Nutritive Value

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    Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

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    Nutrients

    Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment

    Macronutrients Micronutrients

    Energy producing

    Protective

    Carbohydrates, fats,

    proteinsVitamins, minerals

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    Major nutrients in foods

    Water

    Carbohydrates

    Proteins

    Fats Vitamins

    Minerals

    Bioactive compounds

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    Water

    Substrate of biological reactions or acts as the matrix or vehicle in which

    these reactions take place

    Regulates the temperature and pH in the human body

    Maintains cell and tissue integrity

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    After water, carbohydrates are the main components of fruits andvegetables and represent more than 90 % of their dry matter

    Classified into three groups

    - Monosaccharides(glucose, fructose, arabinose, xylose)

    - Oligosaccharides(sucrose, maltose, raffinose, stachyose)

    - Polysaccharides(starch, cellulose, hemicellulose)

    - RDA for carbohydrates is 130 g/ day, except in cases ofpregnancy (175 g/day) and lactation (210 g/day)

    Carbohydrates

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    Functions of proteins

    Necessary for building and repairing of body tissues

    Act as transport nutrients

    Act as enzymes and hormones

    Supply 4Kcal/ g energy Help in recovering from infections and diseases (strenghten immune

    system)

    RDA for protein is 34-56 g/ day, depending upon age and sex

    During pregnancy and lactation it is 71 g/ day

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    Functions of fats

    Supply energy 9 Kcal/g

    Essential for absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K

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    Vitamin Functions Deficiency

    Vitamin

    A

    Essential for proper vision, healthy skin, alimentary

    and urinary tracts

    Reduces susceptibility to infectionsfoods rich in beta-carotene may reduce the risk of lung

    cancer and certain oral cancers

    Night blindness and

    keratomalacia

    Vitamin

    D

    Essential for healthy bones

    Helps in calcium absorption in body

    Rickets (in children) and

    osteomalacia (in adults)-

    degeneration of bones

    VitaminE

    Possesses antioxidant propertyReduces risk of degenerative diseases

    Prevents oxidation of lipids and maintains cell integrity

    Enhanced fragility of redblood cells and increased

    urinary excretion of creatine

    indicating muscle damage

    Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

    Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, KWater soluble vitamins: Vitamin B complex, C

    Vitamins

    Cont.

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    Vitamin Functions Deficiency

    Vitamin K It is an antihaemorrhagic vitamin. It is necessary for

    the clotting of blood, Necessary for liver

    functioning

    Prolonged blood clotting time

    which may lead to internal

    hemorrhage and

    uncontrolled bleeding

    Vitamin B

    complex

    Includes thiamine, riboflavin, nicotininc acid,

    pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, biotin,choline, inositol

    Act as co-enzymes and therefore esssential for the

    metabolism and proper utilization of energy,

    carbohydrates and fats

    Deficiency diseases involving

    the these vitamins aremultiple in nature

    Vitamin C Required for collagen synthesis, bone and teethcalcification

    Helps in absorption of dietary ironBuilds resistance to infectionAids in the prevention and treatment of thecommon coldGives strength to blood vesselsOne of the major antioxidant nutrients

    Scurvy: soft and bleeding

    gums

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    Important Minerals

    Calcium

    Phosphorus

    Iron

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Zinc

    Copper

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    Minerals Functions

    Calcium Formation and maintenance of skeleton and teeth

    Contraction of muscles and normal functioning of heart

    and nervous system

    Phosphorus For healthy bones and teeth

    Component of nucleic acids

    Helps in cellular metabolism of nutrients

    Iron Essential for formation of hemoglobin of red blood cells of bloodand transport of oxygenNecessary for various oxidation reduction reactions in body

