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PIGMENTS - zona.fmed.uniba.sk · Endogenous pigments Autogenic pigments Melanin –corpuscular pigment - formed in melanosome (organelle), ...oculocutaneous melanin melanocytes derived

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Text of PIGMENTS - zona.fmed.uniba.sk · Endogenous pigments Autogenic pigments Melanin –corpuscular...


    P. Babál


  • Pigments= substances having own color

    - soluble

    - corpuscular (granules, crystals...)

    - responsible for pigmentation of tissues/organs

    Endogenous Exogenous=produced in the organism =introduced from environment

    1. Autogenous 1. Through skin/mucosa

    (melanin, lipofuscin, lipochrom, (traumatic, tatoo..., bacterial

    in ochronosis, ceroid) fungi...)

    2. Hemoglobinogenic 2. Through GIT (argyrosis)

    (hemosiderin, hematoidin,

    myoglobin, hemoglobin, 3. Through respiratory tract

    bilirubin, porphyrins) Coniosis (anthracosis,siderosis)

    3. Uncertain origin Coniofibrosis (SiO2, asbestos)

    (melanosis coli) Coniotoxicosis, alergosis (Cu,

    Va, Zn...)

  • Endogenous pigments

    Autogenic pigments

    Melanin – corpuscular pigment

    - formed in melanosome (organelle), ...oculocutaneous melanin

    melanocytes derived from neuroectoderm

    - color of skin, hair, iris, retina, areas of high pigmentation

    - synthetized from tyrosin by tyrosinase (dopaoxidase)

    - regulated by MSH

    - deposited in the basal layer of skin

    Neuromelanin – yellowish-brown

    - in catecholergic neurons (subst. nigra, locus coeruleus)

  • Melanin


    - local (melanodermia) – solar, gestational (chloasma), hormonal,

    cosmetic (bergamot oil), chlorpromasin,

    ephelides, café-au-lait

    - diffuse – Addison disease (graphit spots – gingiva),

    adrenal insuff. (tbc, lues, metastases...), cachexia

    - local pigmented spots – lentigo, cafe au lait

  • Melanin


    = pathological lack of pigment

    - inborn – local, generalized (albinism)

    OCA – oculocutaneous albinism

    (autosomal recessive)

    in Chediac-Higashi sy (defective granules -

    - melanosomes formation)

    - acquired – pigmentation defect – loss of melanocytes in

    the skin – depigmentation = vitiligo

    - local loss of pigmentation after skin disease

    (psoriasis, lues) = leukoderma

  • Lipofuscin – brown pigment accumulating in cells of CNS,liver, muscle, adrenals...

    - derives from membrane constituents

    - increasing with age, in atrophy

    Lipochrom – yellowish – adipous tissue – carotens (exogenous)

    Ochronosis – tyrosin – homogentic ac. – urine, cartilage (brown)

    Ceroid - lysosomal pigment from fatty acids

  • Endogenous pigments

    Hemoglobinogenic pigments-splitting process of hemoglobin from Er hemolysis

    - extravascular (hemorrhage, hemorrhagic

    infarcts, infarceration, inflammations...)

    ... Bilirubin – yellow around hematoma

    ... Hemosiderin – in Mf, complex with lipoproteins+Fe

    (siderophages – lungs, bone m., spleen...)

    ... Hematin, hematoidin – Hb oxidation in low pH (dark)

    centers of large hematomas, stomach

    - intravascular (hemolytic anemia, transfusion,

    hemolytic toxins, saponins)

  • Hemoglobinemia – quick hemolysis ... hemoglobinemia,

    Hb – urine ... Nephrosis

    -mechanically – valve prosthesis, marching,

    -osmotic – distiled water administration

    -toxic – saponins, glycerine, bacterial toxins, ...

    -immunologic – autoimmune, complement

    Hemosiderosis – consequence of repeated or lasting hemolysis

    - hemosiderin deposition in Mf, liver, spleen

    - reactive fibrosis

    Hemochromatosis – increased absorption Fe in duodenum

    - deposition in pancreas (bras diabetes), cirrhosis, salivary

    glands, plexus chorioideus

    Hyperbilirubinemia – yellow skin, mucosas, sclera

    = icterus

  • Icterus-bilirubin in serum

    Dynamic icterus – hemolytic, extrahepatal ...excessive formation of

    nonconjugated bilirubin by hemolysis

    –– bile normaly flows into duodenum

    -infectious diseases (sepsis), hemolytic toxins, antibody mediated

    (fetal erythroblastosis), autoimmune diseases, resorption of

    large hematomas, ...

    = flavine icterus (yellowish green)

    Hepatotoxic icterus – (hepatocellular) ...damage to liver parenchyma

    - impared conjugation and excretion of billirubin into bile

    ...acute/chronic hepatitis, leptospirosis, yellow feever, hepatotoxins,


    = rubine icterus (yellowish orange)

  • Obstruction icterus – (mechanical)

    -blockage of intrahepatic/extrahepatic bile ducts

    (tu pancreas, LN, parasites, congenital atresion, autoimmune...)

    ... resorption of accumulated bile – conjugated billirubin

    acholic intestinal content, normal urine

    Long lasting process – cholestatic cirrhosis, cholemic nephrosis

    = verdine icterus (greenish) + itching, pruritus

    Porphyria-congenital enzymopathy – accumulation of porphyrins (from pyrols)

    - defect of decarboxylation of porphyrins

    Hepatal form – usually acute course, chronic form =

    = porphyria curtanea tarda (bullous disease)

    = liver cirrhosis

    Erythropoietic form – defective metabolism of erythroblasts in BM

    = bullous dermatitis, photosensitive skin

  • Exogenous pigments

    Skin and mucosatraumatic tatoo – dust, pigments at accidents, miners

    decorative tatoo – china ink

    siderosis – around iron fragments (skin siderosis)

    microbial stains – P. aeruginosa (blue), Aspergilus f. (green)

    GITSome metals and their salts

    argyrosis – silver from medication, amalgam

    chrysocyanosis – colloid Au

  • Respiratory tract< 5 um ... lung alveoli

    > 5 um ... caught in air ways

    Simple conioses- biologically inactive, insoluble, not resorptive

    Anthracosis – most frequent – amorphous carbon (soot, coal,

    smoke, tabakism...)

    - may limit lymph flow from lungs (complication in inflammation)

    Siderosis – professional exposition (paper mill, mechanics, welding...)

    Tabacosis – tabacco dust (brown lung, little pathology)

  • Coniofibrosis- coniosis accompanied by fibrosis

    Silicosis – SiO2

    -most serious professional disease

    =SiO2 phagocyted in alveoli, release of lysozomal enzymes -

    - damage to tissue, reparatory fibrosis

    Silicosis - reticular stage

    - nodular stage

    - diffuse fibrosis

    ... overload of right heart, heart failure; familial predisposition

  • Coniofibrosis- coniosis accompanied by fibrosis


    - fibrosis, asbestos (ferruginous) bodies

    - adenoCa

    - mesothelioma.