Nuclear Power and Small Modular Reactors in Indonesia ... Nuclear Power and Small Modular Reactors

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NuclearPowerandSmallModularReactors

inIndonesia:PotentialandChallenges

BernadetteK.Cogswell,NataliawatiSiahaan,FrigaSieraR,M.V.Ramana,andRichardTanter

IndonesianInstituteforEnergyEconomicsNautilusInstituteforSecurityandSustainability

April2017

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Authoraffiliationsandaddresses:

BernadetteK.Cogswell,1NataliawatiSiahaan,2FrigaSieraR,2M.V.Ramana,1,4andRichardTanter31ProgramonScienceandGlobalSecurity,PrincetonUniversity,Princeton,USA2IndonesianInstituteforEnergyEconomics,Jakarta,Indonesia3NautilusInstituteforSecurityandSustainabilityandUniversityofMelbourne,Melbourne,Australia4Currentaddress:LiuInstituteforGlobalIssues,UniversityofBritishColumbia,6476NWMarineDrive,Vancouver,BC,CanadaV6T1Z2

Contactemail:m.v.ramana@ubc.ca

Coverimage

ThisschematicismodifiedfromafigureinAlexanderGlaseretal.,SmallModularReactors:AWindowonNuclearEnergy,AnEnergyTechnologyDistillate(Princeton,N.J.:AndlingerCenterforEnergyandtheEnvironmentatPrincetonUniversity,June2015),http://acee.princeton.edu/distillates/distillates/small-modular-reactors/TheviewsexpressedinthisreportdonotnecessarilyreflecttheofficialpolicyorpositionoftheNautilusInstitute.ReadersshouldnotethatNautilusseeksadiversityofviewsandopinionsonsignificanttopicsinordertoidentifycommonground.

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ExecutiveSummary

Indonesiahasbeeninterestedinbuildingnuclearpowerplantssincethelate1950sundertheaegisofBadanTenagaNuklirNasional(BATAN,theNationalNuclearEnergyAgency).Sincetheturnofthecentury,BATANhasbeenactivelyinterestedinanewclassofnuclearpowerplants,smallmodularreactors(SMRs),thatarebeingdesigned,developed,andadvocatedbysomesectionsofthenuclearpowerindustryasawaytoaddresssomeofthechallengesconfrontingtheexpansionofthetechnology.BATANsinterestinSMRsispropelledbyreasonsthatpertaintonuclearpoweringeneral,suchaslowlevelsofelectricityconsumptionamongthepopulationofIndonesia,growingenergyneeds,andclaimsaboutalackofalternatemeanstomeettheseneeds,andreasonsthatarespecifictoSMRs,suchasthepresenceofremoteareasandsmallislandsthatdonothavethedemandleveltosupportconstructionofalargenuclearreactor,andthelowerfinancialcostofSMRs.BATANhasexploredanumberofpossibilities,includingimportingasmallfloatingpowerplantfromRussia,anSMRfromKoreathatcanalsodesalinateoceanwater,andahightemperaturegascooledreactorfromRussia.BATANhasconductedanumberofnuclearpowerplantsitingstudies,includingfollow-uptechnicalandeconomicfeasibilitystudiesinsomecases.ThesestudieshavealsoincludedsomeSMRpossibilitiesinmuchgreaterdetail.Butapartfromanexperimentalpowerreactor(EPR),noneoftheotherproposalshasadvancedtowardsactualconstruction.Indonesiahasanextensivenetworkofgovernmentagenciesinvolvedintheenergysectorand,hence,holdingastakeinthenuclearpowerdebate,aswellasanextensivebodyoflawsandregulationsthatcouldaffecttheeventualimplementationofcommercialnuclearpower.ThepotentialforadoptionofSMRsinIndonesiaisaffectedbyanumberofregulations,includingtherequirementthatlocallymadecomponentsorservicesconductedbydomesticprovidershavetobeusedinenergyinfrastructure,therequirementthatonlyreactorsbasedonproventechnologywillbelicensed,andarequirementthatreactorsbesitedonlyonland.AnotherreasonthatIndonesiamightnotchoosetoconstructanSMRisthat,asweshowthroughcalculations,thecostofgeneratingelectricityusingSMRswilllikelybegreaterthanlargenuclearpowerplantsaswellassolarphotovoltaicplants.StudiestestifytothelargepotentialofsolarenergyinIndonesiaandthegovernmenthasbeenadoptingpoliciesthatpromisetoacceleratetheconstructionofsignificantamountsofsolarcapacity.BecauseSMRshavelowerpowercapacity,producingthesameamountofelectricityusingtheseasopposedtolargereactorswouldrequiredealingwithpublicresistanceatmanymoresites.Publicoppositionhasplayedamajorroleinstoppingconstructionofnuclearpowerplantssofar.Asaresultofallthesefactors,itwouldseemthattheconstructionofSMRsisunlikely,especiallyinlargeenoughnumberstomakeasizeablecontributiontoIndonesiaselectricitygeneration.

