Other Cold War Conflicts

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Other Cold War Conflicts. Korea is divided at the 38 th parallel in 1945 U.S. controls the South, the Soviets the North Each country sets up governments before they withdrawal their troops in 1949 North Korea is communist South Korea is not - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Other Cold War ConflictsKorea is divided at the 38th parallel in 1945U.S. controls the South, the Soviets the NorthEach country sets up governments before they withdrawal their troops in 1949North Korea is communistSouth Korea is notOn June 25, 1950 North Korean troops cross the 38th parallelPresident Truman gets the UN to send troops to protect the southCommunist Aggression in Korea

2After WWII Korea is divided much like GermanyIn the North was the communist gov. under Kim Il-SungIn the South was the conservative nationalist Syngman RheeBoth seeking control, ignored a UN call for elections to be held to unify the countryIn the North the soviets leave a well trained armyThe Soviets encouraged Kim to take over all of Korea as a blow to China (an enemy although communist) and would threaten JapanDouglas MacArthur is labeled the commander of the UN troops (and most are U.S. troops)Fighting begins badly Tide begins to turn and Truman shifts his goals to unifying all of Korea instead of just protecting the southKorea

3American troops stationed in Japan are in combat within daysThe conflict which would last three but was not technically a war, only Congress could declare war and Truman had sent the troops into combat without their approval making this a police action

China warns that if American troops were in North Korea they would respond with forceU.S./UN forces cross the 38th parallel in October and advance to the Yalu riverThe Chinese fulfill their promise and attack the U.S./UN forces

Korea

4Secretary of State Acheson advices the presidents that the Chinese would do no such thingsThe Americans were assaulted by 120,000 Chinese in bitter winter weatherThey fight their way 78 miles down a winding mountain road in 30 degree below 0 and a blizzardOne company lost four commanding officers in an hourKorean war continues with each side gaining small advances back and forth from 1951-1953On July 27, 1953 a truce ends the war dividing Korea close to the 38th parallelKorea

5

Cuban Missile CrisisThe U.S. had a troubled relationship with its southern Communist neighbori.e. supported a failed attempt to overthrow Castro known as the Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)October 1962 American reconnaissance planes discover the Soviets installing missiles in Cuba, 90 miles off the Florida coast

Potential Missile RangeKennedy and his advisors debated how to respond Decide on a naval blockade of Cuba and takes concern to UN to explain actions

Cuba

For several tense days U.S. waits to hear from the prime minister of the USSR, Nikita KhrushchevMeanwhile several Soviet ships steamed towards Cuba and our blockade line

BlockadeWorking through back channels Khrushchev sent Kennedy a messageAgreed to remove missiles if U.S. promised not to invade CubaShips stopped outside of blockade line and crisis was avertedIs the closest the U.S and Soviets ever came to nuclear war

Blockade

The Cold War in VietnamAfter WWII Ho Chi Minh, a Vietnamese nationalist, turns to communist for help in struggle against FrenchHo chi Minh forms the Vietminh, a communist groupFrench no longer want colony in Vietnam after defeat at Dien Bien PhuVietnam is divided (17 N Latitude)Ngo Dinh Diem leads an anti communist gov. in the south

U.S. is concerned with Vietnam becoming communist because of domino theoryDomino theory: fall of Vietnam to communist, would lead to the fall of its neighborsU.S. sends military advisors to the southNgo Dinh Diems harsh policies lead to the rise of the Vietcong, a southern communist groupAfter Gulf of Tonkin, more U.S. troops are sent and join the fight under President Johnson

The Cold War in VietnamUnder Nixon U.S. withdraws, VietnamizationShortly after US leaves, communist take over VietnamDomino theory proves correct in Cambodia

The Cold War in Vietnam