Physical and Cognitive development in Early Adulthood. WEEK III. Chapter 13 Topic 15. Physical development (442-455) Motor Functioning Health, nutrition, obesity Physical disability Stress (origin & consequences)and coping PNI hardiness. I. Physical Development and Stress. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Physical and Cognitive development in Early Adulthood
Chapter 13 Topic 15 Physical development (442-455) Motor Functioning Health, nutrition, obesity Physical disability Stress (origin & consequences)and
coping PNI hardiness
I. Physical Development and Stress
Physical development and the senses
Peak is reached: Physical development tends to be complete by early adulthood, a time during which physical capabilities are at a peak.
Strength: although young adults are typically healthy, vigorous, and energetic, senescence has begun.
Senescence:the natural physical decline brought about by aging.
Growth in height and weight: late maturers do tend to continue to grow during this period; parts of the body, such as the brain-which grows in both size and weight-continue to grow.
Physical development and the senses
Young adults tend to be at the peak of their psychomotor abilities:
The senses tend to be strong throughout this period.
Reaction time is quicker. Muscle strength is greater. Eye-hand coordination is
better than at any other period.
Fitness and HealthFrequent exercise of moderate
intensity exercise increases cardiovascular
fitness, lung capacity increases, muscles become stronger and the body
is more flexible and maneuverable; the range of moment is greater and
muscles, tendons, and ligaments are more elastic;
exercise helps reduce osteoporosis and may optimize the immune system of the body,
decrease stress and anxiety and reduce depression;
exercise increases longevity.
HealthHealth in early adulthood is
affected by:› accidents, › diseases (such as AIDS, cancer,
and heart disease)› suicide;
Secondary aging is associated with › lifestyle choice, › environmental influences, › cultural factors such as gender and
Nutrition To maintain proper/healthy
nutrition, young adults must taper the amount of calories they consumed during adolescence and pay attention to the types of foods they eat.
Young adults who do not reduce their calorie intake and eat foods high in fat are at risk for becoming overweight and, in some cases, obese.
Physical Disabilities Individuals with disabilities face
physical barriers: They cannot have access to many buildings, especially the old ones.
And prejudice and discrimination:› They sometimes face pity or avoidance
from non disabled people.› Sometimes they are treated as children.
Psychological Stress Stress: the physical and
emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us.
PNI: Psychoneuroimmunology - The study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system and psychological factors.
Outcomes: biological reaction, such as hormones, secreted by adrenal glands, cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and sweating.
Stress Can be positive (eustress) or negative
(distress). Important to definition of stress is the
person’s appraisal of whether or not his or her resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the situation.
Stress has been linked to a variety of health problems.
Young adults frequently deny stress and turn to health compromising behaviors to feel better.
Stress and health Evidence that stress causes illness, but
Tight shoulders Fatigue Can lead to conditions such as headaches,
ulcers, high blood pressure, etc› Indirect
Stress influences health behaviors
Stress Whether or not people experience stress is
determined by if and how people move through a series of stages;
Primary appraisal is an individual's assessment of an event to determine if the implications are positive, negative, or neutral.
Secondary appraisal is an individual's assessment of whether or not her coping mechanisms are sufficient in face of the stressor.
The origins of stress Events that lead to negative emotions
are more likely to lead to stress. Situations that are uncontrollable are
more likely to produce stress. Events that are ambiguous and
confusing are more likely to cause stress.
Having many tasks to accomplish at one time is likely to cause stress.
The Consequences of StressIf enough stress is experienced, it can have
formidable costs: Stress may lead to psychosomatic
disorders (medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.), like ulcers, asma, arthritis, blood pressure, etc.
Stress can increase the risk of becoming sick, can cause sickness, can make it more difficult to recover from sickness,
Stress may reduce the ability to cope with future stress.
What is coping?
The effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress.
The process of managing the discrepancy between the demands of the situation and the available resources.
Aimed at reducing the demands of the situation or expanding the resources for dealing with it.
Often used when the person believes that the demand is changeable.
Aimed at controlling the emotional response to the stressor.
Behavioural (use of drugs, alcohol, social support, distraction/escaping from the source of stress) and cognitive (change the meaning of the stress).
Often used when the person feels he/she can’t change the stressor (e.g., bereavement); or
Doesn’t have resources to deal with the demand.
Coping style Hardiness is a personality
characteristic associated with a lower rate of stressrelated illness.
Defensive coping involves unconscience strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation.
Topic 16 Cognitive development (456-460) Postformal thought Intelligence College (463-470)
Postformal ThoughtAlthough Piaget explained in his theory that cognitive development stops in the formal operational stage, others find that the adaptive thinking required of young adult's signifies further advances in cognitive capabilities.
Postformal thought: thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms.
Postformal Thought Adult thinking is more personal,
practical, adaptable, and integrative.
Greater tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty.
Combines formal operations with subjectivity.
Dialectical Thought : an interest in and appreciation for argument, counter-argument, and debate.
› It accepts that issues are not always clear cut, and that answers to questions are not always absolutely right or wrong but must sometimes be negotiated.
› Postformal thinkers can shift back and forth between an abstract, ideal solution and real-world constraints that might prevent the solution from being successfully implemented.
Labouvie-Vief's Theory Labouvie-Vief explains that postformal thinking is more flexible, allows for interpretive processes and reflects an understanding of relativity in interpretation of life events.
Ben is known t be a heavy drinker, especially when he goes to parties. Tyra, Ben´s wife warns that if he comes home drunk one more time, she will leave him and take the children. Tonight Ben is out late at an office party. He comes home drunk. Does Tyra leave Ben?
Labouvie-Vief's Theory Postformal thought is marked by
dialectical thinking which allows young adults to search for the best resolution by drawing on and integrating past experiences.
Pragmatic thought Structural advance in which logic becomes
the tool to solve real-world problems. Pragmatic thinkers accept inconsistencies
as part of life and develop thinking that thrives on imperfection and compromise.
CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF THOUGHT Perry's Theory › Interviewed students at end of each year of
college.› Younger students dualistic thinking (dividing
information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they)
› Older students multiple thinking (instead of the experts know all the answers, their own thinking has validity if their position was well thought-out and rational), relativistic thinking ( able to accept that different cultures, and individuals could have different standards and values , and all of them could be equally valid.
Schaie's Theory › Acquisitive stage (childhood and adolescence)
Knowledge acquisition, from concrete to formal operational thought.
› Achieving stage (early adulthood) Adapt skills to situations for achieving long-term goals
applying knowledge to real life.› Responsibility stage (middle adulthood)
Responsibility to others on job, home, and community; most advanced form.
Executive stage, in which responsibilities have become highly complex.
› Reintegrative stage (late adulthood) Reintegration of interests, attitudes, and values;
personal meaning; elderly more selective in expending cognitive energies.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence EI is the set of skills that underlies the
accurate assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions.
EI is what gives some people the ability to get along well with others, to understand what others are feeling and experiencing, and to respond appropriately to the needs of others.
Creativity tends to peak during early adulthood as young adults are at a place where they can view problems that are longstanding as novel situations.
Life Events and C. Development
Major life events may lead to cognitive growth.
Life events that occur during early adulthood often cause individuals to rethink self and others which can lead to cognitive advances.
Rather than applying formal logic to situations they use a broader perspective.