 Schneegass, S., Pfleging, B., Kern, D., and Schmidt,A. Support for modeling interaction with automotiveuser interfaces. In Proc. AutomotiveUI 11, ACM(New York, NY, USA, 2011), 7178.
 Stutts, J. C., Reinfurt, D. W., Staplin, L., andRodgman, E. A. The role of driver distraction intraffic crashes. Tech. rep., AAA Foundation forTraffic Safety, 2001.
 Wierwille, W. W. Demands on driver resourcesassociated with introducing advanced technology intothe vehicle. Transportation Research Part C:Emerging Technologies 1, 2 (1993), 133 142.
 Young, K., Lee, J. D., and Regan, M. A., Eds. DriverDistraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation. CRCPress, 2008.
The Driving ScenarioFrom Driving Tasks to (Non-) Driving-Related ActivitiesConclusionAcknowledgementsReferences