Text of Parts of Speech. Eight Parts of Speech: Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions...
Parts of Speech
Eight Parts of Speech: Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections
NOUNS NOUNS NAME FOUR CATEGORIES: Person Place Thing Idea NOUNS CAN BE: Proper or Common Concrete or Abstract Singular or Plural Collective Compound
Proper & Common Nouns Proper nouns name things that are: SPECIFIC Leonardo DiCaprio, The White House, January, etc. Common nouns name things that are: GENERAL actor, house, month, etc.
Concrete & Abstract Nouns CONCRETE NOUNS name objects that can be seen, heard, smelled, touched, or tasted. Examples: flower, rabbit, bell, apple, pencil, etc. ABSTRACT NOUNS name ideas, qualities, or states (of mind). Examples: independence, pride, sadness, happiness, love, etc.
Singular, Plural, Collective & Compound Nouns A COLLECTIVE noun refers to a group of people or things. Examples: audience, family, staff, team, crowd. A COMPOUND noun is made up of two or more words, either combined or separate: Examples: airplane, sunlight, keyboard, rain forest, City Hall, runner-up, mother-in-law SINGULAR nouns name only single items. PLURAL nouns name more than one of the same item. Examples: key or keys, stage or stages, foot or feet.
Test Yourself: NOUNS Underline each noun in the sentences below. 1. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland draws visitors from all over the world. 2. This unusual museum honors musicians for their creativity. 3. Fans can spend days satisfying their curiosity by watching videos and listening to recordings.
Check Yourself: NOUNS 1. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland draws visitors from all over the world. 2. This unusual museum honors musicians for their creativity. 3. Fans can spend days satisfying their curiosity by watching videos and listening to recordings.
Pronouns A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or another pronoun. The word that a pronoun stands for is called its antecedent (note the root ante = to come before). Notice the difference between the two pronouns in the following examples: Ray (antecedent) said he (pronoun) wanted a new pair of shoes. Sonia (antecedent) delivered her (pronoun) famous monologue.
Pronouns are either personal or possessive. Possessive pronouns show ownership or relationship (they possess something). Personal First person: I, me (plural = we/us) Second person: you (plural is the same) Third person: he, him, she, her, it (pl. = they/them) Possessive First person: my, mine (pl.= our, ours) Second person: your, yours (plural is the same) Third person: his, her, hers, its (pl. = their, theirs)
Lets Practice: Write PR for personal, PO for possessive. 1. At first, Laurents intended to follow Shakespeares plot in Romeo and Juliet in every respect, but he later changed his mind. 2. In Shakespeares play, the foes are two feuding families, and in West Side Story they are two feuding street gangs. 3. She remains loyal to him as the feud worsens. 4. Both versions of the tragic story remain popular in our day.
Check Your Work: Write PR for personal, PO for possessive. 1. At first, Laurents intended to follow Shakespeares plot in Romeo and Juliet in every respect, but he (PR) later changed his (PO) mind. 2. In Shakespeares play, the foes are two feuding families, and in West Side Story they (PR) are two feuding street gangs. 3. She (PR) remains loyal to him (PR) as the feud worsens. 4. Both versions of the tragic story remain popular in our (PO) day.
Other Kinds of Pronouns Reflexive Intensive Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative
The selfish ones: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Reflexive: Reflects action back upon the subject and adds information to the sentence Donna prepared herself for a long day. I bought myself an iced coffee. Intensive : Adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun in the same sentence The wait itself would take hours. Did the students themselves choose the classes?
Watch out! A common error is to use a reflexive pronoun without an antecedent in the sentence: The planning committee appointed Ted and (me/myself). A reflexive pronoun must have an antecedent. The answer is me.
Demonstrative Pronouns Remember: Demonstrative pronouns demonstrate things in time or space. This is my house. The people at the front of the line will get better tickets than those at the end. Point out specific persons, places, things, or ideas. They allow you to indicate whether the things you are pointing out are relatively near in time or space or farther away. Demonstrative pronouns are: this, these, that, and those.
Indefinite Pronouns Do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing. They usually do not have antecedents: Many of the fans had arrived at 6 a.m. Some pronouns can also function as adjectives: Several people had to wait in the rain. (adjective) Several of the fans waited anxiously in line. (pronoun) Indefinite Pronoun list: Singular: another, anybody, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one somebody, someone, something Plural: both, few, many, several Singular or Plural: all, any, more, most, none, some
Interrogative and Relative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun asks a question or interrogates. What is your favorite song? Interrogative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, what. A relative pronoun is used to introduce subordinate clauses. The seats that the students asked for were unavailable. (seats is the antecedent) Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that.
Compare: DRAFT: The girl waited for someone to ask her to dance. She decided to ask a boy if he would like to dance with her. REVISION: The girl, who had been waiting for someone to ask her to dance, asked a boy if he would like to dance with her. ** Relative pronouns can be used to combine sentences.
Lets Practice: Underline and name each pronoun, double underline its antecedent (if it has one). 1. What is the best way to get good seats for a concert? 2. Someone gets up before dawn in order to be first in line. 3. The seats that go with the tickets may not be very good. 4. A frustrated fan might ask himself or herself why this happens. 5. All agree that the best way to find out is to ask the ticket sellers themselves. 6. People at the end of the line might get better seats than those at the front.
Check Your Work: Underline and name each pronoun, double underline its antecedent (if it has one). 1. What (Inter.) is the best way to get good seats for a concert? 2. Someone (Indef.) gets up before dawn in order to be first in line. 3. The seats that (Rel.) go with the tickets may not be very good. 4. A frustrated fan might ask himself or herself (Ref.) why this (Dem.) happens. 5. All (Ind.) agree that the best way to find out is to ask the ticket sellers themselves. (Inten.) 6. People at the end of the line might get better seats than those (Dem.) at the front.
Verbs A verb expresses: an action a condition a state of being
Action Verbs: Transitive verbs are action verbs that require a direct object (the thing that receives the action). Danny plays (A.V.) the trumpet (D.O.) well. Intransitive verbs are still action verbs, but they do not require a direct object. He travels around the country with the other musicians. (no object) Action Verbs express physical or mental action: The band marches onto the field. (physical) The audience expects a great performance. (mental)
Linking Verbs: Link the subject to the predicate by using to be forms of verbs or verbs that express condition The instruments are safe in the bus. The students seemed bored during the long trip. To be forms: is, am, are, was, were, been, being Verbs that express condition: look, smell, feel, sound, taste, grow, appear, become, seem, remain Hint: Some verbs can be either action or linking verbs: Action: We felt the cushions. Linking: They felt dry. Action: We tasted the popcorn. Linking: It tasted salty.
Auxiliary (Helping) Verbs: Combine with verbs to form verb phrases. They may be used to express a particular tense of a verb or to indicate that an action is directed at the subject. The stadium is filled to capacity. We should save a seat for Jeff. Common Auxiliary Verbs: Is, am, are, was were, can, have, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would. Some of these auxiliary verbs can also be used as main verbs. Compare: Kelly has a pair of Conga drums at home. (main) She has practiced her drumming all summer. (auxiliary)
Lets Practice: Circle action verbs, box linking verbs, and underline helping verbs in the following paragraph. Every fall, people from across the country visit New York City for the big Thanksgiving Day parade. Even on cold days when strong winds or light rain might scare away spectators, the parade is on schedule. The crowd lines the parade route and will stay until the last float has driven out