PC Assembling and Troubleshooting TIPSP.RAMASUBRAMANIANB-17 Sri Krishna Nagar,Manakkadu Road, MelaTiruchendur 628205.Mobile: +91 - 9994848764
What is PC?Personal Computer used only one person at a timeVariation depends uponSize MemorySpeed of the CPU Number and type of peripheral devices connected to the computer systems.
Functional BlocksMade of several components (units).
Power Supply unit2. Motherboard3. Processors 4. Memory5. Hard disk6. Floppy drive7. CDROM drive8. Monitor9. Keyboard10. Mouse11. Printer 12. Other Devices
PARTS OF PCSystem Unit (Box)MonitorKeyboardPrinterUPS
PARTS OF SYSTEM UNIT
PARTS OF SYSTEM MACHINEMotherboardFDD 3. HDDPower Supply UnitDisplay CardIDE cardRAM PackageCablesSpeaker 10. Cabinet
What is a Motherboard ?It Consists of CPU, Display Card, IDE Card, I/O slots, BIOS ROM,CMOS Battery, Ports etc.
Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
STORAGE CAPACITY FORMULAStorage capacity = No. of sides or Surface x Tracks per side or Cylinder x Sectors per track x Bytes per Sector360 KB =40 Track, 9 Sectors per Track1.2 MB =80 Tracks, 15 Sectors per Track1.44 MB =80 Tracks, 18 Sectors per Track2.88 MB =80 Tracks, 26 Sectors per Track
Bytes per Sector512 (common)
HARD DISK DRIVEAlso called Fixed Disk Drive or Non- Removable DiskIdentificationType Number (Shows No. of Cylinder and Sector).
SMPSConvert AC DC+5, -5, +12, -12VRed (+5V)Orange (+5V) (Power Good)Yellow (+12V)White (-5V)Blue (-12V)Block (Ground)
COMPUTER CABLES1. FDD Cable2. HDD Cable3. Mouse Cable4. Printer Cable5. Power Cable
CABINETSMini Tower (Vertical)Desk Top (Horizontal)
STEP BY STEP ASSEMBLING OF COMPUTER
Step 1: To Fit SMPS in CabinetCheck all DC voltagesScrew the PSU in Cabinet
Step 2: Wiring of Panel ON/OFF switch and Fit into the CabinetFour Wires (2 are Red and 2 are White Color)RED wires - Heads of first switch WHITE wires Heads of Second switch
Step 3: FIT RAM CHIPS IN MOTHERBOARDFitted in the direction of lockFit from Bank 0 , Bank 1 and so on.
Step 4: Fit Motherboard in the cabinet & Supply connector in MotherboardNote that the black wires of both socket should be close to each other.
Step 5: Fit Hard Disk in CabinetComponent should be down side and Label should be top side.Sockets available on the Hard disk should be at the side of the Motherboard.
Step 6: Fit IDE and Power Cable in Hard disk40 Wires. Pin No. 1 should be RHS.If one fit the cable reversely, then it will not fit in the Hard Disk.For Power cable connector, the corner should be matched with the corner of the power supply connector of Hard Disk.
Step 7: Fit FDD and FDD cable Cover side UpComponent side DownFor Power cord, end of RED wire should come at Right Side.34 Pin Female Connector used and RED wire (Pin No.1) must be towards pin No. 1 of Floppy Drive Socket.
Step 8: To Fit Add-on Cards in MotherboardThe card should be fitted into the appropriate I/O slot.
Step 9: Connectionis a 3 pin Female socket15 pin signal cable is connected to Display adapter card.5/6 Pin Keyboard connector should be connected.A printer cable of 25 pin (male) should be connected on the MB and 36 pin (female) should be connected with printer.
Step 10: To fit Back Cover of the System BoxAfter fitting all the connectors to the CPU, Monitor, UPS and Printer and fit the back cover of the cabinet.While fixing if one should remember that the wires of ON/OFF switch should properly get inside the cabinet.
TROUBLESHOOTING STEPSBefore trouble shooting the computer under test, the following checks may properly practiced. 1. Check whether the SMPS main power cable and DC voltage cables are connected properly.Check whether the keyboard cable is connected properly.Check whether the monitor power cable and signal cables are connected properly.
TROUBLESHOOTING STEPS (Contd)4. Check whether the DIP switch setting or BIOS settings in the motherboards are set for proper configuration.5. Check whether the floppy drive power cable and data cable or connected properly.6. Check whether all the daughter boards are inserted in the I/O slot properly.7. Check whether the RESET switch is connected properly.
TROUBLESHOOTING STEPS (Contd)8. Check whether the keyboard lock is positioned properly.9. Check whether all the ICs are inserted in the bases properly.10. Check whether a good boot disk is available in drive A or HDD.11. Check whether the speaker connector is connected properly.
TROUBLESHOOTING STEPS (Contd)After all the above checks are carried out, switch ON the system and observe the POST error messages. From the POST message localize the area of problem and troubleshoot it. When POST itself is not started, the problem will be the motherboard and related circuits.