Plagiarism Proper academic practice: summarising & paraphrasing.

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Presentation on Proper Academic Practice

PlagiarismProper academic practice: summarising & paraphrasing1Academic IntegrityAcademic integrity is about proper practice in the presentation of papers. As a scholar you must be HONEST, TRANSPARENT and TRUSTWORTHY.Honest the work you present as yours must be YOURS.Transparent your reader must be able to see exactly where you relied on the research and ideas of OTHERS.Trustworthy the work you present must represent research material reliably.

Be careful!Warning! The result of dishonest practice in the academic world is NEVER PRETTY.For some it has meant:ExpulsionLoss of job, career and reputationDisgrace

What happened at a university in Victoria13 years ago the Vice-Chancellor of one of Victoria's top universities resigned his position.

The professor admitted that he had twice plagiarised text for books that had been published in Britain 20 years previously.

Like all major universities, this one enforced a strong no-plagiarism code, including expulsion, on all its staff and students.

So, to protect its already damaged reputation, the university agreed that the resignation was in its own best interests.

It can happen easilyThis doesnt mean that the professor was a bad person. Maybe he just worked too quickly and didnt put quotes in quotation marks. Maybe he read something and later forgot that the idea had come from a book. The point is, though, that he didnt reference carefully enough and it cost him his job and hurt his reputation.

I didnt mean to plagiarise!

Three important issues In this presentation we will look at three issues regarding academic integrity:PlagiarismSummarisingParaphrasing

Important qualitiesAt Southern Cross University we are committed to ensuring academic integrity. This involves:Honesty Respect Fairness Trust Responsibility Courage Why courage? This is because some of your peers might try to pressure you into giving them your work to look at. The correct and courageous answer to this request must always be, No. If your friends essay turns out to be identical to yours in just one or two places, you are both in trouble!What is Plagiarism?Plagiarism is when you copy someone else's work and dont acknowledge the author or the source.This makes it look as though it is all your own work and that you are taking the credit for it. But this is NOT your work. Unless you cite (acknowledge) the source, you are stealing someone elses ideas. In academic writing, this is considered to be as serious as cheating in an exam. If you have plagiarised someone's work this means you have failed to comply with the basic standards of academic integrity. This is seen as a breach of discipline and can have very serious consequences.

What does referencing look like?

Like this Recent research indicates that students need more sleep than was previously thought. (Pillow 2015, p. 68) However, Professor Mattress from Stoke University argues that it is not so much the amount of sleep that matters as what students do before retiring. Playing computer games, he argues, is a greater problem for concentration the next day than not sleeping eight hours is. (Mattress 2015, p. 191) Punishments for PlagiarismThe consequences for plagiarism can include: repeat of an assessment task loss of marks for an assessment task loss of marks for a unit of study, or possible suspension Those are the nice consequences. They can be a lot worse.Like expulsion

It can happen to you!The THIS IS NOT AN ISSUE FOR ME delusion

Some students think, I wont take this plagiarism warning seriously its not the sort of thing that happens to me. USUALLY, THEY ARE EXACTLY WHO IT HAPPENS TO

Things students say when caught plagiarising:Oh, is THAT what plagiarism means?AND I thought we were allowed to do that! Ive always done it like that!Please listen now so that this does not happen to you.

Examples of plagiarismHere are some obvious examples of plagiarismDownloading or copying an article from the WebHiring someone to write a paper for youCopying chunks of text without quotation marks or citing your sourceCutting and pasting snippets of text from a variety of sources Downloading an article and then changing key words in every sentence

Its no excuse!Claiming that the rules are different in your country and you didnt know the rules regarding plagiarism in Australia, or that you didnt have time to write in your own words is not an acceptable excuse.

These things are OKWhats OK?You can refer to something which everyone accepts as common knowledge without having to reference a source for the information.e.g. Large areas of rainforest have been cut down in recent years.You can reproduce a graph or table from a source, as long as you cite the source for the graph. You can reproduce paragraphs from your own essays in other essays. However, if you are quoting from something you have had published, then you must cite the source of your previously published material.You may use material from a group discussion with other students without referencing the discussion. However, there would be nothing wrong in citing the discussion as an academic event; this you could do by citing the date, time and venue of the discussion. This would be the preferable course of action if one of the participants has clearly been the formulator of a particular idea or perspective that you want to highlight.


This isnt OK!Whats Not OK?1. Copying a paragraph, but changing only a few words and giving a citation. The reason is that you have stuck too closely to the original structure and pattern of the source, and in claiming to have summarised that persons ideas, you are misrepresenting the truth because you have essentially reproduced parts of a previous paper without acknowledging the extent of your dependence on it.2. Cutting and pasting a short article from a website, with no citation. 3. Copying paragraphs from a classmates essay, without citation. 4. Taking a quotation from a source, giving a citation but not using quotation marks.5. Giving a citation for some information but misspelling the authors name. [Not that serious, but still irresponsible scholarship that could confuse readers.]

If you are uncertain about whether a practice is OK or not, please check with your lecturer or tutor.

Follow the rules!Plagiarism can be accidental. Thats why you must check your essay thoroughly before submitting it.Plagiarism rules might seem petty at times. You would be correct to point out that thousands of online articles are cut and paste jobs making use of material circulating on the Web. Those articles, however, are not examples of scholarship. Proper scholarly articles on the Web are meticulously referenced.As long as you are studying at Southern Cross University, you are subject to the RULES OF SCHOLARSHIP. We are all bound by those rules in our academic work. Accept this, follow the rules, and you should experience no problems.

