PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA EO 003.02. EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA References 1.AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June 2007 2.Alberta Regulation 229/2000,

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PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA EO 003.02 Slide 2 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA References 1.AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June 2007 2.Alberta Regulation 229/2000, Livestock Disease Act Slide 3 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Agenda 1.Criteria for a Painless Death 2.Ethical Considerations 3.Animal Behavioural Considerations 4.Human Behavioural Considerations 5.Mode of Actions of Euthanizing Agents 6.Inhalant Agents 7.Non-inhalant Agents 8.Physical Methods 9.Responsibilities of the Owner 10.Special Considerations Slide 4 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA A Humane Death Euthanasia is the act of inducing humane death in an animal Highest degree of respect Painless Anxiety and Distress free Slide 5 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Criteria for a Painless Death Pain sensation that results from nerve impulses reaching the cerebral cortex via neural pathways Two Pain Categories 1.Sensory-Discriminative 2.Motivational-Affective Slide 6 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Criteria for a Painless Death Stress the effect of physical, physiologic or emotional stressors that induce an alteration in an animals homeostasis Three Phases of Stress Eustress Neutral Stress Distress Slide 7 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Handling Control and Restraint 1.Species 2.Breed 3.Size 4.State of Domestication 5.Degree of Taming 6.Presence of Injury or Disease 7.Degree of Excitement 8.Method of Euthanasia Slide 8 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Methods of Euthanasia 1.Species of the Animal 2.Available Means of Restraint 3.Skill of Personnel 4.Number of Animals HUMANE DEATH Slide 9 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Ethical Considerations Professional Concerns Societal Concerns Federal, Provincial and Local Laws Slide 10 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Verifying Death Examination for Cessation of Vital Signs Slide 11 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Minimize Animal Distress Gentle Restraint Careful Handling Talking during Euthanasia Calming Effect Route of Least Distress Slide 12 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Minimize Animal Distress Wild, Feral, Injured or Diseased Animals Slide 13 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Human Behaviour Psychological Response Grief at the loss of life Slide 14 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Veterinary Clinic Owners make decisions Rely on Veterinarians judgment Owners present during the procedure Slide 15 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Animal Care & Control Facility Unwanted, homeless, diseased and/or injured Distress Constant exposure and high turnover of employees training & educational programs peer support time off for stress Slide 16 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Laboratory Similar to pet owners Researchers, technicians and students become attached Slide 17 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Wildlife Control Injured and/or Diseased animals Threatening property and human safety Excessive numbers Extreme distress and anxiety Slide 18 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Slaughter Facilities Very large numbers of animals Physically and emotionally desensitized Slide 19 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Public Exposure Zoo animals Roadside and Racetrack accidents Nuisance or injured animals Natural Disasters Slide 20 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Basic Modes of Action 1.Direct or Indirect Hypoxia 2.Direct Depression of Neurons 3.Physical Disruption of Brain Activity Slide 21 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Hypoxia Loss of consciousness Painless Distress Free Slide 22 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Direct Depression of Neurons Depress nerve cells of the brain Loss of consciousness followed by death Non-purposeful vocalization or muscle contraction Death by cardiac arrest Slide 23 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Disruption of Brain Activity Concussion Electrical Depolarization of neurons destruction of the mid-brain causing cardiac and/or respiratory arrest Slide 24 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalants Inhaled gas Time Consuming Suitability Slide 25 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Anaesthetics HalothaneEnflurane IsofluraneSevoflurane MethoxyfluraneDesflurane EtherNitrous Oxide Slide 26 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages for Inhalant Anaesthetics Recommended for smaller animals where venipuncture may be difficult Non-flammable and non-explosive under normal circumstances Slide 27 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Disadvantages for Inhalants Anaesthetics Animals may struggle and become anxious vapours may be irritating and cause excitement Ether is very flammable Methoxyflorane is slow acting Occupational Exposure by personnel Potential for human abuse Slide 28 