Permaculture Reference Book

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  • A Resource Book

    ~ for ~

    PERMACULTURE Solut ions for Sustainable Lifestyles

    Created by Permatil (Permaculture Timor Lorosae)Adapted for Indonesia & published by IDEP Foundation

  • First Edition by Yayasan IDEP 2006

    PO BOX 160 Ubud, 80571, Bali, Indonesia

    Permatil & Yayasan IDEP

    ThE aIm OF ThIs BOOk Is...

    To offer knowledge and practical techniques for environmental rehabilitation and sustainability, strengthening community resilience and local economies. The contents of the book are based on concepts of deep ecology, the interconnectedness of our environment and culture and the principles and ethics of sustainable community development.

    Combining traditional techniques for providing natural resources, food, shelter and energy with modern sustainable practices, the techniques outlined in this book provide integrated, practical solutions for challenges being faced by community members and farmers throughout Indonesia today.

    This Resource Book for Permaculture - Solutions for Sustainable Lifestyles has been developed using simple language and many detailed illustrations to insure that the information contained is accessible to all those interested.

    Permatil and IDEP Foundation invite organizations or individuals wishing to reproduce this book to do so, in the interest of sharing Permaculture activities for non-commercial purposes, and without altering the contents of the book. For rights of reproduction for other purposes, please submit a written request for permission to Yayasan IDEP.

    The materials contained in this book have been drawn from many different sources including Permaculture works and publications worldwide as well as practitioners in East Timor and Indonesia. If you have any input or suggestions regarding either the contents or the use of this book, please contact us at the address listed. We greatly appreciate your suggestions and input.


    We have tried to be as factual and accurate as possible. We hope that this book will provide many benefits for those that use it. however, any problems or faults that occur as a result of practical use of the information, are not the responsibility of Permatil, IDEP Foundation, or of the books authors, artists, contributors and / or publisher.

    IsBN : 9 7 9 - 1 5 3 0 5 - 0 - 5

    F i r s t E d i t i o n 2 0 0 6 I D E P F o u n d a t i o n

  • Supported by:

    Created by Permatil (Permaculture Timor Lorosae)

    A d a p t e d f o r I n d o n e s i a & P u b l i s h e d b y I D E P F o u n d a t i o n

    A Resource Book

    ~ for ~

    PERMACULTURE Solut ions for Sustainable Lifestyles

  • Written by

    Lachlan McKenzie with Ego Lemos

    Contributing Writers

    Sasha Earle, Deirdre Nagle, Rob Swain, Julianne Hartmann, Steve Cran,

    Robi Supriyanto

    Information Contributors

    Permatil, IDEP Foundation, Chris Walsh, USC East Timor, Wayne Gum, Xisto

    Martins, Trish Morrow, Permatils permaculture project participants and part-

    ners, Yudi Suanda, Lachlan McKenzie, Lakota Moira, Made Chakra, Dessy

    Haryanti, Nita Noor, Sherry Kasman Entus, Purnawan Budisetia, Misbahhu-

    din, Gede Sugiarta, Made Suyasa, I Gusti Raka Panji Tisna, Roberto Huta-

    barat, Petra Schneider, Courtney Stephen, Kadek Lisa, Dewi Surtikanti


    Arte Moris Art School, Simao Mong Cardosso Periera, Gibrael Aziby

    Dias Soares Carocho, Edson Arintes Da Costa Carminha, Grinaldo Gilma-

    rodep Fernandes, Jose Osme Fortunato Gonzalves, Jose Tony de Jesus

    Amaral, Leo Marcal, Ozorio Azo Jeronimo, Kathryn Cipi Morgan, Lach-

    lan McKenzie, Robi Supriyanto & the Spiritual Junkies

    Editors and Translators

    Lachlan McKenzie, Ego Lemos, Anastasia Guise, Sasha Earle, Julianne Hart-

    mann, Rob Swain, Robi Supriyanto, Lakota Moira, Putu Widyastuti Rudolf

    Desktop Publishing and Graphic Design

    Petra Schneider, Lachlan McKenzie, Lakota Moira, Courtney Stephen,

    Dewi Surtikanti, Saturnino de Maia, Asatu


    IDEP Foundation - w w w . i d e p f o u n d a t i o n . o r g

  • Permaculture can be seen

    as a sustainable philosophy

    and lifestyle which integrates

    different components, like ecological knowledge

    (interconnected natural processes which happen

    in nature); peoples ability to design production

    systems like agriculture and animal husbandry;

    using appropriate and environment friendly

    technology; and awareness to work together

    with the local culture and environment.

