PERS 2670Latin American Studies
The Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula
The ReconqestChristians of Iberia learned much as a result of the Moslem occupationChristian spurned Moslem bent for technology and industrious ways.Christian preferred to be a warrior man of action rater than farmer artesan or trader.Saw this as moral superiorityMoslems had been tolerant of Christians and Jews
Christians retained their religious zeal for catholicism.900 AD the discovery of the remains of ST James in Galicia gave renewed vigor to Spanish catholicismSanto Iago (Santiago) became the battle cry of the reconquest.1/5 of all captured went to the monarchMilitant orders were formed: powerful, effective, wealthyPrivileged groups of competent warriorsCalatrava, Alcantra, Santiago, .Poltical power was passing into the hands of Christian monarchsVarious states formed: Catille, Leon, Navarre, Aragon, Catalua, ....
Christianity continued to expand with the help of the papacy.By the middle of the 13th century all that was left to the Moslems was the Kingdom of Granada.Alfonso, El Sabio, (King of Castille deposed in 1284) Failed to complete thje conquest of the Peninsula,Issued the Siete Partidas: restored fundamental principles of Roman LawLater became the basis justice and order in Spain and the Americas.Moslems continued in control of Granada for another two centuries.
Castilla y AragnDuring the reconquest two major Kingdoms arose: Castille and Aragon.The Kingdom of CastilleEvolved in Central Iberia after a series of weak monarchsSerfdom completely disappearedClergy were numerous and powerfulMilitary orders were rich and strongJews and Moslems were relatively well treatedLands captured were populatedChristians failed to develop agriculturePreferred military life, mining, livestock-raisingThe Kingdom of AragonEvolved on the eastern coastAbsorbed CataluaExpanded overseas: Mallorca, France, Corsica, Sardinia,. Sicily, Was more European than IberianEstablshed Cortes: Assembly of nobles, clergy and urban delegatesA form of parliament.Aragon was destined to become the junior partner of Castille
The Catholic MonarchsIn 1469 an important marriage took place: Fernando, Heir of Aragon, married Isabella, Heiress of Castille.Isabella was spirited, dignified, courageous, imaginative, lucky and deeply religious.Fernando was crafty, calculating, tricky, dishonest.Combined with Isabella, they made a formidable team.In 1474 Isabella became Queen of Castille.In 1479 Fernando came into his inheritance as King of Aragon.Note that Fernando had enjoyed power in Castille as Isabellas husband, Castille was the stronger monarchy and the pair emphasized more the absolute Castillian monarchy.
Isabella and Fernando
The Unification of SpainWith the reign of Fernando and Isabella came a unified Spain ruled as one kingdomNobles were outmaneuvered by the monarchsBecame allies or were defeated and destroyedFernando became head of the three great military clerical orders: Santiago, Calatrava, and Alcntara.Defiant towns were whipped into subjugation by the Corregidores, officials of the crownThis system was to be used later in America.Cortes seldom metMovement towards parliamentary assertiveness was dicouragedMonarch was the absolute ruler.Even the clergy fell under royal controlPatronato Real: Government supervised ecclesiatical matters and nominated church officialsThis power was used later in America.
Isabel wielded absolute power over the clergyShe insisted in their abiding by her high-minded ideals and disciplined the clergy.Protestantism never attracted Spaniards.Spanish clergy were zealous and efficient in the challenge to Chritianize millions of pagans in America.1478 and 1481 Isabel and Ferdinand received permission to establish the Inquisition in Spain , under their control.Eliminated unworthy clergy, enforced conformity to Christian doctrine, persecuted persons whose Christianity was suspect.
The Spanish Inquisition: Tomas de Torquemada
The Conquest of GranadaFurther consolidation of power was accomplished by turning efforts against the remaining Moors.
The Kingdom of Granada in Southern Spain was the last stronghold of the MoslemsBoabdil, the last Moorish monarch surrendered in January 1492. This victory brought an ecstatic feeling of national unity to Spain.It also won the admiration of the rest of Christendom.
The City of Granada: The last Moslem city to fall, leading to the unification of Christian Spain
Consolidation and Further ExpansionIsabella turned on the Jews requiring them to become Christians within 4 months or to leave Spain.Some converted, but about 150,000 left for Portugal, Netherlands, etc.Ten years later she commanded million Moslems still left in Spain to embrace Christianity or leave. Many left.In 1492, with the support of Isabella, Columbus set sail on his first voyage of discovery with three ships.La Nia, La Pinta, and La Santa Mara.In 1512 the Kingdom of Navarra integrated to the crown of Spain.
