PingER Project

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PingER Project. Arguably the world’s most extensive active end-to-end Internet Performance Project Digital Divide emphasis Partially funded by MoST, US State Department Last three years a joint development effort of SLAC & NIIT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • PingER ProjectArguably the worlds most extensive active end-to-end Internet Performance ProjectDigital Divide emphasisPartially funded by MoST, US State DepartmentLast three years a joint development effort of SLAC & NIITMany NIIT students cut their teeth on it, many papers, presentationsResults:Highly successfulIdentified & quantified rates of improvement for regions/countriesHow far behind, catching up, falling behindMany presentations to funding agencies, politicians, NRENs, recommendationsCase studies identified: fragility of e2e connections, last mile congestion problems, inefficient routing

  • PingER MethodologyInternet10 ping request packets each 30 minsRemoteHost(typicallya server)Monitoring host>ping remhostPing response packetsMeasure Round Trip Time & LossData Repository @ SLACOnce a DayUses ubiquitous ping

  • ArchitectureMonitor hosts send 21 pings each 30 mins to Remote Hosts and cache resultsArchive hosts gather data daily, save, analyze & make results available publicly via web

  • PingER DeploymentPingER project originally (1995) to measure network performance for US, Europe and Japanese HEP communityExtended this century to measure Digital Divide:Collaboration with ICTP Science Dissemination Unit ICFA/SCIC: Monitor 44 sites in S. Asia>120 countries (99% worlds connected population) >30 monitor sites in 14 countries

  • Time Series resultsDivides into 2India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri LankaBangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, AfghanistanWeekend vs. weekday indicates heavy congestion

  • UnreachabilityAll pings of a set fail unreachableShows fragility, ~ distance independentDeveloped regions US, Canada, Europe, Oceania, E Asia leadFactor of 10 improvement in 8 yearsAfrica, S. Asia followed by M East & L. America worst off

    Africa NOT improvingUS & CanadaEuropeE AsiaC AsiaSE EuropeSE AsiaS AsiaOceaniaAfricaL AmericaM EastRussiaDevelopedRegionsDevelopingRegions

  • World thruput seen from US Behind Europe6 Yrs: Russia, Latin America 7 Yrs: Mid-East, SE Asia10 Yrs: South Asia11 Yrs: Cent. Asia12 Yrs: Africa South Asia, Central Asia, and Africa are in Danger of Falling Even Farther BehindThroughput ~1460Bytes /(RTT*sqrt(loss))(Mathis et al)

  • ConclusionsLast mile problems, network fragility, poor routingDecreasing use of satellites, expensive, but still needed for many remote countries in Africa and C. AsiaAfrica ~ 10 years behind and falling further behind, leads to information famineAfrica big target of opportunityGrowth in # users 2000-2005 200%, Africa 625% Need more competitive pricing Fibre competition, government divest for access, low cost VSAT licensesConsortiums to aggregate & get better pricing ($/BW reduces with BW)Need better routing - IXPsNeed training & skills for optimal bandwidth managementInternet performance correlates strongly with UNDP & ITU development indicesIncrease coverage of monitoring to understand Internet performance

  • Application to PERNPlace PingER monitoring node(s) inside PERNV. modest host, trivial installAdd traceroute/landmark server for geolocationPERN configures to monitor to border routers &/or to end hosts at sites (e.g. site web servers)Currently gathers data daily, analyze, present via SLAC/FNALNIIT/SLAC plans to develop front end to analyze/visualize results on real time basis using cached data & RRD/smokeping

  • perfSONAR: Next Generation Network MonitoringPartnership of Internet2 (US), GEANT (EU), ESnet (US), RNP (Brazil) Plus in the US: SLAC, U Delaware, GATech13 EU related NREN deployments of perfSONAR

  • Why is this hard?Internet very diverse, hard to find invariants, phone models do not work Constantly changing both short and long-termChanges are not smooth but usually in steps, findings may be out of dateNo central organizationScientific communities span multiple organizations in many countriesTypical path requires crossing at least 5 administrative domains (campus, regional, backbone, regional and campus)Domains are autonomousMeasurement not high on vendors prioritiesISPs concerned about privacy, competitive advantage, public embarrassmentDiagnosis hard:Convince ADs there is a problem and that they could/should helpNeed multiple pieces of information from multiple sources (ends, multiple middles), with no coordinating bodyGets even harder for layer 2 networks

