Photosynthesis Introduction 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + light energy → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Photosynthesis consists of two independent pathways called the light-

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  • Photosynthesis

  • Introduction6 CO2 + 6 H2O +light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2Photosynthesis consists of two independent pathways called the light-dependent reaction (light reaction) and the light-independent reaction (dark reaction).

  • IntroductionLight Reactions: the energy in sunlight is trapped, O2 is released, and both ATP and NADPH + H+ (hydrogen-carrier molecule) are formedDark Reactions: the ATP and NADPH + H+ react with CO2 from the atmosphere and form glucoseThe entire process results in the transformation of light energy from the sun into energy stored in the bonds of the glucose molecule.

  • Structure of a ChloroplastThe light reactions take place in the thylakoid membraneThe dark reactions take place in the stroma

  • Structure of a Chloroplast

  • Electromagnetic Spectrum

  • Why are plants green?

  • PigmentsPigments are light-absorbing compounds.Pigments appear colored because they absorb light of certain wavelengths and reflect that of others.Chlorophyll a is the primary pigment in green plants that absorbs red and blue/violet light and reflects green light.

  • Structure of Chlorophyll

  • Accessory PigmentsChloroplasts also contain other pigments called accessory pigments.Accessory pigments trap wavelengths of light that cannot be absorbed by chlorophyll a and then transfer the energy to chlorophyll a molecules for use in photosynthesis. In this way, accessory pigments enable plants to use a greater amount of the suns energy than is available to chlorophyll alone.

  • Light Reaction

  • Light ReactionAlso called Light Dependent ReactionPigments that are in the chloroplasts intercept light and begin the light reactions of photosynthesis.The light reactions occur in two photosystems (located in the thylakoid membrane):

    Photosystem: a unit of several hundred chlorophyll a molecules and associated acceptor molecules-photosystem I (PSI) -photosystem II (PSII)

  • Photosystems

  • Excited Electrons

  • NADPHNADP+ is an electron acceptorNADP+ + 2 e- + 2 H+ NADPH + H+

  • ATP Synthase

  • PSIIPSILumen

  • Step 1

  • Step 2

  • Step 3

  • Step 3

  • Step 3

  • Step 3

  • Step 3

  • Step 3

  • Step 4~e

    highlow

  • Step 4

  • Step 4

  • Step 4

  • Step 4

  • Step 4

  • Step 5

  • Step 5

  • Step 5

  • Step 5

  • Step 5

  • Step 5NADPH+ H+

  • Step 6highlow

  • Step 6

  • Step 6

  • Step 6

  • Step 6

  • Step 6~e

    ADP + PATP

  • ReactantsADP + PNADP+

  • ProductsATPNADPH+ H+O2 isreleasedinto theatmosphereDR

  • Dark Reaction

  • Dark ReactionThe dark reaction is also known as the Calvin Cycle, after an American scientist (Melvin Calvin) who figured out the pathway.The dark reaction is also known as the C3 Cycle because the first stable products of this pathway are molecules that contain three carbon atoms.The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma.

  • 12 NADPH + H+~e

    12 ADP + P12 ATP12 NADP+e-10 PGAL~e

    6 ADP + P6 ATP

  • The following slides areONLY for Level I!

  • C4vs.CAM

  • Hint for Level I TestShort Answer Question

  • The End!

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