Charles V and Phillip IIIsabella died in 1504.Ferdinand continued to rule until his death in 1516.Kingdom passed to Phillip I, Hapsburg, who came to Spain, but died shortly thereafter. His wife, Juana went crazy Juana la Loca.Succeeded by Charles I, grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand.
CHARLES V (1500 - 1558)"Con mi caballo hablo en alemn, con las damas de la corte, en italiano; los asuntos de hombres los trato en frances, pero para hablar con Dios, uso solo el espaol"
Charles I of Spain (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) commanded a vast empire.Inherited from Isabella and Ferdinand the Kingdom of Spain and its provinces and territories, including America.Inherited from the Hapsburg line the Netherlands, Belgium, Eastern France, Western Germany, Austria, and several other territories in Central Europe.Ruled with absolute power and maintained the ideals of his catholic grandmother.Devoted considerable attention to his overseas empire.Supported humane policies to protect Indians from exploitation and to make them ChristiansSupported the Conquistadores in their expansion in AmericaFashioned the fundamental machinery to rule America:Council of Indies, Viceroys, Missions, Convoys, mining regulations, etc
In 1556 Charles abdicated the throne.Empire was divided between his brother, Ferdinand, (Central Europe), and his son, Phillip.Phillip II (The Prudent King) inherited Castille, Navarre, Aragon, and several other possessions including the American colonies.In 1580 he became King of Portugal and the Portuguese possessions in America, Africa, etc.He was a most formidable monarch for his timeWorked tirelessly to know everything about his empireMade decisions in accordance with his religious idealsEstablished the Inquisition in America and sent the JesuitsPerfected the apparatus to govern and oversee the overseas empire.The close attention he gave his empire affected the way it functioned and remained long after his 42 years reign.He died in 1598, marking the end of Spains material grandeur.
The Golden Age(El Siglo de Oro)Cultural flowering during the period of overseas expansion and for several generations thereafter.Spanish literary genius: Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Calderon de la Barca, Spanish genius in religious issues posed by the Discovery and the ReformationIgnatius of Loyola and the JesuitsSpiritual ExercisesRigid self-disciplineMystics: Sta. Teresa de Jesus and Sor Juana Ines de la CruzWrote powerfully about the blazing ecstasy one can achieve by approaching an awareness of god; spiritual bliss and joys of a mystical experience.Persists in the character of much of the Hispanic worldAnother barrier to sympathetic understanding by outsidersPainting: Greco, Velasquez, Murillo, ZubaranPortugal also experienced a Golden Age.
Paintings by Velasquez and El Greco
MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA
The Decline of SpainUpon the death of Phillip II Spain continued to operate on the momentum of Isabella, Charles V and Phillip II.Soon went into decline.Why did Spain, amidst its wealth and power collapse?Spain and Portugal were to continue to exercise colonial control over America until the Wars of Independence in the 19th century.
PortugalThe section of Western Hispania shared the experience of the rest of the peninsula.At the peak of Moslem occupation a town at the mouth of the Douro River came to be called Portucale, later to be used for the western part of Iberia, while the town became known as Oporto.Portugal is an accident of HistoryCounty of Portucale awarded to a French crusader, Henry of Burgandy, for services to the crown of Leon in fighting against the Moslems. By 1100 Henry was claiming complete independenceBy 1140 his son was calling himself King of Portugal(Legend is that he won this right in a tournament.)
There was little difference between Portugal and CastilleLanguage different in pronunciation, similar in writingThe Portuguese were more pleasing to foreigners, more flexible, less stern, more lovable, less reservedSimilar in cult of heroism and actionLess inclined to religious intoleranceBy 1249 the Kingdom of Portugal reached the southern shores of the peninsulaBegan preliminary oceanic explorations1386 Portugal and England signed the Treaty of WindsorOldest diplomatic tie in Europe.General cooperation for mutual benefit.Assistance in enabling Portugal to remain free of Spain.Portugal became an important maritime nation and a major colonial power in America.
Iberia - Spain and Portugal: Two colonial powers that have played a significant role in t