Perspectives on Lake Baikal (Russia), Lake Tahoe (USA), and Lake Khuvsgul (Mongolia)

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  1. 1. Perspectives onLakes Tahoe, Baikal and Khuvsgul Gantulga Bayasgalan Desert Research Institute,Tahoe Baikal Institute, Mongolian University of Science and Technology
  2. 2. Outline Tahoe Baikal Institute Summer Environmental Exchange Alumni Internship Exchange Comparison of Lake Baikal, Lake Khuvsgul,Lake Tahoe Lake Tahoe Nearshore Clarity Monitoring
  3. 3. Tahoe BaikalInstituteEstablished in 1990, the Tahoe-Baikal Institute (TBI) is apartnership between LakeTahoe in the Sierra Nevada andLake Baikal in Southern Siberiathat organizes watershedmanagement andenvironmental exchanges tofoster cultural understandingand to develop youngenvironmental leaders.
  4. 4. What is significant? Tahoe is oneLake Tahoe of the ten deepest lakes on the world and among the clearest
  5. 5. Sister Lakes RUSSIAN FEDERATIONLake Baikal Lake Khuvsgul CHINA
  6. 6. The goal of TBIs flagship program,the Summer EnvironmentalExchange is to help developcommunity leaders, resourceprofessionals, and environmentalstewards around the world byexposing them to watershed issuesthrough a place-based,interdisciplinary sense at both LakeTahoe and Lake Baikal.
  7. 7. Summer Environmental Exchange Program The SEE consists of : Small-group investigative projects, Hands-on ecological restoration work Meetings with experts and policy-makers Interactive workshops that simulateenvironmental problem-solving scenarios
  8. 8. In this endeavor the Institutedevelops: Community leaders, resourceprofessionals, and Environmental stewards acrossthe intersections of watershededucation,
  9. 9. TBI focuses on: Protection & restoration Research, policy Sustainable economicdevelopment Environmental technologytransfer Cultural understanding
  10. 10. Alumni Internship Exchange ProgramU.S, Russian, Mongolian andinternational alumni will be given theopportunity to revisit Lake Tahoe (or thesurrounding region) or the Lake Baikalwatershed in Russia or Mongolia andget to work for a month with anorganization that fits in with their careerdevelopment goalsThe program includes a shortorientation and training by theTBI staff, and four weeks ofworking at a host organizationas an intern/researcher as wellas various recreational andcultural activities.
  11. 11. Other Programs Education Mongolian YouthPartnerships andWeekendOutreach (STEEC, Wonders of Water Week, Earth Day, USFS Grants forOutdoor Explore,professional ExchangeGreat Sierra River(at both Lake Baikal inClean Up, Tahoe Basin Watershed EducationSiberia and in Summit)Mongolia)topicsinclude environmental Eurasia Foundationeducation, interpretiveCSPP Internationalservices and Grassrootsrecreational planningCollaboration for Sustainablefor protected lands) Community Development
  12. 12. Comparison of Lake Tahoe, Lake Baikal, Lake Khuvsgul Lake Khuvsgul Lake BaikalLake Tahoe
  13. 13. Lake comparison tableLakes Tahoe Baikal KhuvsgulBasin Countries USA Russia/MongoliaMongoliaAverage depth /m/300 744.5138Maximum depth /m/5021642268Surface area /km2/ 496.2131722 2760Shoreline perimeter /km/ 1142100 380Origin Tectonics/block faulting Tectonics/Rift valley Tectonics/Rift valleyMax length /km/35 636 136Max width /km/ 1979 36.5Salinity/Freshwater FreshFresh FreshExisting place Sierra Nevada Southern Siberia Eastern SayanAge /years/2-4 million25-30 million 2 million
  14. 14. Lake comparison table Lakes Tahoe BaikalKhuvsgulSurface Elevation /m/ 1897455.5 1645 Islands1 274 Water volume /km3/150.682 23615.39 480.7Residence time /years/ 650 330 ?? SettlementsSouth Lake TahoeIrkutskKhatgalCatchment area /km2/1310 56000039840Number of tributaries63331 99 Primary inflowsUpper TruckeeSelenga Arsain RiverPrimary outflowsLower TruckeeAngaraEgiin RiverOcean basinContinental/Pyramid Lake ArcticArcticFreeze status Never Januay/May January/May Secchi /m/24 40 18
  15. 15. Tectonics and geology of Lake Baikal Located on the border of the 2 large tectonic structures, Siberian platform and Sayan- Baikalsky folded thrust belt Tectonically active Earthquake tremors ~ 2000 annually Moving towards Pacific 2 mm annually In a distance of circa 50 years, earthquakes with strengths of over 6.5 on the Richter-scale may happen
  16. 16. Tectonics and geology of Lake Baikal The Baikal rift zone is characterized by high surface heat flow, flanking normal faults, and lower upper mantle velocity. The 1500 km echelon system of rift depressions is the most seismically active continental rift in the world.
