Overview of the Cold War. The Cold War “Cold War:” political tension and military rivalry between USA and USSR that stopped short of full-scale direct

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  • Overview of the Cold War

  • The Cold WarCold War: political tension and military rivalry between USA and USSR that stopped short of full-scale direct conflict 1945-1989 (End of WW2 to fall of Berlin Wall)USA, USSR (and PRC) each controlled sphere of influence and tried to expand that sphereWith end of colonialism, post-colonial countries became ideological battlefields, and sometimes actual military battlefieldsBoth USSR and USA provided funds, weapons, training, and sometimes troops to post-colonial countriesMajor Wars: Greece, Turkey, Korea, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Angola, Mozambique, Cambodia, Nicaragua, Cuba. Most other countries felt tension

  • Truman DoctrineFirst years: Truman vs. StalinCivil War in Greece immediately after WW2: Communists v. NationalistsTruman: U.S. would give Greek and Turkish nationalists economic and military aid to stop them falling into the Soviet sphereTruman Doctrine: US would support free peoples resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressuresNationalists in both Greece and Turkey defeated Communist oppositionUS focused on containment of Soviet and Chinese threat

  • Containment and Aid: Marshall PlanAid and cooperation: recognized interconnections between modern economies1947: to rebuild Europe, USs Marshall Plan gave $13 Billion in aidOffered to USSR and eastern bloc, but refusedAfter plan, all participating economies produced above pre-war levelsCooperation became the basis for European Union, as it erased many tax barriers between countries

  • Containment: Berlin Airlift1948-49 Berlin AirliftUSSR closed ground access to West BerlinUS/UK transport planes flew food and supplies June 48 - May 49US stationed B29 bomber planes UK, suggesting atomic strikeUSSR relented, opening land accessLesson learned: USSR would seize opportunities to take land Berlin would be a symbol of east-west struggleUS would be involved in struggle in Europe (and probably elsewhere)Age of atomic fears would continue

  • Containment: NATOWestern European nations, USA, Canada agree to defensive pact: North Atlantic Treaty Organization4 April 1949: Brussels headquartersANZUS linked Australia, NZ to US1952: Greece, Turkey joined1954: USSR suggested it should join; rejected1955: West Germany joined; east responded with formation of Warsaw Pact

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