    In general Permaculture can be

    defined as permanent-

    agriculture, which means

    achieving sustainable

    agriculture and

    animal husbandry

    through protecting

    or improving the

    natural environment,

    and permanent-culture,

    which means preserving,

    supporting and working with

    the local culture and environment.

    Permaculture, which is based on the ethics

    of caring for the land, the people and the future,

    is very beneficial in helping us to understand

    and create an integration of harmony between

    people and nature.

    However, the reality is that through fulfilling our

    needs and wants, we have already caused great

    damage to the environment, including creating

    conditions which are threatening even to

    ourselves. For example pollution and damaged

    habitats, which has in part been caused by

    monoculture farming and animal husbandry

    systems which use dangerous chemicals during

    production. There is also genetic engineering

    experiments which have many risks and

    challenge the laws of nature.

    IDEP (Indonesian Development of Education and

    Permaculture) as a foundation working towards

    education and Permaculture development in

    Indonesia also feels responsible for all of these

    problems and feels obligated to improve these

    conditions, and little by little to reverse this

    confused paradigm of building concepts and

    production systems which are exploitative and

    oriented for only short term benefits.

    As a manifestation of this feeling of responsibility,

    we are grateful that IDEP has

    succeeded in publishing this

    Permaculture Resource

    Book which has been

    adapted from Permatil

    ( P e r m a c u l t u r e

    Timor Lorosae)

    for Indonesia. We

    hope this book will

    be beneficial, and

    will inspire, interest and

    initiate action through all

    layers of Indonesian communities,

    both for people living in villages and in

    urban cities, to adopt and adapt Permaculture

    principles and practices which are outlined in

    this resource book.

    Our wellbeing and the wellbeing of future

    generations are dependent on our ability to make

    conscious choices and actions for improving the

    environmental and social problems which we

    have created.

    Board of Govenors

    IDEP Foundation

    Fo r w a r d

  • vi Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e L i f e s t y l e s

    N o t e s . . .

  • Pe




    re R



    e B


    k -



    E O

    F C





    TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

  • i i Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e L i f e s t y l e s

    N o t e s . . .

  • Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i

    Module 1. What is Permaculture? 1

    Permaculture can be defined as: 3

    Ethics of Permaculture 4

    Principles of Permaculture 6

    Beauty 8

    Module 2. Natural Patterns & Permaculture Design 11

    Patterns 13Increasing Productivity 15

    Methods of Design 17

    Approaches to Design 181. Maps 18

    2. Element Analysis 21

    3. Zones 23

    4. Sectors 30

    5. Observation and Data Collection 33

    Module 3. Houses, Water & Waste Management 37

    How to Create a Healthy House 401. House Location 40

    2. Ways to Reduce Risks 41

    3. Compatibility with Climate 41

    4. Good Health and Disease Prevention 42

    5. A House That is Easy to Clean 42

    7. Reducing Water and Energy Use 45

    8. A Long Lasting House 45

    Building a House 46Start with a Plan 46

    Building Materials 47

    Ideas for House Improvement 49Ventilation 49

    Insulation 49

    Natural Lighting 50

    Making a House Last Longer 51

    Bamboo (For more information on how to choose, cure and store bamboo, see the section Bamboo in

    Module 8 - Forests, Tree Crops & Bamboo). 51

    Insect Screens 52

    Outside Improvements 52Pergola / Shade Structure 52

    Trees and Windbreaks 52

    Gardens 52

    Ponds 53

    Kitchens 53

    Washing Area 56

    Washrooms 57

    Compost Toilet Systems 60

    Table of Contents

  • iv Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e L i f e s t y l e s

    Water Supply and Storage 62Collecting Water 62

    Water Storage 63

    Keeping Water Clean 64Cleaning Drinking Water 64

    Reducing Mosquito Problems 66

    Community Buildings and Land 67National Plans 67

    Module 4. Healthy Soil 69

    About Soil 71

    What is Healthy Living Soil? 72The Importance of Worms in the Soil 72

    Benefits of Healthy Living Soil 73

    Different Types of Soil 75Improving Soil Quality 75

    Soil pH 77pH Chart 77