  17. 17. Lake Baikal Geology andfault map The Baikal rift is more than 2000 km away from the nearest active plate boundary Siberian Craton and Sayan belt origin in Precambrian and Palaeozoic collisions of terranes and continental blocks. Archean greenstone crustal cores and granite gneiss domes,
  18. 18. Tectonics and geology of Lake Baikal Marbles, granulites, amphibolites, shists, gneisses and granitoids. The island arcs were once in front of the southern shore of the Siberian craton, before it collided with Laurentia and the supercontinent Rhodinia was formed.
  19. 19. Lake Khuvsgul and Darkhad Depression Khuvsgul is one of the 25 oldest lakes on the world Water Clarity stands for one of the best on the world Contains 0.4 % of the surface freshwater reserve on the world and70% of Mongolia Alpine freshwater lake at height of 1645 meters (5400 feet) Tectonic/Rift valley origin Calcium carbonate is common in the area along with phosphorusresources
  20. 20. Sister Lakes Lake Baikal Lake Khuvsgul RUSSIAN FEDERATION CHINA
  21. 21. DarkhadDepression
  22. 22. What is interesting from DarkhadDepression, Khuvsgul Lake area? Shorelines confirm that this area was once filled by thelake at a certain time. Catastrophic floods due to climate change in the end ofLGM ~13000 years BP Moraine deposits on the confluence of rivers in the NWpart of the study area Mollusk and shell remains were abundantly found inthis area.
  23. 23. Darkhad and Khuvsgul climatereconstruction approaches Although geomorphological evidence can provide useful insights into formerclimatic regimes and environmental conditions, a more detailed impressionof events during the Quaternary can often be gained from sedimentaryrecords. The sedimentary accumulation is an archive of ancient earth story. Itdeposits with its important signatures such as climate, environment, andbiologic features of particular period. Since its a record of old time,sedimentary record can give us enormous information about the past.
  24. 24. Ice damlocation?
  25. 25. DarkhadDepressionIce damlocation?
  26. 26. GTOPO 30 DEM Map Confluence of the rivers where ice dam was located
  27. 27. Location of icedam andestimated fillingof the lakeusing highestshoreline(A. Gillespieet.al 2001)
  28. 28. Ice dam location on theconfluence of the riversand lateral moraine(A. Gillespie et.al 2001)
  29. 29. Ancient lake shoreline
  30. 30. The confluence of the riverswhere ice dam was located
  31. 31. Lake Tahoe geologic originProcesses contribute to Geologic origin of Lake Tahoe: Marine deposition meta-sedimentary remnants Granitic intrusion Tectonic uplift Volcanic eruptions Glacial scouring Erosion
  32. 32. What is significant? Tahoe is oneLake Tahoe of the ten deepest lakes on the world and among the clearest
  33. 33. Lake Tahoe simplified geology map (Adapted from R. Schweickert et. al, 2009)
  34. 34. Fault map of Lake Tahoe superimposedover DEM and bathymetry mapRed: Active faultsBlack: Age relation unknownAdapted from Schweickert et.al 2004
  35. 35. Tectonics and geology of Lake Tahoe The oldest rocks inthe area are seen asisolated remnants ofmetamorphosedPaleozoic andMesozoic volcanicand sedimentaryrocks The metamorphicremnants are theproducts of ancientvolcanic arcs andrelated submarinesedimentary deposits
  36. 36. Tectonics and geology of Lake Tahoe Prior to the main uplift ofthe Sierra Nevadaancient Tertiary(Eocene?) rivers passedthrough the area carvingchannels These rivers alsoprovided the channelsthat carried the volcanicflows and debris from theearly volcanic centers
  37. 37. Tectonics and geology of Lake Tahoe Volcanism waswidespread during theTertiary. The early volcanicepisode was followed bya period that extendedthrough most of theMiocene and into thePliocene Volcanic eruptionscontinued into thePleistocene andconsisted mainly ofbasalt and latite flows
  38. 38. Tectonics and geology of Lake Tahoe During the Pleistocene, glaciation played a major role in the shaping of thelandscape. Faulting has played a part in the formation of Lake Tahoe. It is generally accepted that Lake Tahoe was formed by a combination ofblock faulting and damming of the outlet, at the north end of the basin
  39. 39. Geologic similarities among Lakes Baikal, Khuvsgul and Tahoe Having tectonic origin Exceptionally deep and clear Alpine Lakes Glaciation plays an important role Currently tectonically active Cut by several major faults And, keeping their clarity, pristine state isimportant
  40. 40. Lake Tahoe NearshoreMonitoringGantulga Bayasgalan, Angela Stevens, Alan Heyvaert, Charles MortonBrian Fitzgerald, Rick Susfalk, Tim Minor and Ken Taylor Desert Research Institute,Tahoe Baikal Institute, Mongolian University of Science and Technology
  41. 41. Importance of Monitoring How to keep these types of lakes clean andclear is a critical management question they contain significant portions of the totalsurface freshwater reserve on earth. Most previous work at Lake Tahoe has beenconducted in the mid-lake or pelagic zones. More recently, work has begun to investigatechanges in nearshore conditions.
  42. 42. Water Clarity Decline in water clarity due to atmosphericwet/dry deposition, sediment mixtures inrunoff, and other anthropogenic impacts Traditional m