How to summariseSummarising is one way to avoid plagiarism. When you summarise you take the main ideas from a piece of text and then put them into your own words. Your summary must be shorter than the original text. In order to summarise someones work appropriately, you must understand what they are saying. Heres an example of how to do it (Communications in Organisations by Dr. Mieke Witsel. p. 183)Building a Network of Contacts

You can begin the job search long before you are ready to find employment. In fact, you can do it now by building a network of contacts. More specifically, you can build relationships with people who can help you find work when you need it. Such people include classmates, professors, and businesspeople.

Right now, your classmates are not likely to be holding positions in which they make or influence hiring decisions, but some of them may know people who can help you. In the future, when you want to make a career change, they may hold such positions. The wider your circle of friends and acquaintances, the more likely you are to make employment contacts. (115 words)Note taking and summary


Network building starts during studies when students establish ties with classmates, lecturers and business people. When seeking or changing jobs, one needs access to people who have done well and have influence, or who know company bosses. The more friends, the more contacts. (Witsel 2015, p. 183)(43 words)

SHORTER SUMMARY definition: leverage make us of, gain access to

Witsels advice? Tomorrows power brokers are todays students, lecturers and business people. Leverage their influence in the future by befriending them now. (Witsel 2015, p.183) (22 words)

Notes taken from: Witsel, M 2015, Communications in Organisations (6 ed), McGraw-Hill, North Ryde.

Points made1. You can start network-building now > classmates, professors and business people.2. Classmates will one day hold positions of influence.3. Classmates know people in positions of influence.4. Contacts are important when changing careers.5. The more friends, the more contacts.Tips for summarisingTips for summarisingRead the text very carefully, then REREAD it Check any new or difficult vocabulary Mark the key points by highlighting or underlining Make notes of the main ideas you want to summarise (don`t include any minor details) Combine these ideas together in your own words Do not include your own opinion or add extra information Use your own words and not those of the original author (unless using quotation marks) Remember to cite your source using a recognised referencing format Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and nothing has been missed.

What is paraphrasing?PARAPHRASINGA paraphrase is longer than a summary because your intention is to include most of what the source has to say. However, once again, the idea is to say it in ones own words. Paraphrasing is a highly acceptable way to include the ideas of other people in your writing.

Paraphrasing is when you write published information and ideas in YOUR OWN WORDS WITHOUT CHANGING THE ORIGINAL MEANING IMPORTANT STUFF

The paraphrase should be clearer and more easily understood than the original and is often about the same length. When you paraphrase, although the original meaning will not have changed, the sentence structure and the vocabulary will be different.

A good paraphraseFor Example Original Text In todays society and business environment, ethics are required to resolve dilemmas that arise out of the conflicts between the economic and social performance of organisations. [FROM A BOOK, LETS SAY, BY (Williams 1997, p. 76)](26 words) Paraphrased Text Tension between the social and economic effectiveness of organisations in contemporary society can generate conflict which requires an ethical approach to resolving disputes and problems. (Williams 1997, p. 76)(25 words) Although the words and sentence structure has changed the original meaning is still the same.

Steps for paraphrasingSTEPS FOR PARAPHRASING1. READ the text carefully 2. REREAD the text until you FULLY understand it. 3. HIGHLIGHT important KEYWORDS (subject-specific). 4. LOOK UP any difficult words and make sure you know what they mean try to find SYNONYMS for them 5. WRITE DOWN the main points. DONT COPY entire sentences 6. REWRITE each sentence. Try to SIMPLIFY the sentence structure and the vocabulary without changing the meaning. 7. WRITE YOUR PARAPHRASE FROM MEMORY: Put the text away. 8. REVISE what you have written and compare it to the original.

23Tips for changing wordsTips for changing the words Circle the specialised words the words that the text is actually about. These will need to be included in your paraphrase, as without these words, the meaning of the paraphrase can change. Underline any keywords that can be changed. Find other words and phrases that have similar meanings that can be used to replace the keywords in the text. Use a thesaurus or dictionary, or look for synonyms in your word processing software. You dont have to change every single word. There will be some words that you cannot change names for example and some key words, but you do have to write it IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

Practising paraphrasingHave a go at paraphrasing this extract from a text:Financial statements require quantitative economic data; they do not reflect qualitative economic variables. Thus, the value to the firm of a management team on the morale of the workforce is not included as a balance sheet asset because it cannot be measured objectively. [FROM A BOOK, LETS SAY, BY NGUYEN 1986, p. 88](43 words)Steps:Read onceRead againHighlight key wordsFinancial statements require quantitative economic data; they do not reflect qualitative economic variables. Thus, the value to the firm of a management team on the morale of the workforce is not included as a balance sheet asset because it cannot be measured objectively.

Creating SynonymsCreate synonyms where possible:Financial statements company accountsQuantitative data technical term; have to keepQualitative data technical term; have to keepValue worthManagement team leadership groupMorale team spirit; esprit de corpsWorkforce the staffBalance sheet asset profitable resourceObjectively factually, scientifically, numerically

Voila! Its done!Write down the main points:

Companies count their economic assets (quantitative data)They cant count or measure company esprit de corps (a qualitative factor) So the motivational input of a leadership group will not appear in any asset column Paraphrase:

The importance of leadership groups which motivate their staff might go unnoticed because only measured statistics (qualitative data) end up in the credit column of companies books. Their contribution is regarded as qualitative, so their effectiveness cannot be measured. (Nguyen 1986, p. 88)

(39 words)

Referencing stylesReferencing is a topic all on its own, so relax well do that next time.

PlagiarismList 10 strategies you will use this session to ensure that you are not penalised for plagiarism. Go into as much detail as you like.



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