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Personality Chapter Eleven: Personality and Its Assessment Module Twenty-Five: Psychodynamic & Humanistic Perspectives

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  • Personality Chapter Eleven: Personality and Its Assessment Module Twenty-Five: Psychodynamic & Humanistic Perspectives
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  • What is Personality? An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
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  • The Psychodynamic Perspective: Sigmund Freud Denial, regress, repress, etc. Founder of psychoanalysis Proposed the first complete theory of personality A persons thoughts and behaviors (personality) emerge from tension generated by unconscious motives and unresolved childhood conflicts (many sexual).
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  • Psychoanalysis & Psychodynamic Perspective Freuds theory of personality Also a therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight into ones thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflicts A more modern view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory but rejects other aspects Retains the importance of the unconscious mind Less emphasis on unresolved childhood conflicts
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  • The Psychodynamic Perspective: Freuds View of the Mind Free Association: Freudian technique of exploring the unconscious mind by having the person relax and say whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Freuds alternative to hypnosis.
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  • Different consciousness of the mind Conscious mind: The thoughts and feelings one is currently aware of The thoughts and feelings one is currently aware of Preconscious mind: Holds thoughts and memories not in ones current awareness but can easily be retrieved Holds thoughts and memories not in ones current awareness but can easily be retrieved Unconscious mind: A region of the mind that includes unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. A region of the mind that includes unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Open patients to these unwanted memories, accept them, and become better! Open patients to these unwanted memories, accept them, and become better!
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  • Freuds Concepts of the: Id, Ego, and Superego The Id The part of personality that consists of unconscious energy from basic aggressive and sexual drives Operates on the pleasure principle - the id demands immediate gratification Is present from birth Ex: newborns cry for whatever they need!
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  • SuperegoEgo The part of personality that consists of internalized ideals and standards Ones conscience; focuses on what the person should do Largely conscious part of personality. Mediates demands of id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principal. Satisfies ids desires in ways that will bring more pleasure that pain.
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  • These classifications, Freud says, can help us understand the mind. Which is the child, parent, and adult? Id: child child Superego: parent parent Ego: adult adult
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  • The Human Mind, as per Freud
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  • More Freud!!! Defense Mechanisms Means by which Freud believed the ego protects itself by reducing anxiety; unconsciously distorts reality Means by which Freud believed the ego protects itself by reducing anxiety; unconsciously distorts reality Dont forget about: Repression, regression, and denial Repression, regression, and denial
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  • Repression Puts anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories into the unconscious mind Puts anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories into the unconscious mind The basis for all other defense mechanisms The basis for all other defense mechanisms Regression Allows an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable, infantile stage of life Allows an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable, infantile stage of life Denial Lets an anxious person refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening Lets an anxious person refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening
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  • Defense Mechanisms, cont. Reaction formation Reverses an unacceptable impulse, causing the person to express the opposite of the anxiety-provoking, unconscious feeling. Reverses an unacceptable impulse, causing the person to express the opposite of the anxiety-provoking, unconscious feeling. Projection Disguises threatening feelings of guilty anxiety by attributing the problems to others Disguises threatening feelings of guilty anxiety by attributing the problems to others Rationalization Displaces real, anxiety- provoking explanations with more comforting justifications for ones actions Displacement Shifts an unacceptable impulse toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
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  • Psychosexual Stages In Freudian theory, the childhood stages of development during which the ids pleasure seeking energies are focused on different parts of the body Develops in the first five or six years The stages include: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital A person can become fixated or stuck at a stage, leading to problems as an adult
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  • Freuds Stages of Development 1.) Oral Stage Pleasure comes from chewing, biting, and sucking. Pleasure comes from chewing, biting, and sucking. Weaning can be a conflict at this stage. Weaning can be a conflict at this stage. 2.) Anal Stage Gratification comes from bowel and bladders functions. Gratification comes from bowel and bladders functions. Potty training can be a conflict at this stage. Potty training can be a conflict at this stage.
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  • Freuds Stages of Development 3.) Phallic Stage The pleasure zone shifts to the genitals. The pleasure zone shifts to the genitals. Boys cope with incestuous feelings toward their mother and rival feelings toward their dad (Oedipus conflict). Boys cope with incestuous feelings toward their mother and rival feelings toward their dad (Oedipus conflict). 4.) Latency Stage Sexual feelings are dormant. Sexual feelings are dormant. Child identifies with and tries to mimic the same sex parent to learn gender identity. Child identifies with and tries to mimic the same sex parent to learn gender identity. 5.) Genital Stage Begins at puberty with the maturation of sexual interests Begins at puberty with the maturation of sexual interests
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  • Freuds Stage of Development: Write this please!
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  • The Psychodynamic Perspective: Neo-Freudians Followers of Freuds theories but developed theories of their own in areas where they disagreed with Freud Include Adler, Jung, and Horney
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  • Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Agreed with Freud on the importance of early childhood but thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions Believed psychological problems were the result of feelings of inferiority Inferiority Complex: A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
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  • Carl Jung (Yoong) (1875-1961) Believed that humans share a collective unconscious Jungs concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our ancestors Information everyone knows from birth Archetypes universal symbols found in stories, myths, and art
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  • Karen Horney (HORN-eye)( 1885-1952) Found psychoanalysis negatively biased against women Believed cultural/social variables are the foundation of personality development
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  • The Psychodynamic Perspective: Assessing Personality
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  • Projective Tests Personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of ones inner thoughts and feelings Include: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Rorschach Inkblot Test Rorschach Inkblot Test
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  • Thematic Rorschach Apperception Inkblot TestTest A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes The person makes up a story of a picture they are shown Most widely used projection test Personality test that seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of 10 inkblots
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  • Updating Freuds Theory Most psychodynamic psychologists agree: Sex is not the basis of personality. Sex is not the basis of personality. People do not fixate at various stages of development. People do not fixate at various stages of development. Much of a persons mental life is unconscious. Much of a persons mental life is unconscious. People struggle with inner conflicts, and childhood experiences shape us. People struggle with inner conflicts, and childhood experiences shape us.
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  • Looking at Personality Through: The Humanist Perspective A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience and the individuals freedom to choose and capacity for personal growth Studies fulfilled and healthy individuals rather than troubled people
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  • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Humanistic psychologist who developed the hierarchy of needs Believed that self- actualization is the ultimate psychological need
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  • Hierarchy Self-Actualization of needs Maslows pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs, proceeding through

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