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  • The New Photographer Handbooks : No. 3

    PERFECTION IN THE

    PIGMENT PROCESSES

    BY

    CHRIS. J. SYMES, F.R.P.S.

    Published 1x1 Great Britain by The New Photographer, Ltd., 41 North John Street,,Liverpool and 1 & 2 Henrietta Street, London, W.C.2 : and III the United States of America by Frank V. Chambers, G36 South Franklin Sq., Phdadelphia.

  • Kodak Bromide Paper

    Royal for Bromoil

    To obtain complete control over pig- menting, you must use a pure paper with a pure emulsion-you must use Kodak Royal Bromide. Royal Bromide is pure both in its paper base and in its coating. It has a long scale of delicately graded tones and a surface texture particularly suitable for “ inking

    up.” It gives complete control.

    Two varieties :

    Royal. A thick, cream-tinted, rough-surfaced paper.

    White Royal. Similar to Royal, but not tinted.

    Kodak Ltd., Kingsway, London, W.C.2

  • THE ROYAL

    Photographic Society was founded in 1853 for the Advancement of Photo- graphy. Its Members are resident in all the five continents. All interested in Photography are eligible for Membership and are cordially invited to join the Society.

    The link between the Society and its Members is provided by the monthly issue of its official organ, The Photographic journal, which is posted immedi- ately upon publication. The Transactions and Pro- ceedings of the Society and every aspect of Photo- graphy-scientific, Technical, Artistic-are dealt with in .its pages. It is fully illustrated.

    The Membership Subscription is Two Guineas. Annual Subscription to The Photographic Journal, separately,

    35/-, post free.

    The Year’s Photography as re\ealed by the Society’s Annual Exhibition, is reriewed in the October

    issue of The Photonm$hic Joam&, which is published ns a Special Number. I t is profusely illustrated, principally

    but not excluskely. by photograohs selected from the Exhibition.

    An illustrated Prospectus and form of application for Membership may be obtained from the Secretay:-

    The Royal Photographic Society, 35 RUSSELL SQUARE, LONDON, W.C. 1.

    Reliable Materials FOR THE

    Oil Processes The foremost exponents of the Oil Processes use Autotype papers and materials because they find them to be reliable and of consistently high quality. Stocks are held of all materials required and orders received through the post are executed promptly and with the greatest care. You are invited to write for our price list of all apparatus for the Oil, Bromoil and Oil Transfer Processes. It will be sent on receipt of a postcard.

    OIL PRINTING PAPER. Obtainable in a variety of surfaces all of which have been tested for suitability. They ink up with ease and by the aid of the Autotype Press transfer beautifully.

    MATERIALS and PIGMENT. Pigmenting Brushes of Real Fitch, and Hog Hair brushes in all useful sizes ; Pigments of fine quality, Palettes! Palette Knives, Actinometers and all accessories may always be obtained from stock.

    THE AUTOTYPE TRANSFER PRESS. Specially designed for Oil and Bromoil Transfer work. Yields perfectly even, clear-cut impressions of uniform density. No blanket is required, and as there is no creep, double or treble rolling may be done without fear of losing register. Price complete with Zinc Sheets and Running Boards $311 15 0. Write for full particulars.

    The Autotype Co. Ltd. 74 New Oxford St. [Dept. N] London, W.C. 1.

  • THE

    NEW PHOTOGRAPHER

    HANDBOOKS

    No. 1.

    “PERFECTNEGiiTlVES&HOWTO MAKETHEM" By Dr. B. T . J. GLOVER. Price: l/-. Postage 2d. This book supersedes all previous handbooks on its subject. Scientific. accurate, and well written, it is indispensable as much to the advanced worker as to the beginner.

    NO. 2.

    “PRINT PERFECTION: HOW TO ATTAIN IT" By Dr. B. T . J. GLOVER. Price : Paper I/-, Cloth 2/6. Postage 2d. Printing with Bromide, Chloro-Bromide and Gaslight papers lucidly explained according to the latest and best methods.

    No. 3.

    “PERFECTION IN THE PIGMENT PROCESSES" By CHRIS J. SYMES, F.R.P.S. Price : Paper I/-, Cloth 2/6. Postage 2d. Bromoil, Transfer and Oil explained simply and concisely.

    Of all newsagents, bookstalls and fihotographic dealers or direct from

    The Publishing Department,

    The New Photographer Ltd. 41 NORTH JOHN STREET, LIVERPOOL.

