Plagiarism and Citation Methods. What is Plagiarism?. Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone elses language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source. The Importance of Intent. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Plagiarism and Citation Methods
Plagiarism and Citation MethodsWhat is Plagiarism?Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone elses language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its sourceThe Importance of IntentTheres a difference between intentionally presenting someones work as your own and misusing your sources
Some Examples of Deliberate UseUsing papers from a paper millPresenting someone elses paper as your ownCopying large sections of text from a source without attributionThese are considered serious academic offenses
Misuse of SourcesAcademic conventions dictate certain methods for citing sourcesThese conventions must be learned and mistakes will happenCareless or mistaken use of citation conventions is not plagiarismAs long as some effort is made to indentify source material, it will be treated as a stylistic issue
What is Common Knowledge?Anything your reader could commonly know or that is available in general sourcesThis sort of knowledge will vary from discipline to disciplineGenerally, any sort of knowledge you see commonly repeated in the research you are reading is considered common knowledgeWhat Isnt Common Knowledge?Highly specific statisticsNot all specifics are highly specific. Some are common knowledge e.g. the population of the USControversial information or ideas that contradict prevailing opinionsIdeas that appear in only a few of your sources or that are specific to one source Examples of Common KnowledgeAbraham Lincoln was the 16th President
On Sep. 11th, Al-Qaeda attacked the United States
On average, Mars is 78 million km from the Earth
Not Common KnowledgeSome scholars believe Abraham Lincoln suffered from manic-depressionCurrently, Al-Qaedas operational capacity has been reduced to the point where it is more a brand name than a centralized organization Steven Hawking believes that colonizing Mars and other planets is the only way to preserve the human raceOther Points Where Problems Could AriseFailing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks
Also, if you quote someone, you must cite them and provide a referenceSummary vs. ParaphraseA paraphrase reports information from a source in the same number of words
A summary reports information from you source in a condensed formPossible IssuesWhen summarizing or paraphrasing, you must restate the authors ideas in your own languageIf you half-copy the authors sentences, you have misused your sourceThis could happen if you mix the authors phrases with your own or if you plug synonyms into the authors sentence structureExample from HackerOriginal text
In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media.-Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. 2004. Print.Problem: Borrows Too Many PhrasesThe Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media (1).
Problem: Same StructureThe Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have identified (pointed to) a variety (range) of significant (important) factors causing (potential contributors to) a rise in childhood obesity that are not linked (unrelated) to media (1).Solution to This ProblemSince it is easier to copy the source when it is in front of you, set the source aside and write a paraphrase or summary from memoryWhen you have finished your paraphrase or summary, check your source for accuracy and to make sure it isnt too close to the originalFinally, if you are having a hard time, feel free to quote the source directly
Acceptable ParaphraseA report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation claims sources other than the media were responsible for the childhood obesity crisis.If You Are In DoubtConsult your Hacker Style Manual
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PurposeTo aid you in dealing with the arguments of others
Provide concrete examples to back up your argument
To keep your argument focused and on task
Citation methodsFor this paper you will most likely use two types of in-text citations:Short quotesLong quotesSome General GuidelinesMLA requires that all signal phrases introducing a citation be in the present tenseKen Byron contendsThe unnamed narrator in Adams believes
Follow the author/date formatThe authors name and the page number of the quotation should appear in any in-text citation.Two main ways of doing thisGeorge Saunders emphasizes Americas subservience to advertising in In Persuasion Nation when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents (161)?Author Name and Page #The grandfather turns to his grandsons mutilated body and yells Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents (Saunders 161)?Basic FormattingThe titles of longer works (movies, books, edited collections, albums, etc.) should be italicized, e.g. Huckleberry Finn, Inception, Kind of Blue.
The titles of shorter works (short stories, essays, song titles, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks, e.g. Barn Burning, Shootings, I Sing The Body Electric, Stairway to Heaven.Short QuotationsThings you need to include:AuthorPage numberSignal phraseExamplesGeorge Saunders emphasizes Americas subservience to advertising in In Persuasion Nation when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents (161)?The grandfather turns to his grandsons mutilated body and yells Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents (Saunders 161)?
Long QuotesUse when your quote is longer than 40 wordsOmit quotation marksStart on a new line indented five spaces from the left margin Type the entire quotation from the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraphMaintain double-spacing throughoutExampleKen Byron develops an extensive scale for judging the gender of every person in America:Heres how it works: Say we determine that a man is an 8 on the manly scale, with 10 being most manly of all and 0 basically a neuter. And say we determine that his fiancee is a -6 on the manly scale, with -10 being most Fem of all. Calculating the difference between the mans rating and the womans rating the Gender Differential we see that this proposed union is not, in fact, a Samish-Sex Marriage (Saunders 67-68).
Reference pageSome resources:Son Of Citation MachineEasy BibAmacite
These will automatically generate a references page foryou. Just make sure to plug in your sources correctly.