Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal

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  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal


    Peri-urban farming systems in Nepal: from subsistence to organic agriculture



    Historical background of organic farming


    Methodology and the data

    Key findings



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  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal



    Nepal is an agrarian country with almost 66% engaged on agriculture & contributes

    33% of GDP

    Smallholders and marginal farms predominate Nepalese agriculture (av. 0.80 ha)

    Almost 80% are family farms

    Mostly rural farming is organic by default/organic by neglect

    Peri-urban areas (PUAs)- huge variation in farming methodologies ranging from some

    subsistence to intensive inorganic

    Inorganic inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides entered in peri-urban areas of Nepal

    in the early 1980s

    Vegetables consume huge amount of agro-chemicals in PUAs

    Organic production as a means to restore soil and environment started in 1990s

    Almost 2% households in the urban areas consume organically grown products and

    29% have desire for their availability

  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal


    Historical background of organic farming in Nepal

    Most of the family farms are still default organic

    Widespread use of agro-chemicals in PUAs started in 1980s

    Government provided free of cost to encourage farmers but farmers were skeptical

    Village extension workers buried bags of urea fertilizer in the farmers field in night time

    Once farmers found crop growth robust, extension workers disclosed the mystery

    indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals then started and replaced former production systems

    Farmers realized negative repercussions of inorganic farming in 1990s

    An American Judith Chase felt the need to produce fresh commodities in PUA and

    established AAA in 1987 and got twice the normal market price

    Farmers around her area got motivated and started organic production for niche markets

    Organic certification of tea, coffee and herbals began in 1996

    National organic standards hammered out in 2006

    Almost 8000 ha is fully converted organic in Nepal and 26 registered organic farms

  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal



    Comparison of socio-economic and biophysical features of the farming systems in peri-urban

    areas of Nepal

    Highlight the historical background of organic agriculture development in Nepal

    Perception to and preference on organic agriculture (farmers and consumers viewpoint)

    Data integration into spatial environment and develop regional models for simulating future

    development of the farming systems Farm level modeling to see how organic agriculture could develop over the period of time

  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal


    Methodology and the data

    Study area: Urban and rural continuum of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Homogeneous farming systems:

    Subsistence farming

    Conventional farming

    Smallholder organic farmingSampling of farm households:

    Spatial sampling design using ArcView (95 farm households)

    Simple random sampling (35 farm households)

    Data collection:

    Structured questionnaire for socio-economic & market informationSpatial data from the government source

    Soil sampling during transect walk for soil quality profiling

  • 8/3/2019 Peri-Urban Farming Systems in Nepal


    Research methodology

    Data integration and modeling:

    Application of farming system approach (living standard analysis)

    Integration of socio-economic information into spatial environment

    Cost distance modeling

    Land quality profiling using nutrient status, available landforms, gross margin of crops

    and spatial maps

    Farm level modeling and simulation using GAMS

    Regional level modeling using spatial explicit analysis

    Conjoint modeling for preference analysis

    Logistic modeling and willingness to pay (WTP) approach

    Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) modeling


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