  • New Proposal to AddressWidespread demand for net info by:Researchers to know how network is performingAdvanced net apps such as Grids (e.g. place data)Net Ops staffs to diagnose problemsEducationFlexibility in extracting net performance data, needed sinceNetwork changes quickly, diagnostic data is moving targetNew tools, metrics and types of analysis are constantly developedLack of effective ways to share performance data across domains

  • perfSONAR InfrastructureProvide/Enable Measurement Points and ArchivesProvide Authentication/AuthorizationProvide registration, discovery & distributed lookup servicesProvide open set of protocols + reference implementation for cross-domain sharing of network measurementsCommon performance middlewareOpen Grid Forum NMWG = extensible XML data representationAll development is open source to encourage widespread development, deployment, ownership & involvementEarly framework prototypes deployed in Europe, N and S America (Brazil), also adopted by LHC

  • Next StepsDevelop scalable, distributed, redundant Federated Lookup Service (like DNS) Integrate common, existing authentication management into perfSONARDesign and build the Resource Protector to implement policyProvide specific, useful example diagnostic services as high quality examples (e.g. for traceroute, ping, one-way delay, SNMP, Layer-2 link services etc.)Provide a Topology service to provide layer-2 & 3 interconnection information Promote perfSONAR to research communityStudents get reliable data from perfSONAR, request on demand measurements, provide new analysesTurn into hardened/production quality distributable code

  • Impact NRENs & CustomersR&E relies on reliable networking. Debugging problems across domains extraordinarily difficult today, increased switched networks will make harder.PerfSONAR enables divide and conquer between end & intermediate points:provides easy access to relevant data enables on demand measurementsreduces need to coordinate multi-domain admins (scientist > local net admin > Regional net admin Backbone admin > ), telephone tag, explaining Reduces participants, hours, days, frustration etc

  • Benefits PakistanBetter understanding of customer experience and needs:utilization, use patterns, event detection, problem diagnosis, planningDevelopment of better measurement tools, analysis, visualizationPakistan part of major international community of NRENs, a partnership of users and providersIn Europe, U.S. and S. AmericaWorldwide R&E people demanding better servicesPakistan research & education access to data to analyze

  • Benefits EducationNIIT/SLAC proven track record delivering results6 students, all will return to Pakistan3 at SLAC now1 In Silicon valley start-up, 1 in Oxford, 1 returned to NIIT to pursue PhDStudents get exposure to National Lab and world leading researchersCourses at StanfordHands on exposure to production high speed networks such as are planned for Pakistan

  • One Big ChallengeElegant graphics are great to understand problems BUT:Can be thousands of graphs to look at (many site pairs, many devices, many metrics)Need automated problem recognition AND diagnosisSo developing tools to reliably detect significant, persistent changes in performanceInitially using simple plateau algorithm to detect step changesProvide reliable alertsAutomatically partially diagnose eventsGather info from routers, monitors etc and eliminate less likely causes

  • What do we want from youNow:Installation and administration of PingER monitoring host (s) inside PERNInstallation & admin of traceroute/landmark servers in major PERN PoP/citiesChairman HEC asked for proposal to HEC for perfSONAR, will embed PERN requirements in proposalPERN needs to partner with NIIT/SLAC Discuss Contributions from PERNLater:Deployment of Measurement Points within PERN

  • Additional Slides

  • More information/QuestionsAcknowledgements:Harvey Newman and ICFA/SCIC for a raison detre, ICTP for contacts and education on Africa, Mike Jensen for Africa information, NIIT/Pakistan for developing valuable tools, Maxim Grigoriev (FNAL), Warren Matthews (GATech) for ongoing code development for PingER, USAID MoST/Pakistan for development funding, SLAC for support for ongoing management/operations support of, Human Development Studies:

  • Costs compared to WestSites in many countries have bandwidth< US residence10 Meg is Here, Africa: $5460/Mbps/mW Africa $8K/Mbps/mN Africa $520/Mbps/m Often cross-country cost dominates cf. international1 yr of Internet access > average annual income of most Africans, Survey by Paul Budde Communnications

  • UNDP Human Development Index (HDI)A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (with one-third weight) A decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. AfricaPingER- Strong Corr