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Acceptable for the appropriate species (see appendix 1 of reference) CO 2 gas cylinder only acceptable source Slide 29 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of CO 2 Rapid Depressant Readily Available Inexpensive Non-flammable Non-explosive Minimal hazard to users Non-accumulating Disadvantages of CO 2 Incomplete filling of chamber Some species may have a tolerance Time consuming Some species breathe to slowly High Concentrations may be distressful Slide 30 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Carbon Monoxide (CO) Acceptable for dogs, cats and other small mammals CO gas cylinder only acceptable source Slide 31 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of CO Painless Minimal Discomfort Insidious Rapid effect in 4 6% concentrations Disadvantages of CO Exposure to personnel Other equipment used must be explosion proof Slide 32 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Nitrogen (N 2 )/Argon (Ar) Death induced by Hypoxemia Distressful to some species rats N 2 /Ar gas cylinder only acceptable source Slide 33 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of N 2 /Ar Readily Available Minimal hazard to personnel Disadvantages of N 2 /Ar Loss of consciousness preceded by hypoxemia distressful Introduction of O 2 too soon may induce full recovery Slide 34 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Non-Inhalant Pharmaceutical Agents Injectable agents are the most rapid and reliable method of Euthanasia Administered through intravenous injection Minimal fear or distress to the animal Intra-peritonial Injection Intra-cardiac Injection Slide 35 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Depresses the Central Nervous System in descending order Administered only through IV Injection Potent Long-acting Stable Inexpensive Sodium Pentobarbital Slide 36 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of Sodium Pentobarbital Speed of action Minimal discomfort Smooth drug action Inexpensive Disadvantages of Sodium Pentobarbital Personnel trained in IV Injection Animal restraint required Terminal Gasp Persists in the carcass Toxic for scavengers Federal Drug Regulations Slide 37 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Potassium Chloride Unacceptable in unanaesthetized animals Acceptable to induce cardiac arrest in anaesthetized animals Slide 38 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of Potassium Chloride Not a controlled substance Less toxic for scavengers Disadvantages of Potassium Chloride Rippling of muscle tissues Seizures Slide 39 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Pentobarbital Combinations Chloral Hydrate T-61 Tricaine Methane Sulfonate (MS 222) Slide 40 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Unacceptable Injectable Agents StrychnineNicotine CaffeineMagnesium Sulfate Potassium ChlorideCleaning Agents SolventsDisinfectants Salts Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Slide 41 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Methods Captive BoltGun Shot Cervical DislocationDecapitation ElectrocutionMicrowave Irradiation Kill TrapsThoracic Compression ExsanguinationMaceration StunningPithing Blow to the Head EXTREME CAUTION & CARE Slide 42 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Penetrating Captive Bolt Concussion and trauma to the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem Used in slaughter houses for Ruminants, Equine and Swine Aesthetically displeasing Slide 43 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Blow to the Head Anatomic features of the animal Humane for neonatal animals with thin craniums Single sharp blow Rapid death when properly performed Slide 44 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Gun Shot Immediate Death brain Performed outdoors away from public access Dangerous Weapon, Aesthetically unpleasant, may not be able to examine for rabies Slide 45 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Cervical Dislocation & Decapitation Rapid action and loss of consciousness No chemically contaminated carcasses Aesthetically unpleasant, mastering a technical skill Cervical Dislocation poultry, mice and other small birds Decapitation obtain undamaged brain tissue from lab rodents and rabbits Slide 46 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Electrocution Induce death by cardiac fibrillation Humane act if animal is unconscious Economical Hazardous to personnel, Aesthetically unpleasant violent extension and stiffening of limbs, head and neck Does not always work on small animals Special skills and equipment Slide 47 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Microwave Irradiation Only acceptable use is for very small laboratory specimens Thoracic Compression Only acceptable use is for small to medium size birds when other methods are not practical Slide 48 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Kill Traps Does not always render a rapid and stress free death Should be followed immediately by another method Use is controversial Slide 49 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Adjunctive Methods Exsanguination, Stunning and Pithing These methods can only be conducted in conjunction with other physical and/or chemical methods Never Conducted as a sole means of Euthanasia Slide 50 EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Wildlife Metho