    PERFECTION IN THE PIGMENT PROCESSES

  • Btraiqht Bromide print reversed fcr transfer, showing depth of

    image required, for comparison with Bromozl Transfer 0pp0site.

    LIVERPOOL. C. J. Symes, F.R.P.S.

  • Chapter. Page.

    I.

    II.

    III.

    IV.

    v.

    1-1.

    N the evolution of the pictorial photographer there are

    INTR~D~JcTIox . . . . . 1 I usually three distinct stages; the first, in which technique . is gradually acquired ; the second, in which that technique “ BROXOIL " : THE NEGATIVE AXD PRINT . 3 is used as far as possible to express the artistic emotions aroused

    TAXNIX: . . . . . . by the beauties of nature ; and the third, in which it becomes

    . 11 necessary to modify or control the result given by purely photo-

    ISKISG . . . . . . . graphic means in order to attain pictorial perfection. There , 20 are manv methods of control.

    E'ACLTS AND REMEDIES . . . Amongst these may be mentioned

    . 28 the modification of the negative by retouching ; the combina-

    BROMOIL TRANSFER . . . . 32 tion of two or more negat#ives to make a single print ; the altera- tion of a print by the application of pigment, crayon, or pencil

    THE OIL PIGMENT PROCESS . . . . 40 by hand ; and the gum-bichromate process.

    Above all, there are Oil, Bromoil, and their derivatives, Oil and Bromoil Transfer.

    CONTENTS

    ILLUST,RAT.IONS

    FRONTISPIECE ‘. LIVERPOOL .’ (Bromoil Transfer)

    2. . . (Bromide Print)

    I~ISG PAGE 20 ‘. THE C'AXAL " (Bromoil Transfer)

    INTRODUCTION

    Oil, usually known as “ Oil Pigment,” is a photographic process in which a paper, coated with gelatine, is sensitized in such a manner that by,exposure under a negative it is selec- tively tanned or hardeued, and soaked in water so that the greasy pigment (ink) applied will “take ” only in proportion to this hardening, forming a pigment image on a paper-gelatine base. ,

    Bromoil is a somewhat similar process, but in this case it may be explained that a suitable bromide print is prepared and bleached in a solution that also tans the gelatine of the emulsion in proportion to the amount of metallic silver in the image, with the result that, following certain other necessary operations, the ink will only adhere, as in the Oil process, in the same proportion.

    The picture so obtained also consists entirely of a pigment

    a* >* 32 Lb BRT-GES-A SUPI'LIT STREET" image on a gelatine-paper base.

    (Bromoil Transfer) I Oil and Bromoil transfers are developments of the same

    processes whereby the pigment image of the oil or bromoil

    I print is transferred by pressure to another paper or support.

    I The application of the pigment, being effecte+ by hand by means of a specially designed brush, is entirely under the control

    x-n&? End l?nnted m

  • PERFECTION IN THE PIGMENT PROCESSES

    of the worker who may, if so desired, make an exact replica of the original print or, if the subject requires modification, alter it by adding or withholding ink in those portions where it is considered advisable, retaining the original gradations in the remainder.

    The relationshin of tones mav be considerablv varied. offending objects iemoved entirely: and unpleasant detail and spotty areas massed without the alterations being obvious in the finished print. Equal control is practically impossible by any other photographic process.

    It is proposed, in the following chapters, to make reference to the characteristics of the negatives and prints most desirable for these processes; the advisability of making appropriate differences between prints designed for transfer as distinct from prints directly inked, and thereafter express a few opinions as to the principles involved and to offer hints for the solution of special technical difficulties.

    With reasonable care to ensure good technique, these pro- cesses are by no means difficult, but it is important that for the best results, each and every step should be considered specially in relation to the ultimate result.

    It is not proposed to discuss in this handbook anything in the nature of the physical and chemical reactions of these processes. My intention is rather to give complete working instructions as far as possible, and a general idea of the fundamental principles involved, and I venture the opinion that until research has provided greater knowledge of the structure and properties of g&tine than is at present available such discussion, even if possible, would be of little practical value.

    Bromoil and its transfer, being more popular, will first be dealt with, and the description of the Oil Pigment process will be given subsequently, as, on account of the print being limited in size to the dimensions of the negative from which it is printed, it is now seldom employed.

    C. J. 8. 1924.

    2

    CHAPTER I.

    “ BROMOIL ”

    THE NEGATIVE AND PRINT

    T HE first step in

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