Photo Nicolas Axelrod / Handicap International, January 2013
Cluster Munition Monitor 2013 (Presentation, September 2013) Overview: States Parties and signatories show strong commitment to the convention. Increased rates of stockpile destruction and clearance in 2012. Majority of victims now live in States Parties, who collectively are improving access to services. Syrian use of cluster munitions condemned by more than 110 states, including dozens outside the convention.
Cluster Munition Monitor 2013 Main sections: Cluster Munition Ban Policy Contamination and Clearance Casualties and Victim Assistance Funding Support
Convention on Cluster Munitions A total of 112 states have joined the convention of which 83 are States Parties (79 ratified, 4 acceded) as of 31 July 2013. Photo Ana Jimena Gonzalez Alonso / Campaa Colombiana Contra Minas, July 2013
Convention on Cluster Munitions
States Parties Americas (17): Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay. Asia-Pacific (9): Afghanistan, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Japan, Lao PDR, Nauru, New Zealand, and Samoa. Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia (32): Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Holy See, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
States Parties (continued) Middle East and North Africa (3): Iraq, Lebanon, and Tunisia. Sub-Saharan Africa (22): Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Cte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Togo, and Zambia.
Signatories still to ratify AngolaGuineaPalau BeninHaitiParaguay CanadaIcelandPhilippines Central African RepublicIndonesiaRwanda ColombiaJamaicaSo Tom e Prncipe DR CongoKenyaSomalia Republic of CongoLiberiaSouth Africa CyprusMadagascar Tanzania DjiboutiNamibia Uganda GambiaNigeria
Cluster munition use Cluster munitions have been used by at least 20 government armed forces during conflict in 36 countries and four disputed territories since the end of World War II.
Recent use of cluster munitions Since the Convention on Cluster Munitions entered into force on 1 August 2010 there has been: No recorded use by States Parties or signatories. Non-signatory Syria has used cluster munitions extensively in the second half of 2012 and the first half of 2013, causing numerous civilian casualties. Unconfirmed reports of cluster munition use by Sudan and Myanmar in both 2012 and 2013. Confirmed instances of use by non-signatories Libya and Thailand in the first half of 2011.
Production of cluster munitions
Current producers * None of the 17 producers are confirmed to have used cluster munitions, except for Israel, Russia, and the US BrazilIsrael*Russia* ChinaNorth KoreaSingapore EgyptSouth KoreaSlovakia GreecePakistanTurkey IndiaPolandUnited States* IranRomania
Former producers The 16 former producers that have joined the convention and foresworn any future production include 15 States Parties and 1 signatory. *One non-signatory has ceased production. Argentina*FranceSouth Africa AustraliaGermanySpain BelgiumIraqSweden BiHItalySwitzerland ChileJapanUK CroatiaNetherlands
Transfers of cluster munitions BrazilSouth Korea Chile*Spain* EgyptRussia France*Turkey Germany*United Kingdom* IsraelUnited States Moldova*Yugoslavia Slovakia While the historic record is incomplete, at least 15 countries have transferred more than 50 types of cluster munitions to at least 60 countries. *Six of these states have joined the convention and no longer export.
Stockpiling of cluster munitions The Monitor estimates that prior to the start of the global effort to ban cluster munitions, 91 countries stockpiled millions of cluster munitions containing more than 1 billion submunitions. Currently, 72 nations have cluster munition stockpiles, including 24 States Parties and signatories to the convention. Collectively, prior to any destruction activities, 28 States Parties stockpiled more than 1.44 million cluster munitions containing 177.1 million submunitions.
Stockpile destruction A total of 22 States Parties have destroyed 1.03 million cluster munitions and 122 million submunitions. This represents the destruction of 71% of cluster munitions and 69% of submunitions declared as stockpiled by States Parties. 18 States Parties are in process of destruction, including major stockpilers Germany, Italy, Japan, Denmark, Sweden, and the UK.
Stockpile destruction in 2012 Nine States Parties destroyed 173,973 munitions and 27 million submunitions in 2012, a dramatic increase over the 107,000 munitions and 17.6 million submunitions destroyed in 2011. The UK destroyed 95% of all its stockpiled cluster munitions and 84% of its submunitions. The Netherlands completed destruction.
Retention of cluster munitions Most States Parties are not retaining any cluster munitions and/or submunitions for training or research. 13 States Parties are retaining cluster munitions, of which Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain are each retaining more than 15,000 submunitions. In 2012, the UK destroyed its holding of individual submunitions retained for testing.
Cluster munition contamination At least 26 states and 3 other areas are currently contaminated by cluster munition remnants, including 12 States Parties and 2 signatories. Photo Nicolas Axelrod / Handicap International, January 2013
Clearance and contamination
Contaminated states and areas AfricaAmericasAsiaEurope-CIS Middle East- North Africa ChadChileAfghanistanBiHIraq DR CongoLao PDRCroatiaLebanon MauritaniaCambodiaGermanyLibya Somalia VietnamMontenegroSyria South SudanNorwayYemen SudanAzerbaijanWestern Sahara Georgia (South Ossetia) Russia (Chechnya) Serbia Tajikistan Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh Bold = States Parties and signatories Italics = Other areas
Clearance of cluster munitions In 2012: More than 59,180 unexploded submunitions were destroyed during clearance of almost 78km 2 across 11 states and two other areas, a 40% increase in cleared land compared to 2011. 8 States Parties and signatories conducted clearance of unexploded munitions. The bulk of clearance was conducted in Lao PDR and Lebanon. Non-signatories Cambodia, Serbia, Vietnam, and Yemen also conducted clearance as well as Nagorno-Karabakh and Western Sahara. New methodologies to increase land release efficiency and productivity are currently being developed.
Cluster munition casualties Cluster munition casualties have been recorded in at least 31 states and areas, including 16 States Parties and signatories. Through the end of 2012, 17,959 all-time cluster munition casualties were confirmed. However, 54,000 is a better global estimate. In 2012, 190 cluster munition casualties were identified. This is the highest one-year casualty total since the convention entered into force; with 165 identified in Syria.
Cluster munition casualties
States with casualties by convention status States Parties and signatories (entry into force date) Other states and areas Afghanistan (1 March 2012)Cambodia Albania (1 August 2010)Eritrea Bosnia and Herzegovina (1 March 2011)Ethiopia Chad (1 September 2013)Georgia Croatia (1 August 2010)Israel Guinea-Bissau (1 May 2011)Kuwait Iraq (1 November 2013)Libya Lao PDR (1 August 2010)Russia Lebanon (1 May 2011)Serbia Montenegro (1 August 2010)South Sudan Mozambique (1 September 2011)Sudan Sierra Leone (1 August 2010)Syria AngolaTajikistan ColombiaVietnam Congo, Dem. Rep.Yemen UgandaKosovo Nagorno-Karabakh Western Sahara Convention on Cluster Munitions States Parties are indicated in bold; other areas in italics.
Cluster munition victim assistance The Convention on Cluster Munitions has set the highest standards for victim assistance in international humanitarian law. With Iraqs ratification in May 2013, the majority of cluster munition victims now live in States Parties to the convention. All States Parties with cluster munition victims provided some victim assistance services. Continued VA challenges incl. lack of funding, poor global economic climate, and conflict.
Intl. cooperation and assistance In 2012: 18 states, the EU, and UNDP contributed $70.2 million to support cluster munition clearance activities, VA, and advocacy in 12 states and two other areas. All 12 countries and two other areas are also affected by landmines, and they receive funding for mine clearance as well. Leb