    Potassium In conjunction with sodium, it is necessary to maintain osmotic

    balance and keep cells in shape

    Magnesium Required for cellular metabolismPresent in bones alongwith calcium

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    Major Phytochemicals

    Carotenoids: Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, -carotene

    Polyphenolics: Flavonoids, Flavones, Anthocyanine

    Glucosinolate: Sulphoraphane, Indole-3-Carbinol

    Thiosulphides: Alliin, Methiin, Ethiin

    Dietary fiber: Lignin, Pectin, Cellulose, Dietary fiber

    Miscellaneous : Selenium, Phytosterol & stanol, Saponins

    Thesearesubstancespresentinfoodsatlowlevelsthat

    mayhavearoleinhealthmaintenanceinhumans

    Haveantioxidantproperties

    Bioactive Compounds or Phytochemicals

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    Principle Nutrient value % of RDA

    Energy 70 kcal 3.5

    Carbohydrates 15.9 g 12

    Starch 15 g -

    Dietary fibre 2.5 g 7

    Fat 0.1 g 0.5

    Protein 1.89 g 3

    Vitamin C 11.4 mg 20

    Calcium 10 mg 1

    Iron 0.73 mg 9Magnesium 22 mg 5.5

    Phosphorus 61 mg 9

    Potassium 455 mg 10

    Nutritional value of raw potato with peel) per 100 g

    Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)

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    Health benefits of potato

    Potato is a wholesome food and a person won't be hungry at all, for some

    hours, after eating potatoes. It contains carbohydrate, which is a good

    source of energy. They facilitate easy digestion. So, if you are suffering from

    diarrhea, eating potato is best!

    The energy produced through potato gets stored as glycogen in muscle and

    liver and functions as a readily available energy during prolonged, strenuous

    exercise. Thatswhy; it is an important part of playersdiet.

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    Nutritive value of raw mango (per 100g)

    Principle Nutrient value % of RDA

    Energy 70 kcal 3.5

    Carbohydrates 17 g 13

    Dietary fiber 1.8 g 4.5

    Fat 0.27 g 1

    Protein 0.51 g 1

    Vitamin A 765 IU 25.5

    Vitamin C 27.7mg 46

    Calcium 10 mg 1

    Iron 0.13 mg 1.5

    Magnesium 9 mg 2

    Potassium 156 mg 3

    Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)

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    Health benefits of mango

    Many Indians consider the mango to be a blood builder, and good for

    anaemia due to its high iron content.

    It is also said to be good for alleviating menstrual and muscular cramps.

    The fruit has a high potassium and magnesium content.

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    Health benefits of mango

    Its papain-like enzyme is good for digestion and purifies the intestines.

    Mango juice has also been proven to kill certain viruses. It also has good

    fibre, beta-carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B6, zinc and calcium.

    The fruit is also effective in cooking as a meat tenderiser and flavour

    enhancer.

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    Nutritivevalueofgrapesper100g

    Source: USDA National Nutrient Database)

    Principle Nutrient value % of RDA

    Energy 69 kcal 3.5

    Carbohydrates 18 g 14

    Dietary fiber 0.9 g 2

    Fat 0.16 g 0.5Protein 0.72 g 1

    Vitamin A 66 IU 3

    Vitamin C 10.8mg 18

    Calcium 10 mg 1

    Iron 0.36 mg 4.5

    Magnesium 7 mg 2

    Potassium 191 mg 4

    Grapes, red or green

    European type,

    Thompson seedless)

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    Health benefits of grapes Rich source of vitamin A, C, B6 and folate in addition to essential minerals

    like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium.

    Contain flavanoids that are very powerful antioxidants which can reduce

    the damage caused by free radicals and slacken ageing.

    Considered as laxative food owing to their organic acid, sugar and

    cellulose

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    Nutritive value of banana per 100 g

    Principle Nutrient Value % of RDA

    Energy 90 kcal 4.5

    Carbohydrates 22.84 g 18

    Fat 0.33 g 1

    Dietary fiber 2.6 g 7Protein 1.09 g 2

    Vitamin A 64 IU 2

    Vitamin C 8.7 mg