Objective 3: interdependence of organisms and the environment

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Text of Objective 3: interdependence of organisms and the environment

Objective 3: interdependence of organisms and the environment.

Objective 3: interdependence of organisms and the environment.

Interactions and InterdependenceKnows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions.

Virus and BacteriaCompare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and wartsIdentify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria.VirusesVirus Latin for toxin or poison. A virus is a small infectious agent that cannot reproduce on its own. It need a host to reproduce.It is extremely small.There are millions of different viruses.Viruses consist of two or three parts.They have genes made up of DNA or RNA that carry genetic information.They have a protein coat that protects the genes.And some have a envelope of fat surrounding them.VirusesThey come in many shapes and some say they look like space ships.They have receptors or spikes sticking out.Viruses are not effected by antibiotics. They do no good.Your body must build up an immunity to a virus.Vaccines are small weak strains of a virus give to you so your bodys defensives can build up an immunity to the real virus.

VirusesViruses or Viral Infections:Common cold, chicken pox, cold sores, ebola, AIDS, influenza, hepatitis A, B, C, D, & E, rabies, measles, rhinovirus, mumps, small pox, rubella, polio, HIV, STDs there are many others.AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) The virus attacks the Helper T Cells that are in your immune system that fights infections so they can no longer fight off any infection.There are no medicines that fight infections, your body must build up an immunity.Vaccines help your body build up an immunity to the virus.Virus CycleAttach to cell, enter cell, take over cell and reproduce, the cell explodes sending out more viruses.

BacteriaBacteria are a large group of unicellular prokaryote microorganisms: (one celled, lack a true nucleus, and are very small living things).They come in many shapes.Some live in extreme environments: (acidic hot springs, nuclear waste, deep in the ocean, in extremely cold climates, in your intestines).Some are good and some are bad. We need them.They have a flagella or cilia to help them move aroundBacteria: the GoodThey recycle nutrients, they are involved in the nitrogen cycle, and carbon cycle, they break down biological waste.They are necessary in sewage treatment.They are necessary for yoghurt, cheese, pickles, vinegar, soy sauce production through fermentation.They help in digestion and food elimination.Bacteria: the BadBacterial Infections:Cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, bubonic plague, TB tuberculosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, salmonella, staphylococcus, streptococcus, food poisoning, pneumonia, meningitis, and E coli; there are many others.BacteriaBacterial infections and be controlled and eliminated with antibiotics.Antibiotics kill or inhibits the growth of bacteria. PenicillinBacteria can build up an immunity to antibiotics.Knows the theory of biological evolution.

Biological Evolution EvolutionEvolution is most simply put as changes over time.All things change over time, but when we refer to evolution we are referring to several generations.How do organisms differ due to the change in climate, location, environment, and natural causes.What organisms survive and thrive?Why do some die off and become extinct? What changes over a long period of time?What specializations have an organism developed to help them live in their environment.Identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology.Illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.

Speciation Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise.Diversity Diversity means many different things.Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years of evolution.

Adaptation Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat.A population changes to live better in their environment.Extinction To end.The end of an organism or group or species.The dinosaurs are extinct.MutationWhen a mistake is made in the replication in DNA and a different amino acid is made in a protein, it is called a mutation. A mutation can be a good thing, a bad, thing or have no affect whatsoever.It the mutation gives the organism an advantage to survival, its a good thing and may be passed to the next generation.If the mutation is a bad thing, the organism may not survive at all or have a disadvantage is thriving.If the mutation is passed on to future generations, a physical change in the organism may occur.Mutation to generationsAs a mutation is passed from one generation to another, it can be followed through its changes in the structure and make up of the organism.Examples:Bird beaks can change shape, coloring can change, size of leaves can change, physical size can change, skeletons can show a change over very long periods of time. Extinction can happen. No more: T Rex , Dodo Bird, Passenger Pigeon, Woolly Mammoth, PhylogenyThe tree of life. How does life trace itself.How is life related to each other.The study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms.

Knows the theory of biological evolution.

Biological EvolutionBiological evolution is the observable process through which the characteristics of organisms change over successive generations, by means of genetic variation and natural selection.Biological evolution is a change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time.Genetic variability is the measure of variation in genetic makeup between individuals in a population.Natural selection is also known as the survival of the fittest.Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.BiodiversityA variety of life.Different animals and different plants.BioticLiving stuff or has been living stuff.Plants, animals, etc.AbioticNon living stuff.Air, dirt, water, temperature, wind, etc.BiomassThe total mass of living or been living stuff.Trophic levelsFeeding levels: Trophic means food or feedingT1: Producers AutotrophsT2: Primary Consumers; 1st level consumerT3: Secondary Consumers; 2nd level consumerT4: Tertiary Consumers; 3rd level consumerT5: Quaternary Consumers; 4th level consumerFood Pyramid & Trophic Levels

AutotrophProducersProduce their own food by using the energy from the Sun and the environment to make sugar through photosynthesis.

HerbivoresEat only plantsHeterotrophsConsumersThey eat the produces and consumers.Organisms that feed on other organisms.Omnivores Eat both plants and animalsEat multiple levels of the food chain.CarnivoresEat animalsInterpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism.Investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.

Graphic Feeding RelationshipsFood ChainFood WedFood PyramidEnergy Pyramid

The arrow points to who eats.

The arrow points in the direction the energy flowsChains, Webs, & PyramidsThe ultimate energy source is the Sun. (it is not considered part of )Decomposers, Scavengers, & Detritivors are not parts either. 10% rule: 10% of any level is passed to the next level and the 90% remaining is used at that level to carry on life processes and/or is lost to heat.Food Chain

Food Chain

Food Chain

Food Chain

Food Web

Food Chains

Food Pyramid

Energy Flow

Energy Pyramid

DetritivorsAnimals or plants that consume dead organic material (detritus).ScavangersAnimals that consume dead animals (corpses or carrion)Vultures, beetles, blowflies, yellowjackets, raccoons, hyenas, lions,DecomposersOrganisms that consume organic materials, plant and animal.NicheA descriptive term for a relational position of a organisms species.A place where it belongs and can thrive.Knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem.

Symbiosis Symbiosis Living together.CommensalismA living relationship between two where one benefits and the other is unaffected.Commensal means sharing of foodMutualismA living relationship where both benefit.ParasitismA living relationship where one benefits and the other is harmed.Parasite: the one who benefits. The one who lives off the host. Flees, ticks, tape worms, mistletoe. Host: the one the parasite eats on.PredationThe predator feeds on the prey.Predator: the one who hunts and eats.Prey: the one who is hunted and is eaten.CompetitionOrganisms that compete for food, space, light, water, etc.Can be animals or plants. Any and all living organisms can be in competition.Hawks and bobcats compete for food in a prairie ecosystem. They hunt for snakes, rats, mice, etc.Knows the significance of plants in the environment.

PlantsEvaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments.

PlantsPlants are made up of three major parts:The roots that anchor it to the ground and supply the water

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