Organic Macromolecules Testosterone Adenosine Triphosphate.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Organic Macromolecules Testosterone Adenosine Triphosphate Slide 2 Quiz B Organic Macromolecules Organic Macromolecules PPPP rrrr oooo tttt eeee iiii nnnn ssss CCCC aaaa rrrr bbbb oooo hhhh yyyy dddd rrrr aaaa tttt eeee ssss BBBB iiii oooo pppp oooo llll yyyy mmmm eeee rrrr ssssMonosaccharides Quiz A Overview DissacharidesPolysaccharides Quiz C PrimaryStructures SecondaryStructuresTertiaryStructures Slide 3 Quiz A- Basic Organic Chem. Principles 1.How many bonds do the following atoms form in a covalent compound? a) O b) C c) S d) N e) H f) P 2. Write down the formula of the functional group in each of the following compounds. a) amine b) amide c) alcohol d) carboxylic acid e) ketone f) aldehyde g) ester 3.Give the name for each of the following molecules. a) CHCH b) CH 3 CH 2 OH c) C 2 H 6 d) e) f) g) Slide 4 Quiz A- Basic Organic Chem. Principles 4.Which of the following molecules might be unsaturated and which are definitely unsaturated? a) C 3 H 8 b) C 4 H 8 c) C 3 H 4 d) CH 3 CHCHCH 3 5 a) Name the following molecules. i) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH ii) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH iii) CH 3 CH 2 OH b) Identify the 2 types of intermolecular bonding present in each of the above molecules. c) Which of the three molecules do you expect to have the highest boiling point temperature? Explain your answer. temperature? Explain your answer. Slide 5 Quiz A- Basic Organic Chem. Principles 6. Which type of reactions do you expect the following molecules to undergo? 7. Classify the type of reaction occurring in each of the following cases. a) b) c) 8. Write down all the possible isomers for the compounds which have the following formulae. formulae. a) C 3 H 8 O a) C 4 H 8 a) CH 2 CH 2 b) CHCH c) CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 3 Cl Slide 6 Quiz A- Basic Organic Chem. Principles 9. Identify the functional groups present in the following molecule. Slide 7 Proteins The building blocks of proteins are amino acids. Most structurally complex organic macromolecules. = side chain 20 amino acids in all 12 the body can synthesize termed non-essential amino acids. 8 that we obtain from our diet termed essential amino acids. Slide 8 Proteins LAlanineLAsparagine LAspartic Acid LCysteine LGlutamic Acid LGlutamineGlycineLProline LSerineLTyrosineLArginineLHistidine Non essential amino acids Slide 9 Proteins LIsoleucineLLeucineLLysineLMethoinine LPhenylalanineLThreonineLTryptophanLValine Essential amino acids(must be in the diet) Slide 10 Proteins LAlanine Glycine LSerine Slide 11 Proteins Zwitter Ions + - All amino acids have the ability to form their corresponding ionic forms as follows. Slide 12 Proteins Dehydration Slide 13 Primary structure of Proteins Slide 14 Polypeptide (Protein) : 50 2000 amino acids Primary structure of Proteins Slide 15 Primary/Tertiary structure of Proteins LAlanine LCysteine Slide 16 Secondary structures - -helix Clockwise 3.6 Amino acids per turn of the helix Slide 17 Secondary Structures - Zwitter ion formation Some amino acids have extra reactive groups e.g. Carboxylic acid (COOH) glutamic acid aspartic acid aspartic acid Amine (NH 2 ) lysine H+ - Ionic bond Slide 18 Secondary structures - -sheets Top view Side view Hydrogen bonding Slide 19 Tertiary structures - sheets - helix Contains a combination of secondary structures &amp; primary structures. Has a 3D structure. Structure determined by side chains. Slide 20 Quiz B- Proteins 1. Which of the amino - acids have a hydrophobic side-chain? 2. Which of the amino - acids have an acidic side-chain? 3. Which of the amino - acids have an basic side-chain? 4.Which amino acids have a side chain which can become involved in protein hydrogen bonding? 5.Draw the zwitter ion structure of the amino - acids glycine and serine. 6.Draw the chemical structure of the tripeptide formed from the following sequence of amino-acids. Highlight the acidic end of the molecule and the basic end of the molecule. Slide 21 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides oses CH 2 O Can be split into two groups : Aldoses &amp; Ketoses. Ald Aldehyde Ket Ketone Aldoses e.g. Glucose Ketoses e.g. Fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 Both Glucose &amp; Fructose are Hex - oses. Sugars can be 3 to 7 carbons long. Slide 22 Carbohydrates In aqueous solution sugars form rings e.g. glucose. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Slide 23 1 23 4 5 Carbohydrates Sugars polymerize via glycosidic 14 linkages. 1 23 4 5 Glycosidic linkage linkage Dehydration 2C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O Slide 24 Carbohydrates glucose+glucose maltose glucose+fructose sucrose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide Slide 25 Carbohydrates The resulting polysaccharide of 14 linakges of glucose is starch (storage polysaccharide in plants). Starch Amylose Unbranched starch Amylopectin Branched Starch 14 linkages 14 linkages &amp; 16 linkages Branched 16 linkages occur every 30 linkages 6 Slide 26 1 23 4 5 1 23 4 5 Carbohydrates Sugars polymerize via glycosidic 14 linkages as well. 14 Glycosidiclinkage The resulting polysaccharide is cellulose (structural polysaccharide in plants). Slide 27 Quiz C- Macromolecules 1.The most abundant (by mass) class of organic macromolecules in the biological world is : A Carbohydrates B Proteins C Nucleic Acids (DNA &amp; RNA) D Lipids 2.D ribose is a pentose. It can also be classified as an aldose. Write down a possible structure for D ribose. structure for D ribose. 3.The monosaccharide threose has 4 Os ! That is it has 4 oxygen atoms. What is the molar mass of threose ? Slide 28 Quiz C- Macromolecules 4. When one draws the structure of D glucose there are 2 ways to do it : A comprehension exercise either a Fischer projection or a Haworth projection. The Fischer projection shows glucose as a linear molecule and the numbering of the carbon atoms is shown on the structure. When it cyclizes it is the oxygen atom on carbon 5 which ends up in the ring. 12 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 56 This ring structure is called the Haworth projection and at equilibrium between the two forms the linear form is only 0.02% of the total glucose present. Slide 29 Quiz C- Macromolecules The Haworth projection has the atoms on the RHS of the Fischer projection down i.e. below the ring in the Haworth projection, and those on the LHS of the Fischer projection are up (above the ring). The OH group on carbon 1 (the so called anomeric carbon) can either be up or down, ( ), or up, ( ). The form is about twice as common as the form. a)Draw the Haworth projection of the form of D idose, given the Fischer projection below. below. b) Draw the Fischer projection of D galactose given the Haworth projection below. - D - galactose </p>


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