Opérations militaires : entre prise de - irsd.be .Opérations militaires : entre prise de risque,

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    SCURIT & STRATGIE N

    o 121

    VEILIGHEID & STRATEGIE Aot 2015

    Oprations militaires : entre prise de

    risque, solidarit, souverainet

    et entre en premier

    Andr Dumoulin

    Chercheur au Centre dtudes de scurit et dfense

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  • Une version lectronique du prsent document est disponible et peut tre

    tlcharge gratuitement sur notre site internet : www.irsd.be

    Les vues exprimes dans ce document sont celles de son auteur et ne refltent

    pas ncessairement celles de lInstitut royal suprieur de dfense, de la Dfense

    ou du gouvernement belge.

    Vous pouvez adresser vos questions, commentaires ou remarques quant ce

    document ladresse suivante :

    Directeur du Centre dtudes de scurit et dfense

    Institut royal suprieur de dfense

    Avenue de la Renaissance, 30

    1000 Bruxelles

    Ou par courriel : irsd-cesd-scvd@mil.be

    http://www.irsd.be/

  • ISSN : 0770-9005

    Oprations militaires : entre prise de risque,

    solidarit, souverainet et entre en premier

    Andr Dumoulin

    Chercheur au Centre dtudes de scurit et dfense

    Institut royal suprieur de dfense

    Centre dtudes de scurit et dfense

    Avenue de la Renaissance 30

    1000 Bruxelles

  • Image de couverture

    Exercice Hot Blade 2014

    Source : Agence europenne de dfense (http://www.eda.europa.eu) image

    extraite de la mdiathque Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos

    /eudefenceagency/14537791699/in/album-72157645720175065).

    http://www.eda.europa.eu/https://www.flickr.com/photos/eudefenceagency/14537791699/in/album-72157645720175065https://www.flickr.com/photos/eudefenceagency/14537791699/in/album-72157645720175065

  • Executive Summary

    Military operations in general and operations associated with the

    European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP/CSDP) of the European Union or

    within NATO can only be analysed if four criteria are taken into account in the

    very early stages: the solidarity among participating states and their

    multinational forces, the weight of sovereignty and of the restrictions related to

    military and political risk-taking, the issue of risk-taking and, finally, the

    capacity to enter first the intervention areas.

    Obviously, the level of commitment is closely linked to the vital or non-

    vital nature of national interests, the organisational dimension (alliances,

    multinationality) that always is in the second circle of solidarity. Therefore, it is

    necessary to define the sociological, thanatological, military, political, media and

    techno-doctrinal factors affecting, in whole or in part, the highly sensitive

    dimension of risk-taking during missions and operations. As a result, the

    consequences are multiple as well: privatisation of security, phased

    commitments, disconnection in an asymmetrical game in mirror with the use of

    drones, the subtle erosion of the warrior archetype, which is miles away from

    films like Saving Private Ryan or Fury, the discrepancy as to the value of the

    lives to defend, and the renewed awareness of post-traumatic stress disorders.

    To complicate matters further, legal and political concepts of solidarity

    and assistance are adjustable and can raise numerous questions on their

    interplay during missions and operations outside alliances. In that case, where

    are the solidarity automatisms, the automatically-granted supports, and the

    sacrifices shared in managing out-of-area crises? How should the establishing of

    both the rules of engagement and, most importantly, the national restrictions on

    the use of force in a multinational environment (caveats) be interpreted when the

    issues are not vital but require however a military presence? What is the actual

    weight of the national cultures, are they assets to or curbs on the multi-

    nationalisation of the external interventions which should be effective and

    legitimate? What about the sovereignty in this shared area, knowing that the

    concepts of power, third countries of strategic importance or Soft Power Plus are

    also involved? Power is fundamental, and the fact that it can be expressed in

    different ways tends to make postures, expectations, perceptions more complex.

    Notwithstanding, the doctrinal and media perception of the entry force

    concept refers to a posture discrepancy between states with respect to external

    commitments, the imposed or undergone schedules, as well as the dimension

    reactivity and projection, leading to both a capacity and a risk-taking gap

    between allied states. However, multinationalism, joint engagements, and shared

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    risk-taking will remain central in the future. Consequently, what should the

    balance be between the voluntary states acting as entry forces, other more

    reluctant states, free-riders and states that ultimately follow after initial

    resistance.

    These four politico-strategic and psycho-sociological parameters should

    nowadays be addressed in parallel before being linked. They could explain any

    countrys posture, the political constraints, the limits on commitments and the

    permanence of the zero casualty or, more accurately, the least casualties

    myth. Therefore, this study takes a global approach, through numerous

    examples, to these different elements in order to improve the understanding of

    the issues related to the present and future missions and operations. It also

    defines the future priorities that will need to go through, inter alia, the

    construction process of a shared European strategic thinking, a better knowledge

    of the national security culture of EU and NATO member states and the

    necessity to make progress in multinational cooperation given the fact that it is

    often by bilateral or regional agreements that trust is built up, through sharing a

    proud sovereignty and risk-taking in solidarity.

  • Table des matires

    Executive Summary ............................................................................................ ix

    Table des matires ............................................................................................... xi

    Acronymes et abrviations ................................................................................ xiii

    Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1

    a. Agir seuls dans lurgence ? ................................................................. 1 b. Susciter la solidarit europenne ........................................................ 3 c. Prise de risque et dernier mot national .............................................. 5 d. Vers un patriotisme europen ? .......................................................... 7

    Paramtres pluridimensionnels associs la prise de risque ......................... 9

    La pluralit des facteurs ..................................................................................... 11

    a. Facteurs sociologiques et thanatologiques ....................................... 11 b. Facteurs militaires ............................................................................ 19 c. Facteurs politiques ............................................................................ 25 d. Facteurs mdiatiques ........................................................................ 29 e. Facteurs technologiques et doctrinaux ............................................. 37 f. Caractre vital ou non vital .............................................................. 40 g. Consquences .................................................................................... 46

    Paramtres pluridimensionnels associs la solidarit et la

    souverainet ...................................................................................................... 59

    Dfinitions des concepts de solidarit et dassistance ........................................ 61

    a. Les clauses de solidarit et dassistance : les zones dombre ........................................................................................... 61

    b. Les rgles dengagement ................................................................... 77 c. Le poids des cultures nationales en multinational ............................ 82 d. Notions de souverainet .................................................................... 84

    La capacit entrer en premier et le facteur temps ................................ 91

    Notions de raction rapide .................................................................................. 93

    h. Outils europens en matire de raction rapide ............................... 93 i. Le pouvoir dentrer en premier ................................................... 99 j. Interactions temporelles .................................................................. 103 k. Des avantages de la multinationalisation ....................................... 107

    Conclusions et recommandations .................................................................. 115

    file://idcn.mil.intra/unitdata/ERM/KMS/IRSD/COMMON%20CSDS-PRS/2015/ETUDES/SS%20N%20121/Last_draft/ADU_120_v8cor.docx%23_Toc424290657

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    Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 11