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1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................52 OverviewofInterestinNuclearPowerandPublicOpposition.....................................62.1 History.....................................................................................................................................................62.2 IndonesianInterestinSMRs..........................................................................................................112.3 ExperiencewithNuclearTechnology..........................................................................................142.4 PublicOpinionandOppositiontoNuclearPower..................................................................15

3 SitingStudiesandLargeNuclearPlantProposals...........................................................163.1 MuriaPeninsulaStudy.....................................................................................................................203.2 BangkaIslandStudy..........................................................................................................................203.3 BantenNuclearPowerPlantStudy..............................................................................................21

4 SmallModularReactorProposals.........................................................................................224.1 Serpong,BantenExperimentalPowerReactor(EPR)...........................................................224.2 GorontaloFloatingSmallNPPProposal.....................................................................................244.3 MaduraDesalinationSmallNPPProposal.................................................................................254.4 WestKalimantanNPPProposal....................................................................................................26

5 InstitutionalandRegulatoryLandscape.............................................................................275.1 RelevantGovernmentAgencies....................................................................................................275.2 GovernmentRegulationsPertainingtoNuclearPower........................................................295.3 LocalContentRequirements..........................................................................................................305.4 Land-BasedSitingRequirements.................................................................................................315.5 ProvenTechnologyCriteria...........................................................................................................32

6 ElectricityLandscapeandComparisonofCosts...............................................................326.1 CurrentSourcesofElectricity........................................................................................................336.2 ElectrificationwithintheArchipelago........................................................................................366.3 ProposedElectricityTargets..........................................................................................................386.4 ComparisonofCostsofGeneratingElectricity.........................................................................40

7 Conclusions...................................................................................................................................478 Appendices....................................................................................................................................508.1 TableofAbbreviations.....................................................................................................................508.2 Appendix-AgenciesinIndonesiaAffectingNuclearPower................................................538.3 Appendix-OverviewofSmallModularReactors....................................................................588.3.1 DescriptionofSmallModularReactors(SMRs)..............................................................................588.3.2 SMRDeploymentScenarios.....................................................................................................................588.3.3 CostofSMRs....................................................................................................................................................598.3.4 SafetyandSMRs............................................................................................................................................618.3.5 HistoryofSMRs.............................................................................................................................................61

8.4 AppendixSummaryTablesofRegulationsRelatingtoNuclearPowerinIndonesia 628.5 Appendix-InstitutionalStructureofElectricityGenerationinIndonesia....................678.6 Appendix-EnergyDistributionEfficiencyinIndonesia.......................................................688.7 Appendix-SolarPowerinIndonesia..........................................................................................698.8 AppendixSummaryTableofElectrificationinIndonesia................................................718.9 AppendixEstimateofCurrentCostofElectricityGeneration..........................................738.10 AppendixOverviewofWorkshop...........................................................................................75

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1 IntroductionIn 2013 the Indonesian news media reported that the Head of Badan Tenaga NuklirNasional(BATAN,theNationalNuclearEnergyAgency)statedthatIndonesiawasreadytobuildaSmallModularReactor(SMR)andthatBATANisenthusiasticabouttheidea.1SMRsare reactors with electrical pow